Chapter 5 Section 1



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  1. What family controlled Spain, its American colonies, parts of Italy, Austria & the Netherlands?

Hapsburgs

  1. This was the Hapsburg King who was also elected Holy Roman Emperor giving him control of more territory than any other European ruler since Charlemagne.

Charles V

  1. What did Charles V have to do with Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation?

Since he was a devout Catholic he opposed Lutherans. He also reluctantly signed the Peace of Augsburg which allowed German princes to decide for themselves what religion their state would be.

  1. In 1556 Charles V retired to a monastery. Who inherited his lands?

His brother Ferdinand inherited Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. His son Phillip II inherited Spain, its American colonies and the Spanish Netherlands.

  1. How did Philip also gain Portugal and its territories in Africa, India, and the East Indies?

In 1580 the Portuguese king died without an heir. Since Phillip II was the king’s nephew, he seized the throne.

  1. During his reign, what did King Philip receive from his American colonies?

339,000 lbs of gold and 16,000 tons of silver bullion

  1. What was Spain able to afford with all that wealth?

A large standing army of 50,000 soldiers

  1. What effect did the Reformation have on King Philip?

When he assumed the throne Europe was experiencing religious wars as a result of the Reformation.

  1. Who were Philip’s great-grandparents?

Ferdinand and Isabella…who financed Columbus’s voyages to the Americas

  1. Describe two ways in which Philip II defended the Catholic faith.

  1. In 1571 he took up arms against the Ottomans (Muslims) and defeated them

  2. In 1588 he sent the Spanish Armada to punish England/Queen Elizabeth I for supporting protestants



  1. Who was El Greco?

He was a court painter to Philip IV of Spain. He is best known for his use of rich colors to depict the royal family and court life.

  1. Explain how inflation and taxes became a problem for Spain.

Inflation-population increase prompted merchants to raise prices, silver bullion flooded the market and its value dropped.

Taxes-Spain expelled the Muslims and Jews (their middle class), the lower classes were left with the tax burden, so Spain never developed another middle class.



  1. How did Spain make their enemies rich?

Spanish goods were made the “old-fashioned” way and very expensive so they purchased goods from France, England & the Netherlands. They also borrowed money from German and Italian bankers to finance their wars.

  1. Describe the differences between the Spanish and their Dutch subjects.

Spanish were Catholic and had a sluggish economy. Dutch were protestant/Calvinists and had a prosperous middle class.

  1. What two actions of King Philip II led to the Dutch Revolt in 1566?

  1. He raised taxes in the Netherlands

  2. He took steps to crush Protestantism

  1. After 11 years of fighting, the 7 northern provinces of the Netherlands united and declared their independence from Spain in 1579. What happened to the 10 southern provinces of the Netherlands?

The southern provinces were Catholic and remained under Spanish control

  1. How were The United Provinces of the Netherlands different from other European states of the time?

They practiced religious toleration, and had a republic with elected leaders

  1. Who was the greatest Dutch Artist of the 1600s?

Rembrandt

  1. Give two examples of the success of Dutch trade.

  1. Dutch East India Company dominated Indian Ocean trade

  2. Dutch replaced the Italians as bankers of Europe

  1. What is an absolute monarch?

King or Queen who holds all the power within their states boundaries

  1. Absolute Monarchs believed in Divine Right. Explain.

God created the monarchy and the monarch is God’s representative on Earth. The monarch answers only to God, not their subjects.

  1. Who was the most famous monarch of the Absolutism time period?

Louis XIV


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