Chapter 5 South America Multiple Choice Introduction



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Chapter 5

South America

Multiple Choice
Introduction
 1. Which of the following countries does not contain a significant portion of the Andes?

*A. Paraguay B. Argentina C. Peru

D. Colombia E. Venezuela
 2. Which of the following countries does not contain a portion of the Amazon Basin?

A. Brazil B. Ecuador C. Peru

D. Colombia *E. Chile
 3. The religion most closely associated with South America is:

A. Islam *B. Roman Catholicism C. Incanism

D. Cokism E. Coptic Christianity
 4. In South America, the richest 20% of the population control _____ of the wealth.

A. 2% *B. 67% C. 90%

D. 1% E. 95%
The Human Sequence
 5. An altiplano is:

A. a low area with small mountains

*B. a plain high in the Andes

C. an agricultural area in Brazil

D. only found in the Lesser Antilles

E. a mixture of African and Indian heritage


 6. The language of the Inca state, still spoken in parts of South America is known as:

*A. Quechua B. Incan C. Spanish

D. Indian E. Dinkadoo

 

7. The original center of the Incan Empire was:



*A. Cuzco B. Lima C. Mexico City

D. Quito E. Iquitos

 8. Which of the following statements is false?

*A. South America’s population remains concentrated in its interior, although many peripheral

locations are growing rapidly.

B. Strong cultural pluralism exists in a majority of the countries in South America.

C. In general, the southern portion of South America is the most developed and the northeastern

portion is least developed.

D. Brazil alone accounts for over half the land area of South America.

E. Brazil alone accounts for about half the population of South America.


 9. Which of the following statements is false?

A. At its peak, the Incan Empire had more than 20 million subjects.

*B. The Incan peoples formed the majority within the empire.

C. The Incans spoke Quechua.

D. The lives of the Incan Empire’s subjects were strictly controlled.

E. All of the above are true.


10. The Spaniard who defeated the Incans was:

A. Cortes B. Cuzco *C. Pizzaro

D. Bolivar E. Columbus
11. The process by which great haciendas were formed from Amerindian lands was called:

A. land takeover B. expropriation *C. land alienation

D. land fall E. none of the above
12. Lima became the capital of the viceroyalty of:

A. New Granada B. La Plata *C. Peru

D. Brazil E. All of the above were viceroyalties
13. Which of the following was not one of the viceroyalties?

A. New Granada B. La Plata C. Peru

*D. Brazil E. All of the above were viceroyalties
14. The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 stipulated that a boundary was to be drawn separating the South American territories of ____________________ .

A. Spain and France B. France and Great Britain *C. Spain and Portugal

D. The Netherlands and France E. Suriname and Gran Colombia
15. The Paulistas:

*A. were from São Paulo B. organized expeditions into the interior

C. were from Brazil D. Included missionaries in search of converts

E. all of the above


16. Brazil today contains about ________ of the population and area of South America.

A. 10% B. 75% C. 10%

D. 40% *E. 50%


17. Major reasons for bringing Africans to Brazil include all of the following except the:

A. plantation economy of Brazil

B. small Amerindian population of Brazil

C. Africans had experience at sugar cane production

D. requests by Amerindians for additional labor on their farms

*E. C and D above


18. Which of the following is false?

A. The Spanish viceroyalties existed in isolation from one another.

B. Only Australia has a population that is more peripheral than South America.

C. South America never drew as many immigrants as did North America.

*D. The Spanish invested significantly in their South American colonies. E. All of the above are true.
19. Independence came to most South American states around:

A. 1700 B. 1650 C. 1910

D. 1750 *E. 1820
20. Which of the following was not a factor in the break-up of the viceroyalties into separate states?

*A. Spanish culture B. Atacama Desert C. Andes Mountains

D. Tropical rainforest climate E. None of the above
21. In 1808:

*A. Rio de Janeiro became the seat of the Portuguese Empire

B. Napoleon threatened to take over São Paulo

C. Brazil began its dominance of the Spanish republics, making them the equivalent of colonies

D. the Spanish began to make inroads into Brazilian territory

E. the Amazon River basin was lost to former leaders of the Incan Empire


Cultural Fragmentation
22. Which of the following is not a feature of South America’s “tropical plantation” region?

A. It resembles Middle America’s “Rimland.”

*B. It is concentrated along the continent's northern Pacific coastline.

C. Its culture contains a strong African component.

D. The plantation economy has recently enjoyed a significant resurgence.

E. All of the above are characteristic of this realm.


23. Which South American “culture sphere” resembles the Middle American “Rimland?”

A. The European-Commercial region

*B. The Tropical-Plantation sphere

C. The Indo-Subsistence region

D. The Mestizo-Transitional region

E. The “Undifferentiated” area



24. Which of the following is not a Latin Country?

*A. Guayana B. Venezuela C. Peru

D. Chile E. Argentina
25. In the European-Commercial Region:

A. Peru is the most important country

*B. 85 percent of the population is pure European

C. the Amazon River predominates

D. oil is a major natural resource

E. most of the area is a D climate


26. In the Indo-Subsistence Region:

*A. Peru is the most important country

B. 85 percent of the population is pure European

C. the Amazon River predominates

D. oil is a major natural resource

E. most of the area is a D climate


27. In the Mestizo-Transitional Region:

*A. the population is of mixed Amerindian/European origin

B. most of the area has a plantation economy

C. the Amazon River predominates

D. oil is a major natural resource

E. most of the area is a D climate


Economic Integration
28. Which of the following is not a current attempt at economic integration in South America?

A. Mercosur *B. LAFTA C. Andean Group

D. Group of 3 E. FTAA
Urbanization
29. Overall, South America’s population has a high growth rate, but nowhere does the population grow faster than:

A. in the rural areas *B. in the cities and towns C. in the Amazon Basin

D. in the Andean altiplanos E. in Uruguay
30. South America’s large cities:

*A. with few exceptions fit Jefferson’s concept of the primate city

B. are usually not the capitals

C. are often found in the interior, such as Buenos Aires

D. are experiencing a net out-migration

E. have very low unemployment rates



31. About ____ percent of South Americans live in urban areas.

A. 50 B. 20 *C. 75

D. 10 E. 90
32. Which of the following statements is false?

A. South America is more urbanized than Middle America.

*B. Although South America’s population is growing at an alarming rate and will be larger than

that of the United States early in the 21st century, it is now approximately twenty percent or

30 million people smaller in size than the U.S.

C. The most urbanized countries in South America are Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina.

D. The largest city in population in South America is São Paulo.

E. Most of South America is located east of North America.


33. South America’s largest city in population size is:

A. Mexico City *B. São Paulo C. Buenos Aires

D. Rio de Janeiro E. Caracas
34. Which of the following cities is not the largest urban center in its country?

A. Buenos Aires B. Santiago *C. Rio de Janeiro

D. Montevideo E. Bogotá
35. In the Latin American city model, the elite residen­tial sector contains the:

*A. commercial/industrial spine B. disamenity sector

C. zone of maturity D. zone of in situ accretion

E. zone of peripheral squatter settlements


36. The rings of slums surrounding South America’s large cities are known as:

A. mestizos *B. favelas C. tierra templada

D. altiplanos E. the spines of the city
37. The informal sector of the economy includes:

A. government workers

*B. sellers of homemade goods

C. mass-produced industrial goods

D. major sections of the agricultural sector

E. all business in the spine of the city


Brazil: Giant of South America
38. Brazil’s land area:

A. is exceeded in size only by Russia and Canada

B. includes the central segment of the Andean mountain chain

*C. borders all but two South American countries

D. incorporates all of South America’s Chaco region

E. is bounded on all sides by a “Great Escarpment,” making Brazil one vast plateau



39. Brazil does not border:

A. Paraguay B. Venezuela *C. Chile

D. Peru E. Argentina
40. Which of the following statements is false?

A. Brazil is the largest country in South America.

B. The South of Brazil is a lagging region in spite of the presence of the Itaipu Dam.

C. Russia, Canada, China and the United States are all larger than Brazil.

*D. Brazil’s population is one of the fastest growing in the less developed world.

E. Brazil has an ethnically diverse population.


41. The fastest growing sector of the Brazilian economy is:

*A. commercial agriculture B. industry C. banking

D. tourism E. rubber
42. Which of the following is not a reason for Brazil’s improving economic situation?

*A. the collectivization of agriculture

B. the government opened the country to foreign investment

C. trade with Argentina is being facilitated by the Mercosur agreement

D. the rate of population growth has declined

E. Brazil has significant natural resources


43. The income gap in Brazil is:

*A. increasing B. decreasing C. remaining the same


44. Brazil’s population today is characterized by:

A. ethnic diversity B. Japanese settlers C. Italians

D. blacks *E. all of the above
45. The birth rate in Brazil over the past decade has:

*A. declined B. increased rapidly C. remained the same

D. increased slowly
46. The capital of Brazil is:

*A. Brasília B. Rio de Janeiro C. São Paulo

D. The Federal District E. Itaipu
47. The most populated Brazilian state is:

*A. São Paulo B. Amazonas C. Belo Horizonte

D. Parana E. Santa Catarina
48. Brazil’s Northeast:

*A. was Brazil’s source area: its early plantation economy developed here first

B. today still produces the country’s coffee crop

C. is the site of Brazil’s most spectacular recent surge of economic development

D. contains the largest number of German settlers in the country

E. remains mainly Indian country: most of the Amazonian Indians have resettled here



49. Which of Brazil’s subregions contains the “Polygon of Drought?”

A. the Amazon Basin B. São Paulo *C. the Northeast

D. the South E. interior
50. Contributing to the growth in the Northeast is all of the following except:

A. tourism B. irrigated farming C. sugar

D. government social programs *E. coal mining
51. The dry inland back country in Brazil’s Northeast is known as the:

A. Mercosur B. barrios C. sugar

D. favelas *E. sert_o
52. Volta Redonda is most closely identified with Brazil’s:

*A. iron and steel manufacturing activities

B. growing hydroelectric power production capacity

C. earliest European settlements

D. Amazonian growth poles

E. black population clusters


53. What first attracted settlers to Brazil’s Southeast, including Rio de Janeiro?

A. oil B. coffee plantations C. rubber

D. iron *E. gold
54. Brazil’s rapidly developing industrial sector is found in:

A. Amazonas B. Acre C. Para

D. Mato Grosso *E. Saõ Paulo
55. Which of the following states account for 50% of Brazil's GNP, 60% of manufacturing and 25% of the population?

A. Amazonia B. the Interior *C. Saõ Paulo

D. the North E. Pampas
56. Which of the following is Brazil’s leading foreign currency earner from coffee exports?

A. Amazonia B. the Interior C. the North

*D. Saõ Paulo E. Pampas
57. The third largest city in the world is now:

A. Tokyo B. Mexico City C. Rio de Janeiro

D. Buenos Aires *E. São Paulo
58. Fazendas are:

*A. coffee plantations

B. a minority group in the Northeast of Brazil

C. flat areas in the Amazon Basin

D. aquaculture areas in Brazil

E. none of the above



59. Which of the following is not a major component of the economy in São Paulo?

A. coffee B. orange juice C. soybeans

D. automobiles *E. sugar beets
60. The subregion of Brazil that is known as the South is today glamorized by which of the nation’s new ventures?

A. Brasília *B. the Itaipu Dam C. the Aswan Dam

D. the Amazon River Project E. Grande Carajás Scheme
61. The Brazilian subregion with the most diversity in its European population is the:

*A. South B. Northeast C. state of São Paulo

D. Interior E. Amazonian North
62. The Brazilian subregion that has a secessionist movement is the:

*A. South B. Northeast C. state of São Paulo

D. Interior E. Amazonian North
63. Significant development, some of it based upon super-nicotine tobacco plants, is found in which Brazilian subregion?

*A. South B. Northeast C. state of São Paulo

D. Interior E. Amazonian North
64. The population of Brazil’s Centro Oeste (Interior, the Central-West):

*A. is increasing because of the location of Brasília within the region

B. constitutes approximately half of Brazil’s current total population

C. is almost exclusively a black population, resulting from eighteenth-century migration flows

D. is moving eastward, to neighboring São Paulo state

E. is sustained mainly by mining enterprises


65. The Brazilian subregion containing the capital of Brasília is the:

A. South B. Northeast C. state of São Paulo

*D. Interior E. Amazonian North
66. Brasília is what geographers call a:

A. leading capital B. megalopolis C. city spine

*D. forward capital E. core capital
67. The cerrado is:

A. the gateway to the Amazon

B. similar to the Argentine pampas

C. an area of soybean production

*D. B and C above

E. none of the above




68. Rubber production has had the greatest impact on which Brazilian subregion?

A. South B. Northeast C. state of São Paulo

D. Interior *E. Amazonian North
69. Tropical deforestation is most severe in which subregion?

A. South B. Northeast C. state of São Paulo

D. Interior *E. Amazonian North
70. An Amazonian city showing significant industrialization that is central to South America is:

A. Brasilia B. São Paulo *C. Yanomami

C. Manaus D. Carajas E. Amazonia
71. A growth pole is:

A. an established manufacturing center that dominates a substantial region

B. any large city in a national core area

*C. a location where a set of industries, given a start, will grow, setting off ripples of

development in a surrounding area

D. a location, now in decline, that served as a focal point for a developing region in the past

E. an agricultural region where annual yields increase annually
72. The Polonoroeste Plan has called for settlement near the border with:

A. Venezuela B. Chile *C. Bolivia

D. Mexico E. São Paulo
73. The current pattern of settlement of the Brazilian North:

A. has helped stem the tide of deforestation

B. is based upon the expansion of the rubber industry

*C. results in the widespread establishment of low grade land use

D. is attracting large numbers in search of gold

E. none of the above


The North: Caribbean South America
74. The dominant economic activity in Venezuela’s Lake Maracaibo Lowland is:

A. large scale cattle herding B. tourism *C. oil production

D. fishing E. wheat production
75. Venezuela and Colombia as compared with the Guianas have:

A. larger territories and smaller populations

B. larger populations and smaller territories

C. less varied physiographies

*D. been more successful in replacing the plantation economy

E. fewer economic opportunities

76. The South American country that contains the northern end of the Andes is:

*A. Venezuela B. Colombia C. Panama

D. Chile E. Ecuador
77. The major river of Venezuela’s iron-rich eastern region is the:

A. Rio de la Plata B. Caracas C. Amazon

*D. Orinoco E. Maracaibo
78. Proceeding south from Middle America, the first country in South America is:

A. Venezuela B. Brazil *C. Colombia

D. Peru E. Guyana
79. The areas of flat plains in Venezuela are known as:

*A. llanos B. pampas C. planos

D. flatos E. templadas
80. Bogotá, Colombia’s capital city, is located:

A. on the arid Pacific coast

B. on the Caribbean Sea at the outlet of the Magdalena Valley

*C. in a major Andean Basin

D. at the intersection of three valleys in the eastern savanna zone near the Chilean border

E. in the llanos


81. In Colombia:

A. the north is Indian, the south is black, and the center is European

B. the north is European, the south is black, and the center is Indian

*C. the north is black, the south is Indian, and the center is European

D. no connection can be made between geography and demographics

E. tea is the most important crop


82. Colombia’s coffee growing areas are most often associated with the:

*A. tierra templada climate zone

B. llanos-dominated environments of tropical valleys in the Andean ranges

C. coastal plains, in particular those near the larger port cities

D. major irrigation projects that use water transferred from the lower Amazon Basin to

relieve the aridity of the country’s grasslands

E. Humboldt Current
83. Colombia is the world’s second largest exporter of:

A. bananas *B. coffee C. rubber

D. tea E. coal
84. With the decline in coffee production, _____ are becoming Colombia’s two leading exports.

A. bananas and dairy *B. oil and coal C. natural gas and wheat

D. tea and sugar E. coal and rubber

85. The initial stage in the evolution of an insurgent state, according to McColl, is the stage of:

A. equilibrium *B. contention C. counteroffensive

D. subsequence E. disintegration


86. The final stage in the evolution of an insurgent state, according to McColl, is the stage of:

A. equilibrium B. contention *C. counteroffensive

D. subsequence E. disintegration
87. The most powerful insurgent force in Columbia, which has forced the government to basically yield control of large areas south of Bogotá is:

A. NAFTA *B. FARC C. Popular Liberation Army

D. Shining Path E. La Violencia
88. In Columbia:

A. centripetal forces are far greater than centrifugal forces

B. the country is totally dependent upon nitrate production for its export earnings

*C. narcotics and guerrillas are the two most important problems

D. the plantations are located inland

E. La Violencia occurred in the 1700's and continues to plague the country


The Guianas
89. Which of the following associations is incorrect?

A. Brazil and the Portuguese B. Suriname and the Dutch

*C. Guyana and the Spanish D. Chile and the Spanish

E. Falkland Islands and the British


90. Which of the following is not one of the Guianas?

A. French Guiana B. Suriname C. Guyana

*D. Venezuela E. none of the above
91. The country of Guyana:

*A. was formerly a British colony before independence in 1966

B. is also called Suriname

C. contains a population that is three-quarters European

D. is the smallest of the four Guianas in population size

E. still belongs to France


92. Which of the following statements is false?

A. Asians make up over half the population of Guyana.

B. Approximately three-quarters of the population of French Guiana speaks French.

C. All three of the “Guianas” have population under one million.

*D. The capital of Suriname, Cayenne, has recently enjoyed great economic progress due to the

discovery of large oil reserves in adjacent waters of the Caribbean.

E. All of the above are correct.


93. Asians have recently been brought into the Guianas to exploit which natural resource?

A. Oil B. Bananas C. Rubber

*D. Forests E. Rice
The West: Andean South America
94. Which of the following is not included in “The West: Andean South America?”

A. Bolivia *B. Colombia C. Peru

D. Ecuador E. All are part of the West
95. In terms of territory and population, ___ is the largest state of “Andean” South America.

A. Brazil *B. Peru C. Ecuador

D. Bolivia E. Paraguay
96. The Peru (Humboldt) Current is:

*A. a cool offshore ocean current conducive to commercial fishing that flows parallel to the

Peruvian coastline

B. a drying wind that blows off the Andes and creates desert-like conditions along the Peruvian

coastal plain

C. a rising air movement that brings the hot and humid conditions of the tierra fría to the

uppermost Andean basins

D. a new high voltage electrical network that transmits Amazon-oil-generated power by pipeline

to the cities across the Andes

E. the name of Bolivár’s revolutionary movement of the 1960s


97. The coastline of Peru is a(n):

*A. desert B. tropical area C. humid subtropical climate

D. oil producing area E. A and D above
98. The South American country that has overcome the Sendero Luminoso insurgency

movement is:

A. Ecuador B. Colombia C. Argentina

D. Guyana *E. Peru
99. Peru’s “Atlantic Port” is called:

*A. Iquitos B. Lima C. Callao

D. Quito E. Montaña
100. Unlike Peru’s coast, Ecuador’s coast is:

A. desert *B. fertile tropical plains C. on the Atlantic D. indented with many excellent port facilities E. none of the above


101. The leading crop grown in Ecuador is:

A. coffee B. wheat *C. bananas

D. marijuana E. rubber


102. Which of the following countries does not have a common border with Bolivia?

A. Argentina B. Chile C. Paraguay

*D. Colombia E. Brazil
103. The second largest producer of shrimp in the world is:

A. Ecuador B. Chile C. Paraguay

*D. Peru E. Brazil
104. Two countries that settled their long-standing border dispute in 1998 were

A. Ecuador-Argentina B. Chile-Warme C. Peru-Chile

D. Peru *E. Ecuador-Peru
105. The major export of Bolivia until the 1980s was:

A. bananas B. sugar C. oil

D. coal *E. tin
106. The second poorest country in South America is:

*A. Bolivia B. Brazil C. Peru

D. Argentina E. Ecuador
107. A moderating influence on Bolivia’s climate is:

*A. Lake Titicaca B. the Atlantic C. the Pacific

D. Rio de la Plata E. her mother

The Southern Cone: Mid-Latitude South America
108. Which of the following is not part of South America’s Southern Cone?

A. Argentina B. Paraguay *C. Bolivia

D. Chile E. Uruguay
109. All of the following are contributing to development in the Southern Cone except:

A. Itaipu Dam B. Mercosur *C. Altiplanos

D. a bridge across Rio de la Plata E. Hidrovia waterway
110. South America’s densest railroad network is found in:

A. the Amazon River Basin B. Mexico C. Chile

D. Paraguay *E. Argentina
111. Argentina’s major city is:

*A. Buenos Aires B. São Paulo C. Rio de Janeiro

D. Montevideo E. none of the above


112. Most of Argentina’s population is clustered in the:

A. Gran Chaco B. Patagonia *C. pampas

D. Tierra del Fuego E. Parana River Valley
113. Which of the following regions is not located in Argentina?

A. Patagonia B. Pampas *C. Maracaibo Lowland

D. Chaco E. Buenos Aires
114. A flat plain area in Argentina is known as:

A. llanos *B. pampas C. isthmus

D. chaco E. El flatulo
115. In 1982, Argentina fought a war with Britain over the:

A. Tierra del Fuego *B. Falkland Islands C. South Georgia Islands

D. British withdrawal of trade concessions E. Antarctica
116. The leading crop grown in the pampa region is:

A. coffee *B. wheat C. bananas

D. cocaine E. cacao
117. Most of the population is of European stock in:

A. Guyana B. Brazil *C. Uruguay

D. Paraguay E. Colombia
118. Which of the following benefits from being between the pampas and the core area of Brazil?

A. Guyana B. Brazil *C. Uruguay

D. Paraguay E. Colombia
119. Which of the following has a relatively evenly distributed population?

A. Guyana B. Brazil *C. Uruguay

D. Paraguay E. Colombia
120. Which of the following countries has the most compact shape?

A. Guyana B. Brazil *C. Uruguay

D. Paraguay E. Colombia
121. Which of the following is landlocked?

*A. Paraguay B. Ecuador C. Guiana

D. Peru E. Chile
122. Which is the least developed country in the Southern Cone?

*A. Paraguay B. Ecuador C. Guiana

D. Peru E. Chile
123. More than 90 percent of the population is of Amerindian stock in:

A. India B. Brazil *C. Paraguay

D. Indiana E. Jamaica


124. Which of the following associations is incorrect?

A. Santiago and Chile *B. Montevideo and Paraguay C. Lima and Peru

D. Quito and Ecuador E. Brasília and Brazil
125. The South American country that contains the southern end of the Andes is:

A. Venezuela B. Peru C. Panama

*D. Chile E. Guyana
126. The best example of an elongated state in South America, and probably the world, is:

A. Ecuador B. Brazil *C. Chile

D. Panama E. Uruguay
127. Chile’s copper deposits are located closest to which of the following areas:

A. Santiago in middle Chile *B. the Atacama Desert C. Tierra del Fuego

D. Caracas E. the border with Uruguay
128. The desert in the North of Chile is the:

A. Chilean B. Peruvian *C. Atacama

D. there is no desert in the north of Chile E. none of the above
129. Most of the population of Chile is located in:

A. North Chile *B. Middle Chile C. South Chile

D. East Chile E. West Chile
130. The country in South America with the fastest growing economy in the 1990s is:

A. Paraguay B. Bolivia C. French Guiana



D. Ecuador *E. Chile

Chapter 5

South America

True-False
Introduction
 1. Bolivia and Paraguay are the only two landlocked countries in South America. (T)
 2. The states of South America have recently been forming economic unions. (T)
 3. Most of South America is east of North America. (T)
 4. Most of South America's population lives in the interior. (F)
 5. The gap between rich and poor in South America is narrowing. (F)
The Human Sequence
 6. Altiplanos are physical landscapes associated with South America’s wide, low-lying plains. (F)
 7. An altiplano is a high Andean mountain ridge. (T)
 8. The Inca civilization was centered in highland areas, while the Mayan Empire’s core area was largely situated in the lowlands. (T)
 9. The Incas were true colonizers who contributed much of their culture to the areas they occupied. (T)
10. The language of the Incas, still spoken in parts of South America, is Quechua. (T)
11. Cuzco was the capital of the Incan Empire. (T)
12. At its zenith, the Incan Empire had more than 20 million subjects. (T)
13. The Incan government kept a very loose rein on the economy of the empire. (F)
14. Pizarro defeated the Incan Empire. (T)
15. The takeover of former Amerindian lands was called land alienation. (T)
16. Lima, the west coast headquarters of the Portuguese, is today located right on Peru's coast. (F)


17. Most of the countries of South America gained their independence in the 1820s. (T)
18. Brazil attained independence from Portugal about 100 years after the rest of South America gained its independence from Spain. (F)
19. The Atacama Desert was an important reason for the fragmentation of the Viceroyalty of Peru. (T)
20. The Treaty of Tordesillas was designed to protect the Inca Empire from complete destruction at the hands of Spaniards. (F)
21. The Paulistas, representing Pope Paul IV, sought to spread the Catholic faith among the Incas of the eastern Andes. (F)
22. Brazil today contains South America’s largest black population. (T)
23. South America’s population distribution may be characterized as peripheral. (T)
Cultural Fragmentation
24. Augelli’s five-region map of culture spheres in South America takes no account of the large black population of coastal Northeast Brazil. (F)
25. Augelli’s “Indo-Subsistence” sphere coincides approximately with the old Indian empires. (T)
26. The most economically advanced of the cultural regions in South America is the European-Commercial Region. (T)
27. Northern Chile and eastern Colombia are the two major components of the undifferentiated cultural region. (F)
28. The area of the old Incan Empire is most closely approximated by the Indo-Subsistence region. (T)
29. Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile form the Mestizo-Transitional culture sphere in South America. (F)

Economic Integration
30. Argentina will soon join NAFTA. (F)
31. The Southern Cone Common Market is known as the Group of Three (G-3). (F)
32. The current regional economic unions in South America may soon be replaced by the Free Trade Area of the Americas. (T)

Urbanization
33. A strongly urbanized continent prior to World War II, South America’s proportion of urbanites has recently declined due to the growth of large scale farms and petroleum refineries in interior rural areas. (F)
34. South America’s largest population clusters lie on or near the east and north coasts. (T)
35. The slums and poverty-stricken neighborhoods of the Latin American city occupy the outer urban ring as well as certain sectors leading toward the city center. (T)
36. The spine leading from the Latin American city’s CBD is bounded by prestigious, high-income residential neighborhoods. (T)
37. About 50 percent of the population of South America lives in cities. (F)
38. Urban areas are the fastest growing areas of South America. (T)
39. South America’s urban areas have been growing at about 5 percent per year, versus less than 2 percent per year for rural areas. (T)
40. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires are among the world’s twelve largest cities. (T)
41. The growth in Latin American cities is due to an unusually high birth rate among urban dwellers. (F)
42. In Latin America, the poorest people live at the outskirts of the city. (T)
43. The zone of maturity in the South American city contains the best housing outside the spine. (T)
Brazil: Giant of South America
44. Brazil now has the eighth largest economy in the world. (T)
45. Brazil has common borders with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador. (T)
46. Only Russia is larger in territory than Brazil. (F)
47. Brazil opened itself up to foreign investment in the 1990s. (T)
48. After Brazil’s peak immigration period in the 1920s, the country achieved independence in 1939. (F)
49. Unlike the Caribbean and North America, Brazil never had a major influx of black people, so the black component in the population today is negligible. (F)

50. Brazil is the world’s largest Roman Catholic country. (T)
51. Brazil has the widest income gap in South America. (T)
52. Brazil’s rate of population increase has slowed considerably over the past 25 years. (T)
53. Commercial agriculture is now Brazil’s fastest growing economic sector. (T)
54. Brazil is a federal state; its largest states lie in the east and northeast. (F)
55. The Polygon of Drought is in Brazil’s Northeast. (T)
56. The sertão is the dry bush country in the interior of Brazil’s Northeast, where livestock constitute the chief means of subsistence. (T)
57. Tourism has begun to boom along the Northeast’s coast, just one example of new economic and social health in Northeast Brazil. (T)
58. The Volta Redonda is important for its iron mining. (T)
59. Belo Horizonte is a major metallurgical center in Brazil’s Southeast. (T)
60. Iron mining has now become one of Brazil’s leading economic activities, concentrated in the Minas Gerais area of the Southeast. (T)
61. The Northeast Region contains Brazil’s culture hearth, centered along the “Gold Trail” that leads west from Rio de Janeiro. (F)

62. Brazil’s automobile industry is based in the São Paulo area. (T)


63. São Paulo is Brazil’s largest state in terms of population. (T)
64. São Paulo state’s economy is larger than the economy of Argentina. (T)
65. Fazendas are coffee plantations in Brazil. (T)
66. Brazil exports large quantities of coffee, orange juice concentrate, and soybeans. (T)
67. The Itaipu Dam represents the best possible hope for the development of Brazil’s Northeast. (F)
68. The South of Brazil is the most ethnically diverse Brazilian region. (T)
69. Brazil’s modern core area has been the South: the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. (F)


70. The South is Brazil’s most “European” region, where European languages other than Portuguese still remain in use in some places. (T)
71. A region of Brazil with a secessionist movement is the South. (T)
72. An internationally significant software industry has started in Brazil’s South in Florrianopolis. (T)
73. The capital of Brazil is Brasília. (T)
74. Brasília may be called a core area capital. (F)
75. A forward capital city is one that is deliberately placed near sensitive or contested territory to demonstrate a state’s commitment to maintaining its position in that area. (T)
76. Brazil’s Interior, the location of Brasília, has no agricultural potential. (F)
77. The cerrado is one of the world’s most promising areas of agricultural potential. (T)
78. The Grande Carajás Project represents a tremendous opportunity for the South to overtake the development in the São Paulo area. (F)
79. The largest and most rapidly developing Brazilian region is that of the Amazonian North. (T)
80. Manaus, located in the Amazonian North area of Brazil, is a major electronics production center. (T)
81. The Yanomami are one of the hemisphere’s last remaining stone age group. (T)
82. Manaus on the Amazon River was the focus of a great rubber boom near the turn of the century. (T)
83. A growth pole is a location where a set of industries, given a start, will expand and generate widening ripples of development in the surrounding area. (T)
84. Growth poles have not been used as an economic development idea in Brazil because of the huge size of the country. (F)
85. Brazil’s “Great Escarpment” is an important natural divide that separates the Amazon Basin’s moist and semiarid zones. (F)
86. Amazonas, Brazil’s largest state territorially, is in the northwest part of the country. (T)
The North: Caribbean South America
87. Lake Maracaibo in Ecuador is the focus of the oil industry in that country. (F)
88. The Venezuelan Highlands are flanked to the southeast by an area of savanna country called the llanos. (T)

89. Llanos are small beasts of burden that are vitally important in the transporting of goods in the valleys and basins of the northern Andes. (F)
90. The capital city of Colombia, Caracas, is a major South American coffee export location. (F)
91. Coffee is Colombia’s major export. (T)
92. Coffee is losing some of its importance in Colombia’s economy. (T)
93. Coal has been recently discovered in South America and is now important in Colombia. (T)
94. Colombia has the larger part of the oil reserves it shares with Venezuela. (F)
95. Colombia’s population of about 40 million is clustered in two major agglomerations. (F)
96. Suriname is an overseas department of France. (F)
97. Guyana and Suriname have substantial Asian Indian population sectors. (T)
98. All three of the Guianas are presently involved in unsettled boundary problems. (T)
99. None of the three Guianas has a population in excess of 1 million. (T)
100. After independence in 1975, many persons in Suriname emigrated to the Netherlands. (T)
101. The Guianas have invited companies from Asia’s Pacific Rim to exploit their forests. (T)
The West: Andean South America
102. Lima, the capital of Andes-dominated Peru, is a city that was not inherited from previous Indian peoples, but was founded by the Spanish. (T)
103. Lima, the capital of Peru, is located in one of the populous basins of the Andes. (F)
104. The eastern section of Peru is known as the montaña. (T)
105. Peru has a thriving Atlantic fishing industry. (F)
106. Insurgency is a major problem in the Peruvian Andes. (T)
107. Iquitos is Peru's Atlantic port. (T)
108. As in the Netherlands, Bolivia’s capital city functions are divided between two administrative headquarters. (T)


109. On the Peru-Bolivia boundary lies Lake Titicaca, the earth’s highest large lake. (T)
110. Bolivia has both a legal capital in Sucre, and a de facto capital in La Paz. (T)
111. Bolivia gained much of its national income from tin deposits for many years. (T)
112. Bolivia does not suffer from being landlocked because it has excellent river connections to both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. (F)
113. Guayaquil is the capital of Ecuador. (F)
114. Guayaquil, Ecuador’s capital, is somewhat unusual in that it ranks as the second largest city in its country behind the port city of Quito. (F)
115. Ecuador is the poorest country in South America. (F)
The Southern Cone: Mid-Latitude South America
116. Argentina is the second largest country in South America in both area and population. (T)
117. Argentina’s Pampa region contains much of the country's entire population. (T)
118. The 1980s saw the disappearances of many political opponents in Argentina. (T)
119. Nitrates are among the most important products exported from the Pampa region. (F)
120. Argentina possesses South America’s densest railroad network, reflecting the country’s high level of development. (T)
121. Over 85 percent of Argentina’s population resides in rural areas. (F)
122. The Falklands were the site of a humiliating defeat for Argentina at the hands of the British, who also claim this island group. (F)
123. Uruguay is the most truly European country on the South American continent. (T)
124. As Mercosur matures, Uruguay will be in an excellent position to capitalize on its location between Brazil and Argentina. (T)
125. Uruguay’s major farming region lies in the immediate hinterland of the capital, Santiago. (F)
126. Although Spanish is the official language of Paraguay, Guaraní is commonly spoken. (T)

127. Paraguay is the least developed country in the south of South America. (T)




128. Paraguay is South America’s only landlocked country. (F)
129. Paraguay is the most Amerindian country in South America. (T)
130. Physiographically as well as culturally, Chile divides into three regions. (T)
141. About 90 percent of Chile's population is concentrated in the country's northern region around the city of Atacama. (F)
132. Middle Chile is a rugged, fjorded region characterized by extreme aridity. (F)
133. Copper exports are Chile’s leading source of foreign earnings. (T)
134. South Chile is a difficult, mountainous environment with numerous interruptions of the sea. (T)
135. The Atacama contains the world’s largest exploitable deposits of nitrates. (T)
136. Chile's economy has taken off in the 1990s and Chile is the “economic tiger of the Andes.” (T)
Matching
137. High elevation plateau, basin or valley between even higher mountain ranges (D)

138. The language of the Inca state (B)

139. Relatively unchanging slums found in the “disamenity sector” around many Latin American cities (A)

140. French speaking ethnic majority of French Guiana, of mixed African, Asian, and European ancestry (E)

141. Name given to the savanna-like grasslands of the Orinoco River’s wide basin (C)
A. Favelas

B. Quechua

C. Llanos

D. Altiplanos

E. Creoles
142. Name given to the Amazon-drained and rainforest-covered area of Peru (A)

143. Tropical rainforest (B)

144. The legal capital of Bolivia (E)

145. The “plains” of Argentina (C)

146. A language in Paraguay (D)
A. Montaña

B. Selva


C. Pampa

D. Guarani

E. Sucre


147. Mouth of Amazon (D)

148. End of “Gold Trail” (A)

149. Largest City (E)

150. Forward capital (C)

151. Rubber boom town (B)
A. Rio de Janeiro

B. Manaus

C. Brasília

D. Belem


E. São Paulo

Fill Ins
152. The pre-European Indian empire centered in the northern Andean altiplanos and headquartered at Cuzco, was the __________civilization. (Incan)
153. South America’s largest city in population size, which surpassed nearby Rio de Janeiro over 30 years ago, is __________. (São Paulo)
154. The country of ___________ is South America’s leading exporter of crude oil. (Venezuela)
155. The country that contains the Pampa, the Chaco, and Patagonia, is __________. (Argentina)
156. Copper and nitrates are two resources that strongly shaped the economic history (and geography) of __________ during the past century. (Chile)
157. Although Guyana and Suriname were granted independence from Britain and the Netherlands, respectively, the third Guiana continues to be a colony of __________. (France)
158. The country that presently administers the Falkland Islands, and which responded to the Argentinean invasion of 1982 by launching a successful military expedition, is __________. (United Kingdom)
159. Brazil’s largest city is__________. (São Paulo)
160. The capital of Brazil before the founding of Brasília was__________. (Rio de Janeiro)
161. The capital of Brazil is __________. (Brasilia)




South America Page

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