Chapter 8: Campaigns and Elections


Multiple Choice questions



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Multiple Choice questions


Circle the letter of the response that best answers the question or completes the statement.

1. One reason that anybody participates in voting in the U.S. is that many Americans have a strong sense of __________ that tells them they ought to vote.

a. activism.

b. civic duty.

c. party affiliation.

d. realigning.

e. selective attention.

2. This term describes those individuals outside of government who actively promote their political party or issue by voting, giving money, etc.:

a. activists

b. reservists

c. proponents

d. isolationists

e. generalists

3. One way that blacks were prevented from voting prior to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was by requiring them to:

a. sign grandfather clauses.

b. register six months in advance of an election.

c. become American citizens.

d. pass literacy tests.

e. own at least five acres of land.

4. At the time the constitution was ratified, the vote was limited to __________ and __________ .

a. taxpayers; property owners.

b. white males; women.

c. women; property owners.

d. taxpayers; blacks.

e. northern blacks; taxpayers.

5. A key reason why most people don’t get involved in politics is because they:

a. are too hard to understand.

b. are too boring.

c. only appeal to the rich.

d. offer few rewards.

e. are always someone else’s responsibility.

6. One explanation given by the text for the decline in American voter participation in presidential elections after 1900 is that:

a. parties began functioning to mobilize mass voter turnout.

b. fewer citizens were directly affected by the outcome of presidential elections.

c. other forms of political participation became less accessible to citizens.

d. election fraud was rampant in the nineteenth century.

e. immigration increased.

7. Adoption of the Australian ballot enables United States citizens to vote:

a. by party rather than candidate.

b. more easily.

c. by absentee ballot.

d. in secret.

e. only a straight party ticket.

8. Voter turnout is defined as:

a. how many people vote republican.

b. how many people vote democrat.

c. how many people identify themselves as independent.

d. the percentage of the voting-age population that votes.

e. the percentage of Americans that register to vote.

9. In states that have instituted same-day voter registration, the effect on voter turnout has been:

a. a decline.

b. a slight increase.

c. a major increase.

d. no impact at all.

e. impossible to tell.

10. Which of the following statements about campaigning in America is true?

a. Parties play a minor role compared to Europe.

b. Parties play a larger role today than they did at the beginning of the 20th century.

c. Campaigns for national office are usually organized on behalf of a slate of candidates of the same party.

d. A candidate’s staff will usually continue to function even after the election.

e. A candidate must campaign in every state.

11. A campaign organization set up by a presidential candidate typically consists of all of the following except:

a. a group of PACs and union leaders.

b. a paid staff of fund-raisers, lawyers, accountants, and others.

c. a volunteer staff from several key states.

d. a number of advisers on key issues.

e. none of the above.

12. In 1993, Congress passed the _____ in order to simplify voter registration.

a. motor-voter bill

b. voting right act

c. civil right act

d. campaign reform act

e. simplification act

13. Electronic advertising is usually devoted to building a candidate’s _____.

a. personality

b. character

c. image

d. charisma

e. ego

14. There are two ways to use television: _______________ and _______________ .



a. splits; declines.

b. selective attention; mailouts.

c. spots; primaries.

d. spots; visuals.

e. visuals; debates.
15. What would happen if presidential campaigns were decided simply by party identification?

a. The Democrats would always win.

b. The Republicans would always win.

c. The Democrats would win most of the time.

d. The Republicans would win most of the time.

e. Nothing would change.

16. “I’m voting for Candidate Goodbrain because I like her views on the environment, social welfare, and revenue sharing.” Such a vote is called:

a. prospective.

b. retrospective.

c. matching.

d. preemptive.

e. contagious.

17. Campaigns are more likely to be important for:

a. national elective offices.

b. low-visibility offices.

c. when a candidate has very few opponents.

d. elections that are highly covered by the media.

e. primary elections only.

18. An election that results in one party’s gaining long-term dominance over the others is referred to as a:

a. landmark election.

b. shifting election.

c. realigning election.

d. consolidation election.

e. temporary gain.

19. An example of a single-issue ideological group that urges its followers to vote or against a candidate solely on the basis of some cause would be which of the following:

a. Congress Watch.

b. Christian Coalition.

c. United Auto Workers.

d. U.S. Chamber of Commerce.

e. National Association of Police Chiefs.

20. Presidential elections are usually decided by three things:

a. money; platform and charisma.

b. charisma; vice-presidential running mate and money.

c. political party affiliation; state of the economy and the character of the candidates.

d. money; media and gender.

e. none of the above.

21. Party realignments most often occur as a result of disagreement over real issues. An example of an issue that caused a realignment is:

a. the War of 1812, which split the Federalist party in half.

b. slavery in 1860, which split the Democratic party in half.

c. the gold crisis of 1910, which split the Republican party in half.

d. the civil rights movement of the 1960s, which split the Democratic party in half.

e. the stock market drop of 1987.

22. Which of the following is not considered as an item that would greatly influence the outcome of an election:

a. religion

b. political party affiliation.

c. character of the candidates.

d. state of the economy.

e. none of the above.

23. The one dramatic shift in presidential voting patterns since 1972 has been among:

a. women, who have grown increasingly Democratic and independent.

b. blacks, who have grown increasingly Republican and independent.

c. Hispanics, who have grown increasingly Democratic and independent.

d. southerners, who have grown increasingly Republican and independent.

e. white males, who have grown increasingly liberal.

24. The office-bloc ballot made it possible for voters for the first time to:

a. vote in secret.

b. connect party labels to candidates’ names.

c. cast a straight-party vote.

d. split their votes between party tickets.

e. vote while still at their place of work.

25. One major effect of ticket-splitting in national elections is a(n):

a. increase in the frequency of major party realignments.

b. divided government, in which one party controls the presidency, the other Congress.

c. decrease in the number of races in which the two candidates are separated by less then ten percentage points.

d. gradual emergence of parties as a political force.

e. strengthening of third parties.

26. Blacks and Jews have been the most loyal supporters of:

a. the Democrats.

b. independent candidates.

c. minor parties.

d. the Republicans.

e. various interest groups.

27. In numbers rather than percentage, the smallest contribution to Democratic vote totals is made by:

a. union members.

b. blacks.

c. Catholics.

d. southerners.

e. religious fundamentalists.

28. Since the early 1950s, politicians campaigning for public office have recognized that:

a. the media has a significant effect on the public’s understanding of the issues.

b. the media is not interested in covering political events.

c. the media is not particularly useful in their campaigns.

d. the media can assist them in developing a name recognition and a national constituency.

e. the media is an entity to be avoided.


29. When a citizen sees or hears only what he or she wants (on television and radio), it is called:

a. the marriage syndrome.

b. mental tune-out.

c. direct advertising.

d. media reform.

e. selective attention.

30. Assume you are running for office on the “Greenbelt” ticket and need to reach all of the environmentalists in your area. Your best bet is to rely on:

a. a paid television ad.

b. direct mailing.

c. a news broadcast.

d. a televised debate.

e. a phone book.

31. Campaign-finance rules prohibit cash contributions from any individual in excess of:

a. $10.


b. $100.

c. $2,000.

d. $10,000.

e. there is no set limit.

32. Candidates running in a primary election for their party’s presidential nomination can receive:

a. only money from states on which they are on the ballot.

b. only money from special interest groups.

c. only federal money with the required number of ballot signatures.

d. matching funds.

e. matching funds if the party is running at least 15% in the polls.

33. When PACs make independent expenditures on behalf of a candidate, the legal limit on such expenditures is:

a. $3,000.

b. $15,000.

c. $20,000.

d. $5,000 per candidate per election or $15,000.

e. there is no legal limit.

34. Campaign contributions by political action committees (PACs) generally favor:

a. incumbents.

b. conservatives.

c. Republicans.

d. supporters of organized labor.

e. liberals.

35. Which of the following candidates would automatically be entitled to full federal support for his/her general election campaign?

a. one who obtained more than 5 percent of the popular vote in the election

b. one who took no money from PACs or other interest groups

c. one who has obtained as least 50,000 signatures in all fifty states

d. one who has won a major party’s nomination

e. one who refused all federal support in the last election


36. The two major U.S. political parties can best be described as:

a. strong coalitions of groups that traditionally support each party.

b. weak coalitions of diverse elements.

c. broad coalitions of single-issue groups.

d. stable political entities of growing strength.

e. galvanized groups with a strong central structure.

37. One way to bypass many of the federal rules on campaign finance is to solicit money over the:

a. airwaves of public television.

b. airwaves of radio talk-show hosts.

c. use of cable television.

d. telephone.

e. internet.

38. Which of the following statements is true about most presidential elections?

a. They do not produce any major party realignment.

b. They are generally decided by prospective voting patterns.

c. They generally provide the winner with a clear mandate.

d. They are usually fought over a dominant issue.

e. They are usually decided well in advance.





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