Chapter 9 “Middle America and Spanish-Speaking South America” pg. 252-287

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Chapter 9 “Middle America and Spanish-Speaking South America” pg. 252-287

9-1 “Central America” pg. 255-259

Connecting to Your World

What is one country in Central America that promotes ecotourism?

Many ecotourists visit the various natural habitats in Central America. Why do you think ecotourism has become so popular?

Government and Economy

What are three challenges poor people face in Central America?

Path Toward Democracy

What type of government did most Central American countries used to have?

What type of government do most Central American countries have now?

How did the civil wars in Central American countries affect attempts to establish strong governments?

The only nation in Central America that has been a democracy since the early 1900s is what?

For most of the 1900s, many Central American countries have been under the rule of: dictators, emperors, kings, presidents

Developing the Economy

Name two crops grown on plantations.

Name two crops grown by subsistence farmers.

Besides Mexico, what are two other countries you can find maquiladoras in?

Most agriculture in Central America consists of: one-crop farming, subsistence farming, commercial farming, cattle raising

During the colonial period, Spain set up large plantations that focused on growing what?

In Guatemala and Honduras, goods are produced for export: through encomiendas, on haciendas, in maquiladoras, on ranches

Map pg. 256

In what three countries is tourism a major industry?

Chart pg. 257

Which canal sees more ships?

Promoting International Trade

Why did the 5 Central American nations form CAFTA?

**To transport good, many Central American countries depend on the: St. Lawrence Seaway, Pacific ocean, Panama Canal, Atlantic Ocean

People and Culture

What are three languages that are spoken in Central America?

Two-thirds of Central Americans are: of Spanish ancestry, Indians, mestizos, of English ancestry

**The official language of Belize is what?

Rural and Urban Life

What are two differences between rural and urban life in Central America?

In rural Central America, children often do not attend school because they are needed to work where?

Daily Life

How do you know family is an important part of Central American culture?

What is the main ingredient in many Central American foods?

The Arts

In Central America, a popular instrument is a type of xylophone called a what?

**The mola is a handicraft that is popular in what country?

9-2 “The Caribbean” pg. 261-265

From Colonization to Independence

Why did Europeans first claim islands in the Caribbean?

How have the governments of Caribbean nations changed over time?

Why did European nations bring Africans as slaves to the Caribbean islands?

The first people to set up colonies in the Caribbean islands were the: Dutch, French, Spanish, British

In the Caribbean, European powers at first focused on growing what?

The first Caribbean island to achieve independence was?

**The Spanish colonists replaced the forced labor of the Taino with that of enslaved: Africans, Asians, Aztec, Inca

**TEST ESSAY QUESTION. How did the enslavement of Africans develop in the Caribbean islands?

Think about:

-European powers



Economic Activities

Why can a one crop economy be unstable?

Why did Caribbean nations have to diversify their economies?

How has tourism helped the economy of the Caribbean?

A very important industry in the Caribbean, tourism provides services for who?

**The sugar trade in the Caribbean islands declined because other parts of the world: charged less for their sugar, charged more for their sugar, diversified their economies, started one-crop economies

**Which of the following is the least likely to be stable: one-crop economy, two-crop economy, three-crop economy, four-crop economy

Two Different Governments

Today, most Caribbean nations have governments that are: communist, democracies, dictatorships, kingdoms


Why was the United States involvement with Cuba stopped?

What type of government does Cuba have?

Why did Cuba have strong ties to the Soviet Union?

Communism was established in Cuba by whom?

Puerto Rico

In 1898, Puerto Rico became a territory of what country?

How do we know Puerto Rico is a democracy?

In recent years Puerto Ricans have debated the issue of becoming a state of the United States. Why might people support or oppose Puerto Rican statehood?

**In 1952, Puerto Rico became a commonwealth of what country?

People and Culture

What three cultures have influenced Caribbean culture?

Why have different musical styles developed in different Caribbean nations?

What two art forms has made use of oil drums?

What style of music developed in Jamaica?

The official language of Jamaica is?

A popular instrument in the Caribbean islands that was first made in Trinidad is what?

**What kind of musician was influenced by the music of Trinidad?

9-3 “Venezuela and Colombia” pg. 267-271


What sea does both Colombia and Venezuela border?

History and Government

Venezuela became a colony to what country?

How did government change in Venezuela in the 20th century?

**The independence movement in Venezuela was led by who?


Much of Venezuela’s income comes from oil production. How can that be both positive and negative for its economy?

What are two other economic activities in Venezuela?

About 75% of Venezuela’s exports are what?

In Venezuela, the llanos are important areas for: mining, raising cattle, manufacturing, growing sugar cane

**Venezuela’s economy depends on: oil production, emerald production, tourism, agriculture

People and Culture

What is the language and religion of most in Venezuela?

What problems, do you think, a gap between rich and poor cause in a country?

As in many countries around the world why do people from rural areas travel to cities?

How has the Venezuelan government attempted to curb the movement of people from rural to urban areas?

What are the two most popular sports?

The national dance of Venezuela is the what?

**In Venezuela, which of the following government actions has encouraged people to stay in rural areas: increasing paved roads in rural areas, increasing the minimum wage, providing aid for squatters, improving urban schools


History and Government

Columbia was a colony of what country?

Why have the people of Colombia had a hard time deciding what form of government they want?

What is Columbia’s government today?

What government challenges do they still face today?

The capital of Colombia is what city?


How is the Columbian economy different from the Venezuelan economy?

What has been a major economic challenge for Columbia?

What percent of the world’s supply of emeralds come from Columbia?

What is Colombia’s leading legal export?

**As an alternative to growing cocaine-supporting coca plants, Columbia has supported what industry?

Connect Geography and Economics (left side pg 270)

What does Columbia rank worldwide as a coffee producer?

People and Culture

What is the official language of Colombia and what religion are most people?

How are Columbian cities similar to those in Venezuela?

Fernando Botero is a famous Colombian what?

**Whose work is a novel that mixes realism and fantasy?

9-4 “Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador” pg. 273-277

Connecting to Your World

How would you adapt to living in a mountain region? (critical thinking)

What are two animals that Indians in the Andes raised?

What did the Inca use freezing nighttime temperatures and strong daytime sunlight for?


What mountain range stretches through Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Chile?

Peru is South America’s _________________ largest country.

What is the selva?

History and Government

What Indian civilization lived in Peru?

Who conquered this Indian civilization?

What year did Peru gain independence?

What type of government is Peru today?

In light of the United States electing its first African American president in 2008, what was unique about the election of Alejandro Toledo as a president in 2001?


What percentage of the people in Peru are farmers?

What three crops are grown on highland terraces?

What are three crops grown in coastal valleys?

Peru is one of the world’s largest producers of what vegetable?

Along with mining, what is another profitable industry in Peru?

People and Culture

**Indigenous people are people who are what?

What are Peru’s two official languages?

Where do most Peruvians live?

What benefit would there be for the government to provide running water and sewer systems to squatter settlements? (critical thinking)

What is the most popular sport in Peru?

Chart at top of pg. 275

What people live on Lake Titicaca?

Lake Titicaca is the world’s highest what?

Where is it located?

Bolivia and Ecuador

Bolivia has no access to the sea, which means it is what?

What are Bolivia’s two capital cities?

What is the difference between the two capital cities?

Which country is one of South America’s smallest countries?

History and Government

Who colonized both Bolivia and Ecuador?

Who was Bolivia named for?

What is Ecuador named after?

What type of governments to Bolivia and Ecuador have today?

**The first indigenous person to be elected president in Bolivia was who?


Using the chart at the top of page 276, what are Bolivia’s major industries?

Using the chart at the top of page 276, what are Ecuador’s major industries?

What is one of Bolivia’s leading exports?

**Which of the following would most likely be found in Bolivia: productive tin mines, large asparagus farmers, a huge fishing industry, many balsa wood factories

About half of Bolivia’s workers are what?

Bolivia’s farmers grow a kind of weed that produces an edible grain called what?

What is the altiplano?

What is Ecuador’s major export?

What is Ecuador’s largest city?

What is Ecuador’s capital?

Like Bolivians, most Ecuadorians are what?

What are four crops grown on the countries coastal plain?

People and Culture

**Bolivia’s three official languages are Quechua, Aymara, and what?

What do most Bolivians practice?

What does this say about their economy? (critical thinking)

Bolivia has more of what than any other place in the world?

Ecuadorian artists carve objects using what?

**Which of the following countries would most likely manufacture sweaters from llama wool: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Venezuela

What are countries in the Andes mountains famous for?

9-5 “The Southern Cone” pg. 281-284

Connecting to Your World

In the United States, what is the equivalent of an Argentine gaucho?

Argentina and Chile

How would you describe the physical geography of Argentina?

Which country is the world’s longest and narrowest?

**South America’s Southern Cone includes Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and what?

History and Government

What type of governments do Argentina and Chile have today?

The independence movement in Argentina was led by whom?

From 1973 to 1990, Chile was ruled by a military dictator named what?


Why are the Pampas and Patagonia important to Argentina’s agriculture?

How much of Chile’s land can be farmed?

Chile is the world’s leading producer of what?

Both Argentina and Chile are part of a trade association called what?

**Most of Argentina’s manufacturing occurs in factories in and around what city?

**Why are the Southern Cone countries members of Mercosur: to increase agricultural output, to increase trade among them, to have a cultural exchange, to protect democratic governments there

People and Culture

How are cities in Chile and Argentina similar to other South American cities?

What is Argentina’s national dance?

**Chile has produced many famous writers, including the poet: Augusto Pinochet, Fernando Botero, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Pablo Neruda

Paraguay and Uruguay

What are the two landlocked countries in South America?

The landlocked nation in the Southern Cone is what?


Paraguay’s largest indigenous group is the what?

What are the Guarani and how have they influenced the culture of Paraguay?

**Paraguay’s culture today is most influenced by what culture?


In what two ways are the economies of Paraguay and Uruguay similar?

What are Uruguay’s three biggest exports?

What is the capital city in Uruguay?

What is the most important influence on the culture of Uruguay?

Most of Uruguay’s people are of Spanish and what ancestry?

Use the map on pg. 253 to answer the following questions about countries capitals.

**What is the capital of Guatemala?

**What is the capital of Paraguay?

**What is the capital of Panama?

**What is the capital of Haiti?

**What is the capital of Venezuela?

**What is the capital of Cuba?

**What is the capital of Peru?

**What is the capital of Chile?

**What is the capital of Argentina?

**What is the capital of Ecuador?

**What is the capital of Jamaica?

**What is the capital of Colombia?

**What is the capital of Uruguay?

**What is the capital of Costa Rica?

Map portion on the test. You must be able to locate and identify these things on a map.




El Salvador



Costa Rica


Galapagos Islands










Caribbean Sea

Andes Mountains

Strait of Magellan

Atacama Desert

Amazon River



Dominican Republic

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