A group of Virginians had plans for settling the Ohio Valley. In the fall of 1753 Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia sent a 21-year-old planter and surveyor named George Washington into the Ohio country. Washington's mission was to tell the French that they were trespassing on territory claimed by Great Britain and demand that they leave.
Washington delivered the message, but it did no good. "The French told me," Washington said later, "that it was their absolute design to take possession of the Ohio, and by God they would do it."
Washington's First Command
In the spring of 1754, Dinwiddie made Washington a lieutenant colonel and sent him back to the Ohio country with a militia group of civilians trained to fight in emergencies—of 150 men. The militia had instructions to build a fort where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio River—the site of present-day Pittsburgh. When Washington and his troops arrived, they found the French were already building fort Duquesne (doo•KAYN) on that spot.
Washington established a small post nearby called Fort Necessity. Although greatly outnumbered, the
I Claim This Land!
In the sixteenth century, Europeans became aware of a larger world around them-a world where they could claim new kinds and profits. Soon a desire arose in England and France to conquer these lands and the people in them, and a race began to be the first to make those claims.
Drake Claims the South and North America for England, June 1579
This country our general named Albion, and that for two causes; the one in respect of the white banks and cliffs,… that it might have some affinity [similarity], even in name also, with our own country, which was sometime so called.
Before we went from there, our general caused to be set up, a monument of our being there; as also of her majesties, and successors right and title to that kingdom, namely, a plate of brass, fast nailed to a great post; whereon is [carved] her graces name, and the day and year of our arrival there, and of the free giving up, of the province and kingdom, both by the king and people, into her majesties hands.…
Sieur de St. Lusson Claims West and Northwest America for France, 1671
In the name of the Most High, Mighty, and Redoubted Monarch, Louis the fourteenth of that name, Most Christian King of France and Navarre, I take possession of this place, Ste. Marie of the Sault, as also of Lakes Huron and Superior, the Island of Manitoulin, and all countries, rivers, lakes, and streams…both those which have been discovered and those which may be discovered hereafter, in all their length and breadth, bounded by the one side by the seas of the North and of the West, and on the other by the South Sea: Declaring to the nations thereof that from this time forth they are vassals [servants] of his Majesty, bound to obey his laws and follow his customs….
Learning From History
1. How are the two accounts similar?
2. Why do you think these men held such formal ceremonies when claiming apiece of land?
forces of the inexperienced Washington attacked a French scouting party. The French surrounded Washington's soldiers and forced them to surrender, but the soldiers were later released and they returned to Virginia. Washington's account of his experience in the Ohio country was published, and his fame spread throughout the colonies and Europe. In spite of his defeat, the colonists regarded Washington as a hero who struck the first blow against the French.
The Albany Plan of Union
While Washington struggled with the French, representatives from New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland met to discuss the threat of war. In June 1754, the representatives gathered in Albany, New York. They wanted to find a way for the colonies to defend themselves against the French. They also hoped to persuade the Iroquois to take their side against the French.
The representatives adopted a plan suggested by Benjamin Franklin. Known as the Albany Plan of Union, Franklin's plan called for "one general government" for 11 of the American colonies. An elected legislature would govern these colonies and would have the power to collect taxes, raise troops, and regulate trade. Not a single colonial assembly approved the plan. None of the colonies were willing to give up any of their power. The Albany meeting failed to mite the colonists to fight the French. Disappointed, Franklin wrote,
“Everyone cries, a union is necessary, but when they come to the manner and form of the union, their weak noodles [brains] are perfectly distracted,”
Washington's defeat at Fort Necessity marked the start of a series of clashes and full-scale war. The colonists called it the French and Indian War because they fought two enemies—the Trench and their Native American allies.
Reading Check Analyzing What was the purpose of the Albany Plan of Union?
Fact Fiction Folklore
The Albany Plan
The Albany Plan was the first colonial constitution. Actually it was not the first. In 1639, settlers in Connecticut drew up America's first formal constitution, or charter, called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. This document laid out a plan for government that gave the people the right to elect the governor, judges, and representatives to make laws.
SECTION 3 ASSESSMENT
Checking for Understanding
1. Key Terms Write a short paragraph that uses the terms Iroquois Confederacy and militia
2. Reviewing Facts List two reasons the French felt threatened by British interest in the Ohio River valley.
3. Continuity and Change Why did colonists consider George Washington a hero, even after he was defeated by the French?
4. Analyzing Primary Sources Re-read Benjamin Franklin's quote on this page. What was his reaction to the colonies' refusal to accept the Albany Plan of Union?
5. Evaluating Information Re-create the diagram below and explain the powers the legislature would have under the Albany Plan.
6. Geography Skills Study the map on page 117. What countries claimed land in North America? What power controlled most of what is present-day Canada? If you live in North America, what country controlled the region in which you live?
Expository Writing Make a list of five questions that a reporter might have asked Iroquois leaders after they reluctantly sided with the British.
Understanding Cause and Effect
Why Learn This Skill?
You know that if you watch television instead of completing your homework you will receive poor grades. This is an example of a cause-and-effect relationship. The cause—watching television instead of doing homework—leads to an effect—poor grades.
Learning the Skill
A cause is any person, event, or condition that makes something happen. What happens as a result is known as an effect. These guidelines will help you identify cause and effect.
• Identify two or more events.
• Ask questions about why events occur.
• Look for "clue words" that alert you to cause and effect, such as because, led to, brought about, produced, and therefore.
• Identify the outcome of events.
Practicing the Skill
Study the cause-and-effect chart about the slave trade on this page. Think about the guidelines listed above. Then answer the questions below.
• What were some causes of the development of slavery in the colonies?
• What were some of the short-term effects of enslaving Africans?
• What was the long-term effect of the development of slavery?
Causes and Effects of the Slave Trade
• Colonists need to grow cash crops, such as tobacco and rice.
• European demand for tobacco and rice increases.
• Growing tobacco and rice requires large labor force
• Africans are robbed of basic human rights.
• Population of enslaved Africans grows.
• Slavery creates feelings of injustice and plants seeds of regional conflict.
Applying the Skill
Understanding Cause and Effect Read an account of a recent event or chain of events in your community newspaper. Determine at least one cause and one effect of that event. Show the cause-and-effect relationship in a chart.
Glencoe's Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook CD-ROM, Level 1, provides instruction and practice in key social studies skills.
The French and Indian War
Guide to Reading
England and France fought for control of North America. The French and Indian War resulted from this struggle
Organizing Information As you read the section, re-create the diagram below and describe the effects these events had on the conflict between
Read to Learn
• how British fortunes improved after William Pitt took over direction of the war.
• how Chief Pontiac united his people to fight for their land.
Individual Action Victory or loss in war often depended on the actions of a single leader.
1754 French and Indian War begins
1758 French forces driven out of Fort Duquesne
1759 British forces capture Quebec
1763 Proclamation of 1763 established
AN American Story
"These lakes, these woods, and mountains were left [to] us by our ancestors. They are our inheritances, and we will part with them to no one.... [Y]ou ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided food for us in these spacious lakes and on the woody mountains...."
These words, spoken by Chief Pontiac, served as a warning to the British colonists who wanted to take Native American lands.
The British Take Action
During the French and Indian War, some Native Americans fought on the side of the British. Many others fought against the British. The war that raged in North America through the late 1750s and early 1760s was one part of a larger struggle between England and France for control of world trade and power on the seas.
In 1754 the governor of Massachusetts announced to the colonial assembly that the French were on the way to "making themselves masters of this Continent."
The British colonists knew that the French were building well-armed forts throughout the Great Lakes region and the Ohio River valley. Their network of alliances, or unions, with Native Americans allowed the French to control large areas of land, stretching from the St. Lawrence River in Canada all the way south to New Orleans. The French and their Native American allies seemed to be winning control of the American frontier. The final showdown was about to begin.
During the early stages of the French and Indian War, the British colonists fought the French and the Native Americans with little help from Britain. In 1754, however, the government in London decided to intervene in the conflict. It was alarmed by the new forts the French were building and by George Washington's defeat at Fort Necessity. In the fall of 1754, Great Britain appointed General Edward Braddock commander in chief of the British forces in America and sent him to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley.
Native American warriors and French troops, protected by rocks and trees, fire into General Braddock's army, who were crammed together on a forest trail. What weaknesses of the British army contributed to Braddock’s defeat?
Braddock Marches to Duquesne
In June 1755, Braddock set out from Virginia with about 1,400 red-coated British soldiers and a smaller number of blue-coated colonial militia. George Washington served as one of his aides. It took Braddock's army several weeks to trek through the dense forest to Fort Duquesne. Washington reported that Braddock
“halted to level every mole-hill and to erect bridges over every brook, by which means we were four days in getting twelve miles.”
Washington tried to tell Braddock that his army's style of marching was not well suited to fighting in frontier country. Lined up in column and rows, the troops made easy targets. Braddock ignored the advice.
On July 9 a combined force of Native American warriors and French troops ambushed the British. The French and Native Americans were hidden, firing from behind trees and aiming the bright uniforms. The British, confused and frightened, could not even see their attackers. One of the survivors of Braddock's army, Captain Orne, later described the "great confusion.”
that overcame Braddock's troops when they were attacked. Braddock called for an orderly retreat, "but the panic was so great he could not succeed." Braddock was killed, and the battle ended in a bitter defeat for the British, who suffered nearly 1,000 casualties. Washington led the survivors back to Virginia.
Britain Declares War on France
The fighting in America helped start a new war in Europe, known as the Seven Years' War. After arranging an alliance with Prussia, Britain declared war on France in 1756. Prussia fought France and its allies in Europe while Britain fought France in the Caribbean, India, and North America.
The first years of the war were disastrous for the British and their American colonies. French troops captured several British forts, and their Native American allies began staging raids on frontier farms from New York to Pennsylvania. They killed settlers, burned farmhouses and crops, and drove many families back toward the coast. French forces from Canada captured British forts at Lake Ontario and at Lake George.
Pitt Takes Charge
Great Britain's prospects in America improved after William Pitt came to power as secretary of state and then as prime minister. An outstanding military planner, Pitt knew how to pick skilled commanders. He oversaw the war effort from London.
To avoid having to deal with constant arguments from the colonies about the cost of the war, Pitt decided that Great Britain would pay for supplies needed in the war—no matter the cost. In doing so Pitt ran up an enormous debt. After the French and Indian War, the British raised the colonists' taxes to help pay this debt. Pitt had only delayed the moment when the colonists had to pay their share of the bill.
---Refer to The French and Indian War, 1754-1763 in your textbook
2. Drawing Conclusions. Why would Ft. Duquesne be a valuable fort to control?
“If you are French . . . join us. If you are English, we declare war against you. Let us have your answer."
Pitt wanted more than just a clear path to the Western territories. He also intended to conquer French Canada. He sent British troops to North America under the command of such energetic officers as Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe.
In 1758 Amherst and Wolfe led a British assault that recaptured the fortress at Louisbourg. That same year a group of New Englanders, led by British officers, captured Fort Frontenac at Lake Ontario. Still another British force marched across Pennsylvania and forced the French to abandon Fort Duquesne, which was renamed Fort Pitt.
Reading Check Describing What abilities did William Pitt bring to the post of prime minister?
The Fall of New France
The year 1759 brought so many British victories that people said the church bells of London wore thin with joyous ringing. The British captured several French islands in the West Indies and the city of Havana in Cuba. They defeated the French in India, and destroyed a French fleet that had been sent to reinforce Canada. The greatest victory of the year, though, took place in the heart of New France.
The Battle of Quebec
Perched high on a cliff overlooking the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, the capital of New France, was thought to be impossible to attack. In September 1759, British general James Wolfe found a way.
One of Wolfe's scouts spotted a poorly guarded path up the back of the cliff. Wolfe's soldiers overwhelmed the guards posted on the path and then scrambled up the path during the night. The British troops assembled outside the fortress of Quebec on a field called the Plains of Abraham. There they surprised and defeated the French army. James Wolfe died in the battle. The French commander, the Marquis de Montcalm, was wounded and died the next day.
The Treaty of Paris
The fall of Quebec and General Amherst's capture of Montreal the following year brought the fighting in North America to an end. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, France was permitted to keep some of its sugar-producing islands in the West Indies, but it was forced to give Canada and most of its lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain. From Spain, France's ally, Great Britain in gained Florida. In return, Spain received French lands west of the Mississippi River—the Louisiana Territory—as well as the port of New Orleans. The Treaty of Paris marked the end of France as a power in North America. The continent as now divided between Great Britain and Siam, with the Mississippi River marking the boundary. While the Spanish and British were working out a plan for the future of North America, many Native Americans still lived on the lands covered by the European agreement.
Reading CheckSummarizing What lands did Spain receive under the Treaty of Paris?
Student Web Activity
Visit tarvol1.gelncoe.com and click on Chapter 4—Student Web Activities for an activity on the French and Indian War.
Trouble on the Frontier
The British victory over the French dealt a blow to the Native Americans of the Ohio River valley. They had lost their French allies and trading partners. Although they continued to trade with the British, the Native Americans regarded them as enemies. The British raised the prices of their goods and, unlike the French, refused to pay the Native Americans for the use of their land. Worst of all, British settlers began moving into the valleys of western Pennsylvania.
Pontiac, chief of an Ottawa village near Detroit, recognized that the British settlers threatened the Native American way of life. Just as Benjamin Franklin had tried to bring the colonies together with the Albany Plan, Pontiac wanted to join Native American groups to fight the British.
In the spring of 1763, Pontiac put together an alliance. He attacked the British fort at Detroit while other war parties captured most of the other British outposts in the Great Lakes region. That summer Native Americans killed settlers along the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers in a series of raids called Pontiac's War.
The Native Americans, however, failed to capture the important strongholds of Niagara, Fort Pitt, and Detroit. The war ended in August 1765after British troops defeated Pontiac's allies, the Shawnee and Delaware people. In July 1766, Pontiac signed a peace treaty and was pardoned by the British.
The Proclamation of 1763
To prevent more fighting, Britain called a halt to the settlers' westward expansion. In the Proclamation of 1763, King George III declared that the Appalachian Mountains were the temporary western boundary for the colonies. The proclamation angered many people, especially those who owned shares in land companies. These speculators, or investors, had already bought land west of the mountains. They were furious that Britain ignored their land claims.
Although the end of the French and Indian War brought peace for the first time in many years, the Proclamation of 1763 created friction. More conflicts would soon arise between Britain and the colonists in North America.
Reading Check Examining Why were many colonists angered by the Proclamation of 1763?
SECTION 4 ASSESSMENT
Checking for Understanding
1. Key Terms Use the terms alliance and speculator in a short paragraph to explain their meaning.
2. Reviewing the Facts Name the three nations that were involved in the Seven Years' War.
3. Individual Action How did Pontiac plan to defend Native Americans from British settlers? Was his plan successful?
4. Analyzing Information What did the British hope to gain by issuing the Proclamation of 1763?
5. Analyzing Information What actions do you think General Braddock could have taken to increase his army's chances of defeating the French? Re-create the diagram below to organize your answer.
6. Geography Skills Study the map of the French and Indian War on page 123. What was the result of the battle at Fort Duquesne? What route did British General Wolfe take to reach Quebec?
Geography Sketch a map showing the land claims of Great Britain, France, and Spain in North America after the Treaty of Paris.
ASSESSMENT and ACTIVITY
The Colonies Grow
• Between the 1600s and early 1700s, thirteen American colonies are established—some for profit and others by religious groups seeking freedom.
• New England, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies develop diverse economies.
• Although many different people live in the colonies, their values and beliefs, government, and educational institutions grow out of English traditions.
• Between 1650 and 1750, Parliament passes laws regulating colonial trade.
• In 1754 the French and War begins.
• From 1689 to 1763, France and Britain fight a series of wars.
• Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, Britain obtains control of much of the continent.
• North America is divided between Great Britain and Spain.
Reviewing Key Terms
Use all the terms below in one of three paragraphs, each about one of the following: trade, farming, organization of the colonies.
1. subsistence farming
2. cash crop
5. charter colony
6. proprietary colony
Reviewing Key Facts
8. Why did the colonial population grow rapidly?
9. What differences existed between the Tidewater planters and the backcountry farmers of the South?
10. What was the Great Awakening?
11. What immigrant groups settled in Pennsylvania?
12. How did the soil in the Middle Colonies differ from that in New England? What did that mean for the two regions?
13. What was the Iroquois Confederacy?
14. What was England's reason for the Navigation Acts?
15. What was the Enlightenment?
16. What North American land claims were the French forced to give up in the Treaty of Paris?
17. Why did the Proclamation of 1763 cause friction?
18. Comparing How did the economies of the New Eng land and Southern Colonies differ? Re-create the cha below to answer the question.
19. Drawing Conclusions Re-read the People in History feature on page 109. In what ways did Benjamin Franklin represent the Enlightenment way of thinking?
20. Cause and Effect How did the French relationship with Native Americans help them in their conflicts with the British?
21. Analyzing Information Re-read the Two Viewpoints feature on page 118. Why did Drake give the name 'Albion' to the land?
Geography and History Activity
Study the map of North America in 1754 on page 117; then answer these questions.
22. What countries controlled land on the continent?
23. What regions were under Spain's control?
24. Who controlled the land that is now Mexico?
25. What nation controlled the Mississippi River?
Determining Cause and Effect Each of the following three sentences illustrates a cause-and-effect relationship. On a separate sheet of paper, identify the cause(s) and effect(s) in each sentence.
26. During the 1700s the population of the English colonies grew dramatically as a result of high immigration.
27. To make certain that only England benefited from trade with the colonies, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts.
28. Because worship was so central to the Puritans, they built their towns around the church.
Citizenship Cooperative Activity
29. Community Volunteers Work with a partner to make a list of places in your community that need the services of volunteers. These can include libraries, nursing homes, and day care centers. Call each place and ask what the volunteers do, what times of the day and week they are needed, and how a volunteer can get started. Share your findings with the class. Then volunteer some of your time at one of the places you contacted.
30. Working with a partner, create a map showing a trade route that colonial merchants might use. To get started, examine maps and information from your text and from encyclopedias and historical atlases. Include the physical features that the colonial merchants had to face, including rivers, mountains, lakes, and so on.
31. Portfolio Writing Activity Research and write a report in which you identify racial, ethnic, and religious groups that immigrated to the United States. Choose one group from the 17th century, one group from the 18th century, and one from the 19th century. Identify their reasons for immigrating.
Visit tarvol1.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 4Self-Check Quizzes to prepare for the chapter test.
The Princeton Review
Standardized Test Practice
Directions: Use the map above to answer the following question.
According to the map, which of the following statements is true?
F The Appalachian Mountains divided North Carolina and South Carolina.
G Virginia had the largest population.
H Most of Delaware's people were English.
J Dutch communities were widespread throughout South Carolina.
Make sure that you look at the map's title and key so that you understand what it represents. Since the map does not show total population of the colonies, you can eliminate answer G.