Questions indicated with an asterisk are also included in the online student content or the students’ self-test quiz for this chapter.
Multiple-Choice and True/False
*1. Mill is particularly concerned with protecting individuals against “the tyranny of the majority.”
*2. Rousseau argued that man is essentially evil.
*3. Distributive justice calls for the fair distribution of penalties to criminals.
*4. Plato and Aristotle defended slavery.
*5. Nozick argues that any attempt to set “patterns” of distribution of wealth must necessarily __________.
a. help the disadvantaged members of society
b. incorporate the idea of “justice as fairness”
c. follow entitlement theory
d. result in the violation of people’s rights
e. derive from the acquisition of holdings
* 6. The social contract is __________.
a. an agreement among people to share certain interests and make certain compromises for the good of them all
b. mainly an agreement of equally selfless and unselfish persons not to commit theft or murder
c. a choice to serve the public interest at the expense of a small number of individuals
d. the only popular political theory
e. the set of divine laws handed down by the authority of God
* 7. Hobbes writes: “To this war of every man, against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be unjust. The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place. Where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice.”
Hobbes is referring to __________.
a. the social contract
b. the state of nature
c. the “perilous future”
d. the immediate past, which is neither actual nor hypothetical, but manifest and true
e. human destiny, which is “unfortunate, but inevitable,” given human nature
*8. Hobbes writes: “To this war of every man, against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be unjust. The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place. Where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice.”
One consequence of Hobbes’ analysis is that __________.
a. justice must be everywhere and always the same
b. justice must be enforceable, or there is no justice
c. people will always respect justice because they respect one another
d. justice does not require a contract, but it requires mutual care
e. justice is irrational but is therefore “less than pragmatic”
*9. Hobbes’ ethical theory is clearly a form of __________.
a. rational egoism
b. rational altruism
d. universalism in ethics
e. ethical absolutism
*10. According to Hobbes, life in the state of nature was __________.
*11. Hume writes: “The laws of war, which then succeed to those of equity and justice, are rules calculated for the advantage and utility of that particular state in which men are now placed. And were a civilized nation engaged with barbarians who observed no rules even of war, the former must also suspend their observance of them where they no longer serve to any purpose, and must render every action or reencounter as bloody and pernicious as possible to the first aggressors.”
Hume here recognizes that morality __________.
a. is a function of reason alone
b. is a matter of individual intuition
c. is a law of nature
d. is usually unnecessary
e. is a function of a particular society
*12. Hume also assigns great significance to the utility of __________.
a. the system of justice (for the interests of both the individual and the public)
e. human function
*13. “From this fundamental law of nature, by which men are commanded to endeavor peace, is derived this second law: that a man be willing, when others are too, as far-forth, as for peace, and defence of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself.”
The first fundamental law to which Hobbes refers in this passage can be paraphrased as __________.
a. accept the state of nature, which is a war of every man against every other man
b. everyone ought to seek peace whenever possible, otherwise war
c. do unto others as you would have them do unto you
d. the mutual transferring of right
e. the social contract
*14. The first law of nature allows Hobbes to derive the second. The second law can be paraphrased as __________.
a. the violation of faith
b. the laying down of one’s rights to all things, so long as others do the same, viz. the social contract
c. the law of the Gospel
d. a proof of the existence of God
e. “the divine right of kings”
*15. For Rousseau, the first model of political society is based on the most ancient of all societies, which is __________.
*17. “The conception of justice which I want to develop may be stated in the form of two principles as follows: first, each person participating in a practice, or affected by it, has an equal right to the most extensive liberty compatible with a like liberty for all; and second, inequalities are arbitrary unless it is reasonable to expect that they will work out for everyone’s advantage, and provided the positions and offices to which they attach, or from which they may be gained, are open to all. These principles express justice as a complex of three ideas: liberty, equality, and reward for services contributing to the common good.”
Who is the author of the passage?
*18. Who thought that you can judge which society has the fairest government by looking at the well-being of the worst-off members of those societies? The higher the standard of living, education, job opportunities, etc., of the lowest class, the better the overall society.
*19. Who argued that the right to private property is so basic that it precedes any social conventions or laws and exists quite independent of any government or state, i.e., who penned the original entitlement theory?
c. because there is nothing “civil” about slavery, oppression, and prejudice
d. to make it a world problem, i.e., an international human rights issue
25. The key to a successful society is cooperation.
26. Egalitarianism is the view that all people ought to live and work according their station in life, i.e., behave according to the code of justice appropriate to their own social class.
27. Which is not a characteristic of Aristotle’s “unjust man”?
28. Hobbes argued that there is no justice in the state of nature. It comes into existence because of society.
29. What is the most influential conception of justice in modern times?
a. Plato’s Republic
b. socialist reform
c. social contract theory
30. Which is not a principal cause of quarrel, according to Hobbes?
a. competition (for gain)
b. diffidence (for safety)
c. fecundity (for sex and reproduction)
d. glory (for reputation)
31. The term Hobbes uses to denote the mutual transferring of rights is __________.
32. Whose concept of the state, viz. that the state has legitimate power only so long as it serves the people it governs, became one of the causes of both the French and the American Revolutions?
a. John Stuart Mill
c. Emma Goldman
33. The United States was founded on the thesis that when the state no longer serves its citizens, the citizens have the right to overthrow that government.
34. According to Rousseau, what is the most natural and ancient of societies?
a. the tribe
b. the clan
c. the state
d. the family
35. Those who are members of the “body politic” are called __________.
36. Rousseau and Hobbes have very similar social contract theories.
37. Whose theory of justice focuses on every individual’s rights by defending two principles: first, that we all have basic and equal rights, and second, that all inequalities of wealth, health, opportunities, etc., are to every individual’s advantage?
d. Cheshire Calhoun
38. Which group of people did Rawls say a society is obligated to help out first?
a. the middle class
b. the handicapped
c. the worst-off class
d. those running for political office
39. Locke argued that what gives a person the right to a piece of property is the fact that he “has mixed his labor with it.”
40. The basis of the social contract according to Hobbes is __________.
d. a means of enforcing a non-mutual interaction
41. Carol Gilligan poses two challenges to the ethics of justice. She asserts that ethical systems have historically ignored other dimensions of moral experience, such as compassion and sympathy. They also typically presume gender neutrality.
42. The clauses of the social contract may be reduced to one, according to Rousseau, which is __________.
a. the willing forfeit of rights by each associate on a case-by-case basis
b. the total cooperation of each associate in determining which rights must be given up for the good of the community
c. the total alienation of each associate, together with his or her rights, to the whole community
d. none of these
43. By what mental faculty are we to choose the principles by which our society will be run, according to Rawls?
d. common sense
44. The American Bill of Rights protects freedom of speech; therefore, a citizen may _________.
a. yell “fire” in a crowded theater
b. voice political ideologies, even when those ideologies are against the president’s position
d. tell falsehoods about another person, as if they were fact, on the radio
e. all of these
45. The three basic rights originally listed in the American Declaration of Independence were “life, liberty, and the right to own private property.”
46. Which one is not a positive freedom?
a. to realize one’s own potential
b. to find one’s place in society
c. to not be interfered with
d. to pursue good, e.g., health, education, etc.
47. Which one is not a negative freedom?
a. to not have one’s constitutional rights removed without due cause
b. to participate in society
c. to not be interfered with
d. to not be deprived of one’s own property
48. Which famine occurred because of shifts in relative purchasing power due to how property rights were structured in the country in question and not because of lack of food?
a. great Bengal famine of 1943
b. Ethiopian famine of 1973
c. Irish famine of the 1840s
d. all of these and more
49. The theory that all forms of government rest on violence and are therefore wrong and harmful, as well as unnecessary, is called __________.