1812 Russian campaign. Russia was allied with France, but the Tsar (ruling monarch) changed his mind and refused to follow French policy. Napoleon (even though he had just lost to Spain) declared war on Russia. The Russian Campaign was brutally unsuccessful.
How did Napoleon ensure the loyalty of his soldiers? What did he promise them?
1814 Napoleon’s Empire is crumbling and nations are turning against him. Napoleon is forced to give up the throne and he is exiled to Elba (a small island off the coast of Italy). He was permitted to bring 1000 of his men and to rule over Elba.
King Louis XVI’s brother, King Louis XVIII became the king of France. He was very unpopular as most French people still supported the revolution.
1815 Napoleon returns to France and recruits his old army (The Old Guard). The King flees and Napoleon rules France again for “The Hundred Days.” Napoleon does not make peace with England and attempts to defeat Belgium at The Battle of Waterloo. The Duke of Wellington combines English and German forces to defeat Napoleon.