Chapter 7 - Lesson 1 Geography and Indian Life p. 218 – 224
• In India, mountains and seasonal winds shape the climate & affect agriculture.
• The earliest Indian civilization built well-organized cities near the Indus River.
• Harappan civilization produced writing, a prosperous way of life, and a widely shared culture.
Physical Geography of India
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: How do mountains and seasonal winds shape the
climate of India?
(Answer: Mountains help block cold north winds, causing the climate to be warmer. Winds blow from the southwest in the summer, bringing rain from the ocean. Winds blowing from the northeast in winter are dry because they lose moisture passing over the mountains. Because of this, winter is a dry season.)
The Indian Subcontinent
• India is a subcontinent—large landmass like a continent, but smaller
• includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, most of Pakistan
• Kite-shaped subcontinent is also known as South Asia
• Theory states it was a separate land that slowly moved toward Asia
• two lands collided; mountains pushed up where lands joined
Mountains and Waterways
• Hindu Kush, Himalayas—high mountain ranges over Indias north border
• Ganges and Indus rivers irrigate and deposit fertile silt on land
• Indus River valley was home to first Indian civilization
• Saraswati River once ran parallel to Indus, but dried up
• India surrounded by Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal
• travel made possible by these waters encouraged trade
• Tall mountains block cold north winds, create warm climate in India
• Monsoons—seasonal winds
- create rainy summer season—good for crops, but can cause floods
- also create dry winter season
REVIEW QUESTION: How do India’s rivers and climate affect agriculture?
(Answer: the rivers flood & deposit fertile soil, which helps crops grow; the monsoons create a wet season & dry season. The wet season provides rain for crops.)
Cities in the Indus Valley
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: Why was the earliest Indian civilization located near the Indus River?
( Answer: the river helped with agriculture and trade, so early people built cities near it)