Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity Key Issue 1 – Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?



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Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 1 – Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?
Distribution of Ethnicities Within the United States


  1. Define ethnicity:


  1. Define race:


  1. In the chart below identify America’s four ethnic groups (other than “white”). Give their percentage of total U.S. population and shade in 4 colors the areas on the map in which they are clustered.




Ethnic Group

% of U.S. Population



























AFRICAN – AMERICANS IN USA HISPANICS IN USAhttp://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/usa50out.gifhttp://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/usa50out.gif


ASIAN AMERICANS IN USA AMERICAN INDIANS IN USA



http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/usa50out.gifhttp://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/usa50out.gif


  1. What is the major Hispanic group in the U.S. – where are most settled?


  1. What are the major Asian groups in the U.S – where are most settled?


  1. Provide an example to illustrate that African-Americans or Hispanics in the U.S. are more urbanized.


  1. Complete the chart below to summarize the historic migration patterns of African-Americans.



Migration from Africa

Migration to the North

Migration Within Cities (ghetto)










Differentiating Ethnicity & Race
In the terms of the concept of race…


  1. What is the “problem” with the way the U.S. Census Bureau defines “Asian”?


  1. What is the difference between “African-American” and “black”?


  1. How does the U.S. Census Bureau consider Hispanic/Latino?


  1. What is racism?

Describe the following concepts dealing with the geography of race (#s 12 – 14).




  1. “Separate But Equal”


  1. “White Flight”


  1. “Blockbusting”


Case Study in Division By Race South Africa (Complete the case study as organized below)


  1. Define apartheid:


  1. Explain the key components of the apartheid system:




1652 –

1795 –


1948 –

1991 –


1994 -
Complete the following timeline of South African history and annotate the map of 10 homelands.

macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:southafrica.jpg


Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 2 – Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed Into Nationalities?

Pgs. 217 – 224


Rise of Nationalities


  1. Define nationality:


  1. Though they are very similar, use the chart below to show how nationality differs from ethnicity.




Ethnicity

Nationality









  1. Define self-determination:


  1. Define nation-state:


  1. Why is Denmark a fairly good example of a nation-state?


  1. Two regions of Denmark prevent the country from being a “perfect” nation-state. List and describe them in the chart below




Denmark’s Non-Danish Regions

Region:

Region:


Description:

Description:


  1. Shade and label Denmark and her territories on this map of the North Atlantic region.





  1. What is nationalism?


  1. How do nations and states foster it?


  1. What are centripetal forces?


Multinational States


  1. What is a multiethnic state? Give an example.


  1. What is a multinational state? Describe in detail how the United Kingdom is an example.




  1. When the Soviet Union dissolved into 15 countries in the 1990s, the new countries were based on ethnicities. Other than Russia, they can be divided into 4 groups based on their location. Complete the chart below to indicate the countries in each group. NOTE: Be sure to look at the map on pg. 220 to familiarize yourself with the location of these countries.




Baltic Region
(3 states)


Eastern Europe
(3 states)


Central Asia
(5 states)


Caucusus
(3 states)





  1. Note the major religion and language of each of the Baltic States.


  1. The ethnic divisions among the Eastern European states are blurred for what reasons?


  1. What did the majority of Moldovans want when they gained independence? Who opposed this?


  1. What religions and languages are most common in the Central Asian countries?


  1. Have there been ethnic problems in Central Asia? If so, where? If not, why not?


  1. How many different nationalities (ethnicities) are found in the country of Russia?


  1. Why are independence movements flourishing among these groups?




  1. Russia has resisted the independence movement in Chechnya for what TWO reasons?



  1. In the Caucusus region, there have been many problems with the new nations and ethnicities. Summarize the main problems and note specifics of regions and peoples for each.




Azeris (Azerbaijan)



Georgians (Georgia)



Armenians (Armenia)





  1. Using Figure 7-19, what’s the main problem with the Caucusus region?


Revival of Ethnic Identity


  1. How did Communists suppress the issues of ethnicity and nationalism? (Give several examples)



  1. With the fall of Communist governments in the 1990s, what kinds of problems have arisen in what places? Why?


Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 3 – Why Do Ethnicities Clash?

Pgs. 224 – 229


Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality


  1. Make notes on major issues in each of these ethnic conflicts as well as shade and annotate the map as necessary.


Case Study: Africa


Ethiopia & Eritrea




Sudan

Somalia


  1. Read “Ethnic Competition in Lebanon” and complete the case study by listing the religions of Lebanon and annotating them on the map provided (use map pg. 226).


Case Study Lebanon


Religions of Lebanon

macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:lebanon_outline_map.gif














  1. How did Lebanon’s 1943 constitution seek to solve the religion problem?

The president…


The premier…


The speaker of the chamber of deputies…


The foreign minister…



  1. How has the make-up of the population changed since 1943?



  1. What happened in 1975? How has it been resolved?


Dividing Ethnicities Among More Than One State


  1. When the British ended colonial control of South Asia in 1947, how was the region divided politically, and how was the region divided ethnically (religiously)?

Answer #’s 7-13 regarding Forced Migration




  1. How many people found themselves on the “wrong side of the boundary” in the 1940s?


  1. How many Muslims migrated from India to West Pakistan (Pakistan, today)?


  1. How many Muslims migrated to East Pakistan (Bangladesh, today)?


  1. How many Hindus migrated from East and West Pakistan into India?


  1. What happened to many of the refugees as they traveled?


  1. Why is the region of Kashmir a problem?



  1. Note the following regions on the map below:



India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Sri Lanka
Nepal
Butan
Myanmar
China
Afghanistan

macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:ssclosed.gif



Sinhalese & Tamil in Sri Lanka Case Study


  1. Complete the chart that compares the two ethnicities of Sri Lanka in terms of language and religion.




Ethnic Group and %

Language (family, etc.)

Religion

Where?

























  1. How has violence between these two groups (which goes back 2,000 years) been suppressed during the past 300 years?


  1. What occurred in 1948?


  1. Which group is unhappy? Why?


  1. Annotate the map of the religious-ethnic geography of the island of Ceylon, the country of Sri Lanka.



macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:sri_lanka_outline_map.gif
Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 4 – What is Ethnic Cleansing?

Pgs. 229 – 235




  1. Define ethnic cleansing:


  1. How is ethnic cleansing different than normal warfare?


Ethnic Cleansing in Europe


  1. List the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.


  1. List important/interesting facts regarding the creation of the post-WWI country of Yugoslavia.




  1. Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of Josip Tito, identify the following of Yugoslavia’s:

FIVE NATIONALITIES…

FOUR LANGUAGES…

THREE RELIGIONS…

TWO ALPHABETS…




  1. What ethno-political problems did the country face after the death of Tito in the 80s and the fall of Communism in the 90s?


  1. Why did Serbs and Croats in Bosnia (aka Bosnia-Herzegovina) ethnically cleanse themselves of Bosnia Muslims?




  1. What was agreed upon at the accords signed between these rival ethnicities in Dayton, Ohio in 1996?


  1. Who got the best deal? Who got the worst deal? Explain.

Regarding the region of Kosovo, answer #’s 10-13.




  1. What country controlled Kosovo?


  1. What ethnic group lives in Kosovo (and %)?


  1. With the breakup of Yugoslavia, what began to happen in Kosovo?


  1. How did the U.S. and U.N. respond?


  1. Define balkanized:



  1. Define balkanization:



  1. If peace comes to the Balkan Peninsula in the next few years, why will it be “in a tragic way” according to the author of the textbook?



Ethnic Cleansing in Central Africa


  1. Give the historical background of the two rival groups in Central Africa’s countries of Rwanda and Burundi.




Hutus

Tutsis






18. What is the situation in Rwanda and Burundi today?




Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 1 – Where Are Ethnicities Distributed?

Pgs. 206 - 217


Distribution of Ethnicities Within the United States


  1. Define ethnicity:
    Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a homeland or hearth.




  1. Define race:
    Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor




  1. In the chart below identify America’s four ethnic groups (other than “white”). Give their percentage of total U.S. population and shade in 4 colors the areas on the map in which they are clustered.




Ethnic Group

% of U.S. Population

Hispanics (Latinos)

15%

African-American

13%

Asian American

4%

American Indian

1%



macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:th.jpg


  1. What is the major Hispanic group in the U.S.?
    Mexican




  1. What are the major Asian groups in the U.S?
    Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean & Vietnamese

  2. Provide an example to illustrate that African-Americans or Hispanics in the U.S. are more urbanized.
    African-Americans make up 85% of the Detroit population but only 7% of the rest of Michigan. Hispanics make up 25% of New York City’s population but only account for 1/16th of the population for the state of New York.




  1. Complete the chart below to summarize the historic migration patterns of African-Americans.



Migration from Africa

Migration to the North

Migration Within Cities (ghetto)

Forced migration to American colonies in 1700s as slaves thru triangular trade


Emigrating from South to North after WWI & WWII to get factory jobs

African-Americans were clustered in ghettos or housing projects within a city

In 1950s densities were high & neighborhoods began to expand in 1970s


Differentiating Ethnicity & Race
In the terms of the concept of race…


  1. What is the “problem” with the way the U.S. Census Bureau defines “Asian”?
    It lumps together people from different Asian countries




  1. What is the difference between “African-American” and “black”?
    African-American identifies a group of people with extensive cultural tradition. Black is just a term that denotes dark skin




  1. How does the U.S. Census Bureau consider Hispanic/Latino?
    Hispanic & Latino aren’t considered races. So, they aren’t on the census. Hispanics can select white, black or other




  1. What is racism?
    The belief that race is the primary cause of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race

Describe the following concepts dealing with the geography of race (#s 12 – 14).




  1. “Separate But Equal”
    Discouraged special interaction and kept blacks and whites in separate neighborhoods through restrictive covenants




  1. “White Flight”
    Instead of integrating, whites fled areas that anticipated black immigrating into




  1. “Blockbusting”
    Neighborhoods would change from all white to all black due to unscrupulous real estate practices


Case Study in Division By Race South Africa (Complete the case study as organized below)


  1. Define apartheid:
    Physical separation of different races into different geographic areas




  1. Explain the key components of the apartheid system:
    Based on race a legal status was determined: where one could live, go to school, work, own land, vote, etc.



1652 – Apartheid system began when Dutch settled in Cape Town; people known as Afrikaners

1795 – Britain seized the Dutch colony & controlled S. Africa’s gov’t until mid 20th century

1948 – Afrikaners gained control when their Nationalist Party won elections when colonial rule in Africa was being replaced; reinstated Apartheid law & forced 99% of S. Africa’s black population into 10 homelands

1991 – Apartheid was repealed & the African National Congress legalized; leader Nelson Mandela released from jail

1994 – All South Africans permitted to vote; Nelson Mandela became 1st black president of S. Africa
Complete the following timeline of South African history and annotate the map of 10 homelands.

macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:southafrica.jpg


Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 2 – Why Have Ethnicities Been Transformed Into Nationalities?

Pgs. 217 – 224


Rise of Nationalities
1. Define nationality:
Identity with a group of people who share a legal attachment & personal allegiance to a particular country


  1. Though they are very similar, use the chart below to show how nationality differs from ethnicity.




Ethnicity

Nationality

- Shared values such as religion, language & material culture
- Identifies groups with distinct ancestry & cultural traditions, i.e. Polish Americans


- Shared values such as voting, getting a passport, performing civic duties

- Identifies citizens of a country, i.e. people of the United States




  1. Define self-determination:
    Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves




  1. Define nation-state:
    A state whose territory is occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality




  1. Why is Denmark a fairly good example of a nation-state?
    Territory occupied by Danish ethnicity closely corresponds to the state of Denmark: shared sense of unity; nearly all speak same language; nearly all Danish speakers live in Denmark




  1. Two regions of Denmark prevent the country from being a “perfect” nation-state. List and describe them in the chart below




Denmark’s Non-Danish Regions

Region: Faeroe Islands

Region: Greenland


Description: Speak Faeroese; not attached to mainland Denmark; 21 islands ruled by Denmark for last 600 years

Description: 88% Inuit people; Greenland controls their own domestic affairs; official language is Greenlandic



  1. Shade and label Denmark and her territories on this map of the North Atlantic region.






  1. What is nationalism?
    Loyalty and devotion to a nationality




  1. How do nations and states foster it?
    Promoting symbols such as flags and songs




  1. What are centripetal forces?
    Attitudes that unify people and enhance support for a state


Multinational States


  1. What is a multiethnic state? Give an example.
    A state that contains more than one ethnicity – United States




  1. What is a multinational state? Describe in detail how the United Kingdom is an example.
    A state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agrees to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
    U.K. has 4 main nationalities – England, Scotland, Wales & N. Ireland. They have some ethnic differences but very different historical experiences. Wales & Scotland merged into England, and when Ireland broke away from England, N. Ireland chose to remain under British rule.





  1. When the Soviet Union dissolved into 15 countries in the 1990s, the new countries were based on ethnicities. Other than Russia, they can be divided into 4 groups based on their location. Complete the chart below to indicate the countries in each group. NOTE: Be sure to look at the map on pg. 220 to familiarize yourself with the location of these countries.




Baltic Region
(3 states)

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania


Eastern Europe
(3 states)

Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine


Central Asia
(5 states)

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan


Caucusus
(3 states)

Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia





  1. Note the major religion and language of each of the Baltic States.
    Estonia – Lutheran & speak a Uralic language related to Finnish
    Lithuania – Catholic & speak a language in the Balto-Slavic branch
    Latvia – Lutheran with Catholic minority – speak a language in the Balto-Slavic branch





  1. The ethnic divisions among the Eastern European states are blurred for what reasons?
    Because they speak similar East Slavic languages & all are mostly Orthodox Christians




  1. What did the majority of Moldovans want when they gained independence? Who opposed this?
    To reunify with Romania; the Ukrainian & Russian ethnicities in Moldova opposed reunification with Romania




  1. What religions and languages are most common in the Central Asian countries?
    Population is mostly Muslim practicing Islam and speak Altaic languages




  1. Have there been ethnic problems in Central Asia? If so, where? If not, why not?
    In Tajikistan tensions between Tajiks & Uzbeks where fighting has left 15% of the population homeless
    In Kazakhstan tensions between Kazakhs & Russians, but they have been able to coexist peacefully





  1. How many different nationalities (ethnicities) are found in the country of Russia?
    39


  1. Why are independence movements flourishing among these groups?
    Russia is unwilling to suppress the movements forcibly




  1. Russia has resisted the independence movement in Chechnya for what TWO reasons?
    Russia doesn’t want other ethnicities to start movements & because Chechnya has large petroleum deposits




  1. In the Caucusus region, there have been many problems with the new nations and ethnicities. Summarize the main problems and note specifics of regions and peoples for each.




Azeris (Azerbaijan)

- Western part of Azerbaijan is separated from the rest of the country by Armenian land.
- Azeris are also located in Iran



Georgians (Georgia)

- Many ethnicities – Georgian, Azeri, Armenian, Russian, etc.
- Abkhazia & S. Ossetia are recognized by Russia as 2 independent states & they operate as though independent of Georgia



Armenians (Armenia)

- 98% of population is Armenia

- Battled over boundaries with Azeris

- Nagorno-Karabakh is Armenia but with an Azerbaijan boundary




  1. Using Figure 7-19, what’s the main problem with the Caucusus region?
    Territory occupied by ethnicities doesn’t match the boundaries of states


Revival of Ethnic Identity


  1. How did Communists suppress the issues of ethnicity and nationalism? (Give several examples)
    Use of centripetal forces; use of Russian language; minimized organized religion




  1. With the fall of Communist governments in the 1990s, what kinds of problems have arisen in what places? Why?
    Problems occurred in the Balkans (Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia) where nation-states could not be outlined peacefully. These countries were dismantled because minority ethnicities opposed dominance by majority ethnicities.




Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 3 – Why Do Ethnicities Clash?

Pgs. 224 – 229


Ethnic Competition to Dominate Nationality


  1. Make notes on major issues in each of these ethnic conflicts as well as shade and annotate the map as necessary.


Case Study: Africa


Ethiopia & Eritrea

- Eritrea given to Ethiopia after WWII

- Eritrean legislature dissolved & use of Tigrinya language banned

- Eritrea rebelled in 30 year fight & gained independence in 1993 but still disputed border

- Eritrea has Christians & Muslims and 2 ethnic groups (Tigrinya & Tigre)

- Ethiopia is multiethnic 2 major groups: Amharas (Christians) & Oromo (Muslim fundamentalists)




Sudan
- Arab-Muslim gov’t in north & other ethnicities in south, west & east

- S: black Christians & animists (war with North resulted in forming South Sudan)

- W: black Muslims in Darfur fought with North (U.N. considered rapes & murders by Sudanese gov’t genocide)

- E: many ethnicities fought gov’t with support from Eritrea over disbursement of oil

Somalia

- Mostly Sunni Muslims that speak Somali
- Population is divided among several clans & sub-clans
- Declared independent states of Somaliland (N), Puntland (NE), Galmudug (center), Southwestern Somalia (S)


- Islamic militias took control in 2000s

  1. Read “Ethnic Competition in Lebanon” and complete the case study by listing the religions of Lebanon and annotating them on the map provided (use map pg. 226).


Case Study Lebanon


Religions of Lebanon

macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:lebanon_outline_map.gif

Maronite


Greek Orthodox


Shiite Muslims


Sunni Muslims


Druze Muslims





  1. How did Lebanon’s 1943 constitution seek to solve the religion problem?
    Each religion was to be represented in the Chamber of Deputies

The president…


Maronite Christians
The premier…

Sunni Muslims
The speaker of the chamber of deputies…

Shiite Muslims
The foreign minister…
Greek Orthodox Christian


  1. How has the make-up of the population changed since 1943?
    Muslims are the majority now, not Christians




  1. What happened in 1975? How has it been resolved?
    A civil war where each religion established a militia to protect its territory. Each religion received half of the seats in parliament.

Dividing Ethnicities Among More Than One State


  1. When the British ended colonial control of South Asia in 1947, how was the region divided politically, and how was the region divided ethnically (religiously)?
    The land was divided into 2 countries: India & Pakistan, and they were religiously divided Hindu (India) & Muslim (Pakistan)



Answer #’s 7-13 regarding Forced Migration


  1. How many people found themselves on the “wrong side of the boundary” in the 1940s?
    17 million people




  1. How many Muslims migrated from India to West Pakistan (Pakistan, today)?
    6 million




  1. How many Muslims migrated to East Pakistan (Bangladesh, today)?
    1 million




  1. How many Hindus migrated from East and West Pakistan into India?
    9.5 million




  1. What happened to many of the refugees as they traveled?
    Killed by rival religious members




  1. Why is the region of Kashmir a problem?
    Pakistan & India never agreed on a boundary line




  1. Note the following regions on the map below:



India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Sri Lanka
Nepal
Butan
Myanmar
China
Afghanistan

macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:ssclosed.gif



Sinhalese & Tamil in Sri Lanka Case Study


  1. Complete the chart that compares the two ethnicities of Sri Lanka in terms of language and religion.




Ethnic Group and %

Language (family, etc.)

Religion

Where?


Sinhalese 82%


Indo-European family & Indo-Iranian branch


Buddhism

Southern Sri Lanka

Tamil 14%


Dravidian family

Hindu

Northern Sri Lanka




  1. How has violence between these two groups (which goes back 2,000 years) been suppressed during the past 300 years?
    Because they were under European control




  1. What occurred in 1948?
    Sri Lanka became independent




  1. Which group is unhappy? Why?
    Tamil because Sinhalese dominate the gov’t, military, commerce & Tamil feel their ethnic identity is jeopardized.




  1. Annotate the map of the religious-ethnic geography of the island of Ceylon, the country of Sri Lanka.



macintosh hd:users:agatha112780:desktop:sri_lanka_outline_map.gif
Chapter 7 Learning Guide – Ethnicity
Key Issue 4 – What is Ethnic Cleansing?

Pgs. 229 – 235




  1. Define ethnic cleansing:
    When a more powerful ethnic groups forcibly removes a less powerful ethnic group in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region




  1. How is ethnic cleansing different than normal warfare?
    Removal of ever member of the ethnicity: men & women; children & adults; frail/elderly & strong youth


Ethnic Cleansing in Europe


  1. List the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.
    Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, former Yugoslavia




  1. List important/interesting facts regarding the creation of the post-WWI country of Yugoslavia.
    - Yugoslavia was created by the Allies to unite several Balkan ethnicities because they spoke similar south Slavic languages
    - “Yugo” - Slavic for south
    - Josip Broz Tito governed for 27 years





  1. Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of Josip Tito, identify the following of Yugoslavia’s:

FIVE NATIONALITIES…
Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrans, Serbs & Slovenes
FOUR LANGUAGES…
Croatian, Macedonia, Serbian & Slovene (Montenegrans speak Serbian)
THREE RELIGIONS…
Catholic in North, Orthodox in East & Islam in South
TWO ALPHABETS…
Roman Alphabet (Croatian/Slovene) & Cyrillic (Macedonian/Serbian)


  1. What ethno-political problems did the country face after the death of Tito in the 80s and the fall of Communism in the 90s?
    The creation of independent countries where territories didn’t match the nationality




  1. Why did Serbs and Croats in Bosnia (aka Bosnia-Herzegovina) ethnically cleanse themselves of Bosnia Muslims?
    To justify their case from breaking away from Bosnia. Ensured they were better candidates to join with Serbia & Croatia.


  1. What was agreed upon at the accords signed between these rival ethnicities in Dayton, Ohio in 1996?
    Bosnian Serbs got ½ the land; Bosnia Croats got ¼ of the land; Bosnian Muslims got ¼ of land




  1. Who got the best deal? Who got the worst deal? Explain.
    Bosnia Serbs got the best deal because they got the most land with only 1/3 of the population.
    Bosnian Muslims for the worst deal because they only got 25% of the land even though they made up 50% of the population

Regarding the region of Kosovo, answer #’s 10-13.




  1. What country controlled Kosovo?
    Serbia




  1. What ethnic group lives in Kosovo (and %)?
    Albanians (90%)




  1. With the breakup of Yugoslavia, what began to happen in Kosovo?
    Serbia began to ethnically cleanse Albanian majority




  1. How did the U.S. and U.N. respond?
    Launched an air attack on Serbia




  1. Define balkanized:
    Description of small geographic areas that couldn’t be organized into stable states because of the many ethnicities with antagonisms toward each other




  1. Define balkanization:
    Process where a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities




  1. If peace comes to the Balkan Peninsula in the next few years, why will it be “in a tragic way” according to the author of the textbook?
    Because ethnic cleansing would have worked by forced killing or migration to create ethnic homogeneity


Ethnic Cleansing in Central Africa


  1. Give the historical background of the two rival groups in Central Africa’s countries of Rwanda and Burundi.




Hutus

Tutsis

- 85% of population
- Farmers in Rwanda & Burundi
- Gained control in 1962 & began to ethnically cleanse Tutsi in 1994




- 15% of population
- Cattle herders who migrated to Rwanda & Burundi


- Took control & made Hutus their serfs

- Counter-attack and cleansed Hutus

18. What is the situation in Rwanda and Burundi today?


Rwanda & Burundi remain calm; most refugees have returned to the countries; democratic elections have been held

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