Chapter 6: The American Revolution Name: Packet



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Chapter 6: The American Revolution Name:______________________________

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Learning Goal: Students will understand and be able to determine how American colonists gained their independence.

Section 1: Key Terms and People

Thomas Paine-

Richard Henry Lee-

Resolution-

Preamble-

Grievance-

Section 1: Guided Reading Questions:

  1. What proposal did Richard Henry Lee make to Congress?



  1. What does the Declaration of Independence say about people’s rights?



  1. What was the main idea of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense?



  1. What are the major parts of the Declaration of independence?



  1. Read the section on page 171 titled, “Common Sense”. What do you think Paine means by saying, “the blood of the slain”?

Section 1 Notes:

Moving Towards Independence

  • In January 1776, a man by the name of _______________________________ published a pamphlet entitled “_______________________________”.

  • Common Sense” was Patriot ________________________________

  • Paine called for complete independence from Britain.

  • Paine stated that is was simply common sense that the colonists break away from England.

The Colonists Declare Independence

  • On July 2nd, 1776 the Continental Congress voted unanimously to declare their independence.

  • On ________________________________________ the Declaration of Independence was signed.

John Hancock

  • Interesting fact: John Hancock was the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence and his signature is the largest on the document.

Thomas Jefferson

  • _____________________________of the Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

  • The Declaration of Independence has ________________major sections:

Preamble

  1. The ________________________, or introduction, states that people who wish to form a new country should explain their reasons for doing so.

The Declaration of Natural Rights

  1. The first main section states general ideas about society, government, and natural rights.

List of Grievances

  1. The second main section lists the many ____________________________ Americans held against the King of England. The grievances included cutting the colonists off from trading with other parts of the world and imposing taxes without consent or representation.

Resolution of Independence

  1. The Declaration ends by announcing America’s status as a new ______________________________________.

The Early Years of the War

  • After the colonies declared independence from England in July 1776, a major war for freedom was _____________________________.

  • ____________________________ predicted “We shall have a long and bloody war to go through.”

The King’s Advantages in War

  1. The British had the world’s best ________________________. They had the strongest navy and a well-trained, experienced army.

    • The British hired 30,000 ________________________ mercenaries.

      • _________________________= individuals paid to fight for another country

  2. Britain had a larger ____________________________ (Britain had 8 million people compared to 2.5 million in the United States.)

  3. Not all Americans supported a war for independence.

    • These ________________________________________________ caused tensions among colonists.

  1. Georgia and the Carolinas had the largest ________________________populations.

Patriot Advantages

  1. ______________: Americans got to fight on their own soil. They knew the layout of the land.

  2. __________________: They did not have to ship supplies thousands of miles away.

  3. ______________________: The Patriots had a cause worth fighting for.

  4. ______________________: The patriots had George Washington. Few could match Washington in courage, honesty and determination.

Section 2: Key Terms and People

Nathan Hale-

Mercenary-

Alliance-

Marquis de Lafayette-

Cavalry-

Friedrich von Steuben-

Section 2 Guided Reading Questions:

  1. What was the result of the Battle of Long Island?



  1. How did Washington attack Trenton?



  1. What happened at Trenton in December 1776?



  1. What did Washington’s actions at the Battle of Trenton show about his character and leadership?



  1. List two results of the Battle of Saratoga



  1. How did France aid the Patriot cause?



  1. Why was the winter of Valley Forge so difficult?

Section 2 Notes:

Raising an Army

  • The Continental Congress established the __________________________________________, but relied on the states to recruit soldiers.

CHOOSING SIDES

  • _____________________________________________ fought on both sides of the war.

    • PATRIOTS- Many fought because they needed the _________________. Some fought for the cause: freedom.

    • LOYALISTS- England guaranteed freedom from ______________________ after the war.

Early Major Battles

  • The Early years of the war took place in the __________________.

British Victories

  • ___________________________________ was captured on September 13, 1776.

  • ___________________________________ was captured on September 26, 1777.

Patriot Victories

  • New Jersey (Trenton and Princeton)-December 26, 1776.

  • _____________________(New York)- October 7, 1777 led by Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys.

Battle of Saratoga

  • The Battle of Saratoga proved that colonial militia could defeat trained British soldiers.

    • The Battle of Saratoga is remembered as the ____________________________________ in the war

Benjamin Franklin

  • _______________________________________ was key for the Americans

  • He acted as a ________________________:

      • representative who works with foreign countries

  • He was able to convince ____________________ to side with the Patriots.

The Most Important Ally

  • France: In 1778 France declares war on Britain and sent money, equipment and troops to aid the American _______________________________.

The Americans Gain Allies

  • Other European nations also helped the American because of their hate for Britain.

  • Spain declared war on Britain in 1779. Spain captured British forts at Mobile in 1780 and __________________ in 1781.

Valley Forge

  • In the winter of 1778, George Washington endured a winter of suffering at __________________________, Pennsylvania.

Valley Forge

  • At Valley Forge Washington’s men had lack of food, clothing and shelter.

  • Many men in the Continental Army ______________________ (left without permission) due to the hardships.

  • 2,000 men ___________ mainly of starvation and cold.

  • Despite the tragedy, the Continental Army survived the winter.

Valley Forge

  • While at Valley Forge, a German ally named _______________________________ helped train the undisciplined American troops.

  • He taught American soldiers marching techniques, proper use of firearms and how to utilize bayonets in battle.

  • Despite the suffering, the Continental Army was a well-trained fighting force following Valley Forge.

Marquis de Lafayette

  • French son of an aristocrat

  • Comes to Valley Forge in 1775 at 18 years old

    • "My heart was enlisted and I thought only of joining the colors.“

  • Becomes Washington’s most trusted _______________________________

    • Wins victories at Barren Hill, Monmouth, Rhode Island, and Yorktown

Women in the War

  • Women contributed greatly to the war effort.

  • Many women held down the home front by taking care of the house and children.

  • Some followed their husbands to ______________________.

  • Many provided entertainment by dancing, singing and keeping the spirits of soldiers up.

Women in the War

  • Right: ________________________________________ disguised as a man in battle.

  • Below: The famous “_____________________________.”

Section 3: Key Terms and People

Enlist-

Civilian-

Continental-

George Rogers Clark-

Bernardo de Galvez-

John Paul Jones- (2 points extra credit if you can tell me where he’s buried today…Hint, GO NAVY!)

Privateer-

Section 3: Guided Reading Questions:

  1. Why did some Africans living in the colonies choose to fight for the British?



  1. What roles did women play in the Revolution?



  1. How did privateers help the American war effort?



  1. How did Washington’s policy toward African soldiers change? What was the reason for this change?

  2. What challenges did the American Navy face?



  1. Why do you think John Paul Jones is considered a great American Hero?

Section 3 Notes:

War in the West

  • A large portion of the Revolutionary War took place in the ______________________ frontier.

  • Much of the fighting in the west also involved Native Americans.

  • While some Native Americans sided with the Patriots, the majority sided with the ___________________.

Henry Hamilton

  • A British commander named Henry Hamilton even paid Native Americans for the scalps of Americans. This gave him the nickname the “____________________________”.

War at Sea

  • While many battles occurred on land there were also battles waged at sea.

  • Britain used its powerful navy to patrol American waterways and kept ships from entering or leaving American harbors.

  • These British _______________________________ often prevented supplies and reinforcements from reaching the Continental Army.

War at Sea

  • The American navy had ______________________ against the strong British navy.

  • To wage a war by sea against the British, Continental Congress hired large amounts of _____________________________, privately owned ships that were equipped with weapons.

  • Continental Congress hired approximately 200 privateer ships and their crew to attack British vessels.

John Paul Jones

  • Perhaps the most well-known American naval officers during the war was _____________________________.

John Paul Jones

  • In 1779 he battled against the feared British naval ship the Serapis.

  • The battle lasted nearly three hours.

  • Despite the fact that Jones’ ship was badly damaged in the battle; he is remembered for his famous words “___________________________________________________________________”!

  • In the end, Jones would capture the Serapis, repair her, and turn her into an American vessel to fight the British.

Struggles in the South

  • By 1778, the British realized that bringing the American colonists back into the empire would not be easy.

  • The British began concentrating their war efforts in the ________________ where there were many Loyalists.

  • The British were led by a brilliant military leader in the South, General ________________________________.

Struggles in the South

  • In 1780 Cornwallis won the most decisive British victory to date at ________________________________, South Carolina were he took thousands of prisoners.

  • Despite his victory, Cornwallis would soon experience a new type of warfare.

Guerrilla Warfare

  • As British troops moved through the countryside of South Carolina, small forces of Patriots would attack them.

  • These Patriots used a hit-and-run technique known as __________________________warfare.

Francis Marion

  • One successful Patriot leader was a man named _______________________________.

  • He used guerilla warfare in the swamps of South Carolina.

  • Marion was veteran soldier from the French and Indian War where he learned guerilla warfare from Native Americans.

  • Marion was given the nickname “___________________________” by his British rivals.

  • Marion was quick with his tactics and smart. Many British also called him the “Ghost of the Devil.”

Francis Marion

  • The Hollywood movie “The Patriot” starring Mel Gibson was based on the life of Francis Marion.

___________________________________

  • Best general in Continental Army

    • Does the most, with the least

  • Continues to get overlooked for promotion

    • Disappointed about not being as famous as Washington and Ethan Allen

  • Begins to ______________________________________ to British

    • Plans to hand over West Point to British forces

  • Name becomes synonymous with _______________________________

Patriot Victories and British Retreat

  • In 1780 ___________________________________ took command of the Continental Army in the South.

  • Due to the brilliant battle tactics used by Nathaniel Greene and the guerilla warfare used by Francis Marion, Cornwallis and the British were forced to _____________________________from South Carolina.

Section 4: Key Terms and People

Charles Cornwallis-

Guerrilla-

Francis Marion-

Nathanael Greene-

Traitor-

Section 4 Guided Reading Questions:

  1. How were Cornwallis and his troops trapped at Yorktown?



  1. How did the American Revolution affect France?



  1. What military strategy defeated Cornwallis at Yorktown?



  1. What were the provisions of the Treaty of Paris?



  1. Read, “Why did the Americans Win?” page 194. What do you think was the most important reason for the American Victory?

Section 4 Notes:

Victory at Yorktown

  • In 1780 the Revolutionary War was at a critical point. Both the Patriots and the British needed a major military victory to win the war.

  • In July 1780, French warships arrived off the coast of Newport, Rhode Island. The ships carried more than 5,000 French soldiers under the command of French general Comte de ______________________________.

Victory at Yorktown

  • George Washington followed reports of the fighting in the South during 1780 and 1781.

  • He knew that the British commanded by Cornwallis were camped in ________________________, Virginia.

  • Washington decided to secretly head South, and along with the help of Marquis de Lafayette and the French navy, he would try to bring the war to an end by defeating Cornwallis.

Victory at Yorktown

  • Washington’s plan to attack Yorktown worked perfectly.

  • By the end of September 1781, 14,000 American and French troops had _________________ Cornwallis and 7,500 British and German troops at Yorktown.

  • On October 9th 1781, American and French forces began a tremendous bombardment.

Victory at Yorktown

  • One German soldier described the scene at Yorktown in his diary:

One saw men lying nearly everywhere who were mortally wounded and whose heads, arms and legs had been shot off.”

  • British supplies began running low and many British soldiers were wounded or sick.

  • Cornwallis realized the situation was ___________________. On October 19th he ______________________. The Patriots had _________ the Battle of Yorktown.

Independence

  • With the help of the French, the Patriot victory at Yorktown became the last major battle of the Revolutionary War.

  • On September 3, 1783 the Treaty of ____________ was signed and ended the Revolutionary War.

Independence

  • The Treaty of Paris of 1783:

  1. Ended the war gave Americans _______________________________.

  2. Extended American territory from as far north as Canada and as far South as Florida. West to the Mississippi and East to the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. The British promised to _________________________ troops from American territory.

  4. Property taken from Loyalists would be returned to them.

George Washington

  • On December 4th 1783 Washington said farewell to his soldiers.

  • Two weeks later, Washington _______________________as General of the Continental Army.

  • He returned to his home, _______________________ in time for Christmas. There he planned to live quietly with his family.

RESULTS OF THE WAR

  • The idea of self-government and the re-emergence of representative ______________________________.

  • A ________________________________ to all other revolutions throughout the world

    • Influences French Revolution of 1789






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