Jefferson ended his first term by sending the Navy into the Mediterranean to
fight the North African states who demanded tribute from ships sailing through
the Mediterranean. Although the United States could not defeat the Barbary
States, the show of force induced them to respect American rights. The
American people thoroughly approved Jefferson's actions, foreign and domestic, and reelected him in 1804.
The success of Jefferson's first term disguised growing American problems. This section examines three: Jefferson's attack on the federal court system; conflicts between Republicans; and the sectional dispute over the slave trade.