10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.
Focuses on: 10.2.5
• Breakdown of the Concert of Europe(page 272)
The revolutions of 1848 had not achieved unification in Germany and Italy. By 1871, however, both Germany and Italy would be unified. The changes that made this possible began with the Crimean War. This war was the result of conflicts between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire had long controlled much of the territory in the Balkans in southeastern Europe. Russia was interested in expanding its territories into the Ottoman lands in the Balkans. In 1853, the Russians invaded the Balkan provinces of Moldavia and Walachia. In response, the Ottoman Turks declared war on Russia. Great Britain and France also declared war on Russia because they were afraid that Russia would gain control of this area. The Crimean War was poorly planned and poorly fought. Heavy losses caused the Russians to seek peace. By the Treaty of Paris in 1856, Russia agreed to allow Moldavia and Walachia to be placed under the protection of all the great powers.
The Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe. Austria and Russia became enemies, because Austria had its own interests in the Balkans and had refused to support Russia in the war. Russia withdrew from European affairs for 20 years. Austria was now without friends among the great powers. This new situation opened the door for the unification of Italy and Germany.
• Italian Unification(page 273)
After the failure of the revolution of 1848, people began to look to the northern Italian state of Piedmont for leadership in achieving the unification of Italy. The ruler of the kingdom of Piedmont was King Victor Emmanuel II. The king named Camillo di Cavour his prime minister in 1852. Cavour knew that Piedmont's army was not strong enough to defeat the Austrians. He would need help, so he made an alliance with the French emperor Louis-Napoleon. He then provoked the Austrians into declaring war in 1859. The final result of this conflict was a peace settlement that gave the French Nice and Savoy. (Cavour had promised Nice and Savoy to the French for making the alliance.) Lombardy was given to Piedmont, but Venetia was still controlled by Austria. Cavour's success caused nationalists in some other northern Italian states (Parma, Modena, and Tuscany) to overthrow their governments and join their states to Piedmont.
In southern Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian patriot, raised an army of a thousand volunteers. They were called Red Shirts because of the color of their uniforms. Garibaldi's forces landed in Sicily, which was ruled by France. By the end of July 1860, they controlled most of the island. In August, they crossed over to the mainland and marched up the Italian peninsula. Naples, which was ruled by France, fell in early September. Garibaldi turned over his conquests to Piedmont. On March 17, 1861, a new kingdom of Italy was proclaimed under King Victor Emmanuel II. But the task of Italian unification was not yet complete, because Venetia was still held by Austria and Rome was under the control of the pope.
The Italians gained control of Venetia as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. The kingdom of Italy was an ally of Prussia in the war. Prussia won the war and gave Venetia to the Italians. In 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, French troops withdrew from Rome. Their withdrawal made it possible for the Italian army to annex Rome on September 20, 1870. Rome then became the capital of the united Italian state.
• German Unification(page 274)
After the Frankfurt Assembly was unable to achieve German unification, Germans looked to Prussia to take the lead in this cause. Prussia had become a strong and prosperous state. It was also known for its militarism (reliance on military strength). In the 1860s, King William I tried to enlarge the Prussian army. When the Prussian legislature refused to levy new taxes for the army, William I appointed a new prime minister, Count Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck is known for his practice of realpolitik ("the politics of reality")—politics based on practical matters rather than on theory or ethics. From 1862 to 1866, he governed Prussia without the approval of the parliament. He collected taxes and strengthened the army. He also followed an active foreign policy that soon led to war. Bismarck created friction with the Austrians and forced them into a war on June 14, 1866. The Austrians were no match for the Prussian army and were defeated on July 3.
reliance: the state of being dependant on someone or something (p. 274)
levy: to impose or collect by legal authority (p. 274)
Prussia now organized the German states north of the Main River into a North German Confederation. The southern German states were largely Catholic and feared Prussia. But they also feared the French and agreed to sign military alliances with Prussia for protection against the French. In 1870, Prussia and France came into conflict because a relative of the Prussian king was a candidate for the throne of Spain. Bismarck took advantage of the misunderstandings between the French and Prussians and pushed the French into declaring war on Prussia on July 19, 1870. This conflict was called the Franco-Prussian War. The French were no match for the Prussian army. The southern German states also joined the war effort against the French. On September 2, 1870, an entire French army and the French ruler, Napoleon III, were captured. France surrendered on January 28, 1871. France had to pay 5 billion franks (about $1 billion) and give up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to the new German state.
Even before the war ended, the southern German states had agreed to enter the North German Confederation. On January 18, 1871, William I of Prussia was proclaimed kaiser (emperor) of the Second German Empire. German unity had been achieved. With its industrial resources and military might, this new German state became the strongest power on the European continent.
• Nationalism and Reform in Europe(page 276)
In 1832, the British Parliament passed a bill that increased the number of male voters. The new voters were mainly members of the industrial middle class. By giving the industrial middle class an interest in ruling Britain, Britain avoided revolution in 1848. In the 1850s and 1860s, Parliament continued to make social and political reforms that helped the country to remain stable. Another reason for Britain's stability was its continuing economic growth. After 1850, the working classes began to share in the prosperity. Wages for laborers increased more than 25 percent between 1850 and 1870. The British feeling of national pride was well reflected in Queen Victoria. She ruled from 1837 to 1901—the longest reign in English history. Her sense of duty and moral responsibility reflected the attitude of her age, which is known as the Victorian Age.
In France, Louis Napoleon asked the people to restore the empire. In this plebiscite (popular vote), 97 percent responded with a yes vote. On December 2, 1852, Louis-Napoleon became Napoleon III, Emperor of France. The Second Empire had begun. The government of Napoleon III was authoritarian. He controlled the armed forces, police, and civil service. Only he could introduce legislation and declare war. There was a Legislative Corps that gave an appearance of representative government, but its members could not initiate legislation or affect the budget. Napoleon III completely controlled the government and limited civil liberties. Nonetheless, the first five years of his reign were a huge success. Railroads, harbors, roads, and canals were built. Iron production tripled. Napoleon III also carried out a vast rebuilding of the city of Paris. In the 1860s, however, oppositions to some of Napoleon's policies grew. In response, Napoleon III gave the legislature more power. In a plebiscite held in 1870, the French people gave Napoleon III another victory. After the French were defeated in the Franco-Prussian War, however, the Second Empire fell.
Until the Austro-Prussian War, the Austrian Empire had been able to keep the ethnic groups in its empire from gaining independence. Austria's defeat in 1866, however, forced the Austrians to make concessions to the Hungarians. The result was the Compromise of 1867. This compromise created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Austria and Hungary each had its own constitution, its own legislature, its own bureaucracy, and its own capital. The two countries shared a common army, foreign policy, and system of finances. They also had a single monarch. Francis Joseph was both Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Russia was overwhelmingly agricultural and autocratic. After the Russians were defeated in the Crimean War. Czar Alexander II decided to make serious reforms. Serfdom was the biggest problem in czarist Russia. On March 3, 1861, Alexander issued an emancipation edict that freed the serfs. Peasants could now own property and marry as they chose. The government provided land for the peasants by buying it from the landlords. But there were problems with the new land system. The landowners kept the best lands for themselves, so the Russian peasants did not have enough good land to support themselves. Alexander II attempted other reforms but soon found that he could please no one. He was assassinated in 1881 by a group of radicals. His son and successor, Alexander III, turned against reform and returned to the old methods of repression.
successor: one that follows, especially to a throne, title, estate, or office (p. 278)
In the United States, two factions fought over the division of power in the new government. The Federalists favored a strong central government. The Republicans wanted the federal government to be subordinate to the state governments. These early divisions ended with the War of 1812. There was a surge of national feeling. The election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828 opened a new era in American politics. Property qualifications for voting had been reduced. The right to vote was extended to all adult white males.
By the mid-nineteenth century, national unity was again an issue. Slavery had become a threat to that unity. The economy in the Southern states was based on growing cotton on plantations, using slave labor. At the same time, abolitionism, a movement to end slavery, arose in the North. Abolitionism challenged the Southern way of life. As opinions over slavery grew more divided, compromise became less possible. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, a South Carolina convention voted to secede (withdraw) from the United States. In February 1861, six more Southern states did the same. A rival nation, the Confederate States of America, was formed. In April, fighting erupted between North and South—the Union and the Confederacy. The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865. It was an extremely bloody war. The Union had more men and resources and gradually wore down the Confederacy. On January 1, 1863, Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation declared that most of the nation's slaves were "forever free." The Confederate forces finally surrendered on April 9, 1865. National unity had prevailed in the United States.