Chapter 7, Section 1 a time of Conflict

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Chapter 7, Section 1

A Time of Conflict

  • Pirates from Tripoli (Barbary Coast states of North Africa) raid ships in Mediterranean

    • Demand tribute (payment)

    • These pirates seize the U.S. Philadelphia and jail the crew

    • Agreement: $60,000 = crew goes free

  • Britain and France at war in 1803

    • Neutral rights for U.S. – they can sail freely, not taking a side

    • Free trade with peace for 2 years

    • 1805: Britain blocks and searches ships trading with France; France blocks and searches ships trading with Britain

    • British practice impressment – thousands British deserters and Americans forced to be part of British navy

    • British killed 3 outside of American harbor (in Virginia) when seizing the Chesapeake

    • In response to this event – Congress passes embargo (ban on trade with another country)

      • Why the embargo: hurt Britain, avoid war

      • Bad results of embargo:

        • Wiped out American trade with other nations

        • Britain simply traded with Latin America for agricultural goods

  • Madison wins Election of 1808, new president

    • Congress says they’ll trade with Britain or France – whichever lifts their trade ban first

    • Napoleon jumps at this – so France and America can trade

      • Napoleon tricked U.S.  they still seized American ships

      • Madison: angry at Napoleon, but sees Britain as larger threat

    • Settler in Ohio are moving into lands guaranteed to Native Americans by treaty

      • Shawnee chief Tecumseh forms a confederacy and has the support of the British in Canada

        • He would lead a charge to stop whites going into territories

      • Tecumseh partners with his brother, the Prophet (Tenskwatawa)

    • William Henry Harrison

      • Threatens Tecumseh and Prophet

      • Tecumseh says it’s America’s own fault

      • Battle of Tippecanoe: Harrison attacks Shawnee and wins

        • Prophetstown destroyed

        • Shattered Native American confidence

        • Shawnee go north to Canada for British help

    • War Hawks: pressured Madison to declare war against Britain

      • Henry Clay and John Calhoun are War Hawk leaders

      • They wanted British Canada and Spanish Florida – more land for settlers

      • They pushed enough, and Congress quadrupled size of army

    • Madison gives in – asks Congress for a declaration of war against British

      • Thousands of Americans torn, forced on ships

      • War is declared vs. Britain

      • Ironically: Britain ended impressment before the declaration of war…

        • News travelled too slow; U.S. didn’t find out until after they had declared war  no turning back

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