Reading Skill Students should identify any three of the following causes: inequalities among classes, soaring national debt, failed economic reform, soaring food prices, storming of the Bastille.
1. People were divided into three social classes, or estates: the First Estate, Second Estate, and Third Estate. The First Estate was clergy who were wealthy and enjoyed many privileges; the Second Estate was the titled nobility; and the Third Estate consisted of the majority of the population, including the bourgeoisie or middle class, rural peasants, and the urban workers.
2. France was deep in debt. Food prices were soaring.
CHAPTER 6 SECTION 2
Reading Check He was a leader of the Committee of Public Safety and one of the chief architects of the Reign of Terror.
Vocabulary Strategy Radical means "extreme; departure from the usual or traditional."
Reading Skill The radicals called for the election of a new legislative body, the National Convention. This radical body voted to abolish the monarchy and establish the French Republic. Louis XVI and his queen were executed.
1. the French Republic;
2. It dislodged the old social order, overthrew the monarchy and established a republic, and brought the Church under state control.
CHAPTER 6 SECTION 4
Note Taking Study Guide p. 87)
Napoleon quickly advances through military ranks.
In 1802, Napoleon names himself consul for life. In 1804, Napoleon assumes the title of Emperor of the French.
Napoleon consolidates his power by strengthening the central government.
Napoleon reforms France and wins support across class lines.
From 1804 to 1812, Napoleon creates a vast French empire.
In 1812, Napoleon invades Russia.
In 1813, a new European alliance defeats
Napoleon in the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig. The next year, Napoleon abdicates, or steps down. In March 1815, Napoleon returns to France triumphantly.
One hundred days later, British and Prussian forces crush Napoleon completely at the Battle of Waterloo.
Napoleon is forced to abdicate and go into exile.
On-Level Summary (p. 88)
Reading Check a new code of laws that embodied Enlightenment principles
Vocabulary Strategy Anticipate means "to foresee or expect."
Reading Skill Possible answers: The Impact of Napoleon; Why Napoleon Failed
1. All classes supported the reforms.
2. The Russians' scorched-earth policy left the French hungry and cold. Napoleon's armies were forced to retreat through the long winter.