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fight a war. No one expected it to last so long, however.
militias who were basically volunteers and served for short periods of time.
opposed to fighting, and some were loyal to Britain.
an existing government.
Loyalist strength varied from region to region but was strongest in the Carolinas and
D. Some African Americans were promised their freedom if they fought on the British
side, so they became Loyalists.
opposed to the Hessian mercenaries, or hired soldiers, who fought for the British
3. George Washington was a leader with courage, honesty, and determination.turn
F. Raising an army was difficult. Congress had trouble enlisting soldiers and raising
money to fight the war. The Americans had militias, not a regular army. Soldiers
usually signed up for one year of service. The Congress offered a three-year term,
or length of service, but the one-year enlistment was most common.
sent 32,000 troops to fight in America. The British hoped to win an early victory.
Nathan Hale became a hero for America. He was discovered as a spy and hanged.
After the defeat, Washington retreated to Manhattan and then across New Jersey into
Pennsylvania, pursued by the British.
the army shrank. Soldiers became discouraged. Some soldiers finished their term of
service and went home. Others ran away.
III. Patriot Gains (Page 167)
A. More soldiers were needed, so some states enlisted African Americans. By the end of
the war, every state except South Carolina had enlisted African Americans. In fact
Rhode Island had an all African American regiment in 1778.
B. American troops scored victories at Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey. Washington
caught the British troops off guard when he surprised them at Trenton in late
December 1776. The British sent more troops under Lord Charles Cornwallis, but
Washington marched his troops to Princeton and drove away the British.
England from the Middle Colonies. First, John Burgoyne would lead troops south
from Canada. Second, Lieutenant Colonel Barry St. Leger would move east from Lake
Ontario. Third, General Howe would move north from New York City, and they
would all meet in Albany.
B. Howe’s troops captured Philadelphia, and the Continental Congress fled to the countryside.
Howe postponed the move to Albany and stayed in Philadelphia during the
C. The Americans, however, were able to slow down the British. American forces led by
Benedict Arnold forced the British to retreat at Fort Stanwix, New York. General
Burgoyne’s army captured Fort Ticonderoga but had trouble after that. Short of supplies
and men, Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga, New York, in October.
by the Patriot Army. On October 17, 1777, they handed over their weapons to the
Americans and surrendered.
British in Europe and hated the British. They realized that the Americans had a chance
to win their war, so they offered assistance.
B. France at first secretly gave money to help the American war effort and then publicly
announced its support. In February 1778, the French and the Americans worked out a
trade agreement and an alliance. France declared war on Britain and gave the
Americans money, equipment, and troops to fight the British.
America’s independence until after the Revolution, but the Spanish governor of
Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, helped the war effort.
D. Washington’s troops spent a hard winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. The army
lacked enough food, clothing, and shelter. Some men deserted; others resigned. Yet the
Continental Army survived. In April news of France’s alliance cheered them.
E. AFrench nobleman, Marquis de Lafayette, spent the winter at Valley Forge. He
offered his services and became one of Washington’s trusted aides.
convinced Cuba, Spain, and Mexico to send financial aid to the colonies.
states printed hundreds of millions of dollars of paper money. Soldiers had to be paid
and supplies bought. The paper quickly lost its value and in turn led to inflation.
Congress stopped issuing paper money because no one would use it.n
women questioned their place in society, and some fought for women’s interests.
by spying and informing on the Patriots could be arrested and tried as traitors. Some
were victims of mob violence or ignored by their neighbors. Many fled to Britain, to
Spanish-owned Florida, or to the frontier.
which people went to war. African Americans fought as soldiers in the Revolutionary
War. They hoped that they would soon see the day when slavery would be abolished.
and involved Native Americans. They often helped the British by raiding American
B. George Rogers Clark went west to end the attacks. In June 1778, he and 175 soldiers
took the British post at Kaskaskia in present-day Illinois and then captured the town
of Vincennes in present-day Indiana.
C. The British recaptured Vincennes under Henry Hamilton in December. In February
Clark and his troops surprised the British and forced Hamilton to surrender. This victory
helped strengthen the western position.
II. Glory at Sea (Pages 178–179)
A. The British had a powerful navy and thus were able to wage battles at sea. They
blockaded American harbors, preventing ships from entering or leaving ports. This
effectively cut off supplies and reinforcements from getting to the troops.
B. The American Navy was too weak to fight the British, so they used privateers.
Privateers were privately owned merchant ships with weapons. The privateers attacked
the British ships. Congress authorized more than 100 ships to sail as privateers.
C. John Paul Jones became a naval hero as a result of his battle near the coast of Great
Britain in September 1779. The battle involved his ship, the Bonhomme Richard, and the
British warship Serapis. After more than three hours of battle, the Serapis surrendered.
The Bonhomme Richard sank because it was so badly damaged.
recognized by a foreign government.n
III. Struggles in the South (Pages 179–182)
A. By 1778 the British saw that it would be difficult to unite the American colonies back
into their empire. They concentrated their efforts in the South, which had many
B. In late 1778 the British occupied Savannah, Georgia, and took over most of the state.
In 1780 General Henry Clinton himself went to attack Charles Town, South Carolina.
In May Charles Town surrendered. It was the worst defeat for the Americans during
The British scored another victory at Camden, South Carolina, in August 1780.
one of the successful guerrilla leaders of eastern South Carolina.
September 1780. They forced the British to retreat.
In March the Continental commander Nathaniel Greene met General Cornwallis’s
army at Guilford Courthouse in present-day Greensboro, North Carolina. Greene’s
army retreated, and even Cornwallis’s troops ended the battle. They suffered many
losses, so Cornwallis abandoned the campaign to take North Carolina.
G. In April 1781, the Cornwallis troops retreated north to Virginia, carrying out raids and
nearly capturing Governor Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia legislature in June.
Cornwallis set up camp at Yorktown, Virginia.
H. George Washington sent Lafayette and Von Steuben to fight Cornwallis. The battle for
the South was almost over, but the war was at a point where each side needed a victory
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I. Victory at Yorktown (Pages 183–185)
A. Washington planned a complex and secretive takeover at Yorktown, Virginia, in hopes
of surprising Cornwallis. Washington was originally going to attack New York City
because he was expecting a French fleet to arrive there to help. The French fleet never
reached New York City because the British fleet trapped them in Newport.
Washington planned an attack on Yorktown instead.
1. He knew the British expected him at New York City, so this change would surprise
and confuse them.
hoped that they would meet at Yorktown.
coast near Yorktown.
Washington’s troops and march south to Yorktown. Their commander was
3. A third group from the west under Anthony Wayne was to march toward
trapped Cornwallis’s 7,500 troops. The British troops could not escape by sea because
de Grasse’s troops blocked them. The rest of the British Army was in New York under
General Clinton, unable to help Cornwallis in the South.
Cornwallis surrendered. The Patriots had won the Battle of Yorktown.urn
was too costly to continue. Delegates from both sides met in Paris. After a preliminary
treaty was ratified in April 1783, the final Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3,
1783. It said that
Mississippi River and from Canada in the north to Spanish Florida in the south
right to fish off the coast of Canada
speech. Two weeks later, he formally resigned and returned home to Mount Vernon.
though Britain captured the cities.