Chapter 4 – Mesopotamia Lesson 1- the Sumerians

Lesson 2 – Mesopotamian Empires

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Lesson 2 – Mesopotamian Empires

  1. The First Empires

    1. Who was Sargon?

      1. Empire: a large territory or group of many territories governed by one ruler

      2. Sargon: ruled the people of Akkad, known as Akkadians

        1. United the conquered territory with Akkad and became known as the king of Sumer and Akkad

        2. He formed the world’s first empire

        3. His Mesopotamian empire lasted for more than 200 years before being invaded.

    2. Who was Hammurabi? And Hammurabi’s code

      1. Hammurabi: a Babylonian king who ruled over a people called the Amorites

        1. He created the Babylonian empire

        2. Babylon was the grandest of his cities

        3. Thought to be a just (fair) ruler

        4. He is best known for creating a set of laws for his empire known as the “Code of Hammurabi”

      2. “Code of Hammurabi” – stricter than old Sumerian law and become known as “eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth” which meant the punishment should fit the crime.

        1. The code also protected the less powerful.

  2. The Assyrian Empire

    1. The Assyrian Army

      1. Built a large and powerful army

      2. Fought with slingshots, bows and arrows, swords and spears

      3. They took tribute and forced people from their homes

      4. Used iron weapons (technology developed by the Hittites)

    2. Kings and Government

      1. Assyrian capital was located at Ninevah

      2. Kings ruled a large area and therefore had to break it up into provinces

      3. Provinces: political districts

      4. Kings chose officials to goven, collect taxes and carry out the laws in each province

  3. The Chaldean Empire

    1. A New Empire

      1. During Assyrian struggles for leadership, the Chaldeans under the rule of Nabopolassar joined with the Medes to defeat the Assyrians and take control

      2. Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar created the new empire

      3. They set up their capital in Babylon

      4. They are sometimes referred to as the new Babylonian Empire

    2. The Greatness of Babylon

      1. King Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon, making it the largest and richest city in the world

      2. The palace had a giant staircase of greenery known as the Hanging Gardens

      3. Hanging Gardens: were considered one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world

        1. It is believed he built the gardens to please his wife

      4. The people of Babylon also made many scientific advancements

        1. Chaldean astronomers invented one of the first sundials to measure time

        2. The first to follow a 7 day week

        3. Mapped the stars, planets and phases of the moon as it changed.

**It is your responsibility to have your vocabulary words copied in your notes whether or not they are a part of these notes or not** You will be tested on them!

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