Chapter 4: The Napoleonic Era Time line and Questions Your Task


Spain revolts against Napoleon



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1808 Spain revolts against Napoleon with the help of Britain. Spain had initially been allied with France, but Napoleon replaced their King with his brother, Jerome, and the French army treated the Spanish poorly.

1812 Russian campaign. Russia was allied with France, but the Tsar (ruling monarch) changed his mind and refused to follow French policy. Napoleon (even though he had just lost to Spain) declared war on Russia. The Russian Campaign was brutally unsuccessful.

Questions

How did Napoleon ensure the loyalty of his soldiers? What did he promise them?

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What tactics did the Russians successfully use against the French after being defeated at Smolensk and Borodino?

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Explain how the ‘long retreat’ from Moscow to France ended in disaster.

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1814 Napoleon’s Empire is crumbling and nations are turning against him. Napoleon is forced to give up the throne and he is exiled to Elba (a small island off the coast of Italy). He was permitted to bring 1000 of his men and to rule over Elba.

King Louis XVI’s brother, King Louis XVIII became the king of France. He was very unpopular as most French people still supported the revolution.



Question

Who were the Bonapartists?

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1815 Napoleon returns to France and recruits his old army (The Old Guard). The King flees and Napoleon rules France again for “The Hundred Days.” Napoleon does not make peace with England and attempts to defeat Belgium at The Battle of Waterloo. The Duke of Wellington combines English and German forces to defeat Napoleon.




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