Chapter 6 – Early English Settlements



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Chapter 6 – Early English Settlements


  • 6.1 – Intro

    • studying 3 groups of people from England to America

      • made dangerous voyages across Atlantic

      • to create settlements – small communities

    • Roanoke = “Lost Colony”

      • 1st English settlement

      • island off coast of present-day North Carolina

      • don’t know what happened to the people

    • Jamestown

      • 105 Englishmen to present-day Virginia

      • hoped to find gold & natural riches

      • 1st successful English settlement

    • Plymouth

      • 102 Englishmen to present-day Massachusetts called “New England”

      • seeking freedom of religion

      • known as Pilgrims – people who go on a religious journey



  • 6.2 Lost Settlement of Roanoke

    • Setting the scene: 1500’s Spain = one of most powerful nations

      • Spanish ships ruled ocean & brought gold & silver from Spain’s colonies back to Spain

      • Sir Walter Raleigh (England) believed that colonies in North America could make England more $ & powerful

    • 1584 – Raleigh sends 2 ships to explore coast of N. America

      • ship landed – island near present-day North Carolina

      • sailors named it Roanoke after Native Americans living there (the Roanokes)

      • returned to England & told Raleigh that island = fish, animals, fruit, veggies, & friendly people

    • 1585 – Raleigh sends group of men to start colony

    • 1587 – Raleigh sends 115 new settlers

      • farmers & skilled workers

      • realized that the Roanokes weren’t going to give them food so sent Captain John White back to England for supplies

    • England vs Spain War

      • White’s ship of supplies not allowed to leave England

      • couldn’t go back until 3 years later




    • 3 years later when White got back to Roanoke

      • no sign of settlers

      • houses gone

      • letters CROATOAN carved on gatepost of fort

      • White thought settlers had gone to island of Croatoans (Indians)

      • weather turned bad so he couldn’t search the area and returned to England

    • No one knows what happened to the settlers



  • 6.3 Jamestown

    • 1606 – King James gave permission to a group of wealthy men to start a colony in North America

      • men sent settlers to Virginia

      • hoped to make $$$

    • 1607- 105 settlers to VA

      • most hoped to become wealthy by finding natural riches & gold

      • picked spot near wide river

      • named it Jamestown for King James

      • BUT

        • on a marsh (low area of wet land unhealthful for people)

        • water around area = dirty & salty

        • land not good for farming

        • mosquitoes carried malaria (deadly disease)

    • In next 8 months

      • most settlers died

      • one was captured by the Indians (Captain John Smith)

      • by Jan 1608 – only 38 still alive

    • Late 1607 – Native American captured Captain John Smith

      • took Smith to their chief “Powhatan”

      • Pow. ordered Smith to kneel & lay head between 2 stones

      • several men raised clubs in air

      • Smith thought he was about to be killed

      • Pow’s daughter, Pocahontas, laid her head on Smith’s head

      • Smith thought she saved him (but it may have only been a ceremony)

    • Pocahontas

      • visited J-town several times

      • brought food to the settlers

      • her tribe taught settlers to hunt, plant crops, & fish




    • Meanwhile – more settlers kept arriving

      • Smith was elected president of the Colony

      • many of the settlers were “gentlemen” used to having servants do the work

      • Smith knew that everyone needed to work for the settlement to survive

      • Smith said no work = no eating, which saved the colony

      • that winter only 18 colonists died

        • Colonists: people who settle in colonies

    • Next year – Smith goes back to England due to a bad burn

      • colonists lost their strong leader

      • Pow. no longer helping the colonists

      • Winter of 1609-1610 known as “Starving Time”

        • settlers ate horses and dogs

        • hundreds died

        • only 60 settlers survived

    • J-town settlers never found gold & needed a way to support their colony

    • 1619 – Jamestown Growing

      • each settler given 50 acres of land to farm

      • ship brought 200 women to marry and raise families

      • elected representatives to make laws for the colony (called House of Burgesses)

        • only wealthy men could be part of this group but still more democratic than England

    • Pow.’s people = worried about so many settlers

      • 1614 – John Rolfe married Pocahontas = peace between settlers & Native Americans

      • Pocahontas went to England to meet King James

      • 1617 – Pocahontas dies in England

    • Soon Pow. died & his brother becomes chief

      • 1622 – new chief & followers attack J-town – killed 347 colonists

    • BUT – Jamestown survived & became first successful English settlement in North America



  • 6.4 – Plymouth

    • 3rd English Settlement = people looking for religious freedom

      • King James says “Everyone in England has to belong to Church of England”

      • some people refused, some called Separatists (wanted separate/different church)

      • decided to move to place where free to practice their own religion – later became known as Pilgrims

    • 1620 – Pilgrims from England to North America

      • Mayflower = boat

      • 2 months at sea – landed on tip of Cape Cod in present day Mass.

      • Before going ashore they made a plan for their govt. to keep peace

        • most men signed it

        • called Mayflower Compact

      • elected a governor

    • After exploring area – decided to sail across the bay

      • landed at what they named “Plymouth”

      • late December – building houses and a meeting hall

    • 1st winter = very hard

      • landed too late in year to plant crops

      • climate harsh & cold

      • nearly ½ of 102 pilgrims died before spring

      • only 6-7 of them strong enough to care for the others

    • March 1621 – Squanto (of the Wampanoags) visits Pilgrims

      • had learned English when sailors took him to England

      • stayed with Pilgrims to teach them to plant corn, catch fish, get maple syrup

      • Pilgrims grateful for help – thought he was sent by God

      • Squanto’s tribe had all died (while he was in England) of disease they got from English & French fishermen

    • Massasoit – chief of Wampanoags visited Pilgrims

      • Squanto helps arrange a peace treaty (promise to help & protect each other)

    • Pilgrims corn ripened – fall celebrate the harvest

      • Massassoit comes

      • Feast of Thanksgiving

    • 1621 – William Bradford elected governor for 30 years

    • Next few years – more and more settlers

    • Now called “New England”



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