Chapter 31: China, Section 1: The Emergence of Modern China



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Chapter 31: China, Section 1: The Emergence of Modern China



Communists Take Over

  • 1930’s: ______________________ invaded ______________________, a northern province in China

  • Invasion forced the ______________________ and ______________________to work together

  • ___________: 2 parties fought each other

  • ______________________: Successful

    • Many popular ______________________: lowering peasants’ rent

  • 1949: Nationalists defeated

  • October 1, 1949 the ________________________________________ was established


1 Nation, 2 Governments

  • ___________________________ and the Nationalists fled to Taiwan

  • Set up a ______________________ government in Taiwan

  • Claimed his government represented ______________________

  • Vowed one day to ______________________ China

  • 1971: ______________________ recognize the government of mainland China as the official government of China


A Communist Nation: Common Ownership

  • China in ______________________ after the war

  • Mao wanted to ______________________ agricultural productivity

  • Established __________________________________

    • People work ____________________ and ___________________ whatever they harvest

  • 1956:10 million families, _________ of all Chinese peasants were relocated to collective farms


The Great Leap Forward

  • China ______________________ to meet ______________________ goals

  • 1958: The ______________________ ________________ into Communism

  • ______________________ Settlements: Self-sufficient

    • Contained both ______________________ and ______________________

  • Resembled life in the ______________________

  • ______________________ officials made all the ______________________


“A Serious Leap Backwards”

  • ______________________ fell

  • ______________________ life in the communes

  • Received the ____________________________________ regardless of the amount they produced

    • _________________________________ for people to ______________________ hard

  • 1960: Government ______________________ The Great Leap Forward campaign


The Cultural Revolution

  • Many people ______________________ Mao

  • Response: More ______________________ measures were needed to ______________________ China

  • 1966: _____________________________________

  • Smash the _________________completely to establish a new, _________________society


Red Guards

  • ______________________ of radical young men and women

  • Destroy the Four Olds:____________________________________________________________

  • Anyone who disagreed with Mao were ______________________ humiliated, beaten, or killed

  • People lost their ______________________, imprisoned, or sent to the country to work as peasants

To Rebel is justified”



  • Farm production ______________________

  • Factories ______________________ running

  • ______________________ closed

  • Cultural Revolution, enormous ______________________

    • Hundreds of thousands of ______________________ people were jailed or driven into the remote, rural areas

    • Entire ______________________ of young people lost their chance for an ______________________


1976: Power Struggle

  • 1976 ______________________dies

  • _______________________________: Wanted to continue the Cultural Revolution

  • _______________________________: Wanted to end Maoism


Four Modernizations

  • Improve: ________________________________________________________________________


Agriculture: Contract Responsibility System

  • ______________________rented land to individual farm families

  • ______________________could decide what to grow

  • ______________________with the government: provide crops at a certain price

  • Families free to sell ______________________

  • Chance to make more ______________________led farmers to ______________________their production


Industrial Development

  • ___________: Heavy Industry which ___________________iron, steel, and machines used in other industries

  • 1976: Chinese ______________________outdated and inefficient

  • ______________________Goals:

    • ________________________________: Changed to light industry

    • Increase production: More decision-making power to ____________________and an incentive system


Special Economic Zones

  • China’s ______________________________

  • Near ______________________and ______________________

  • Hoped to ______________________foreign capital, companies, and technology

  • Enormously ______________________


Unexpected Results

  • Economic growth: ______________________

  • ______________________regions grew rich but interiorChina left behind

  • ______________________of people ______________________from rural China into the cities

  • Plan for more Special Economic Zones for the ____________________and _________________

  • ______________________is stronger ______________________than it has ever been



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