Chapter 3: The development of the U. S federal system



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AP U.S Government and Politics 2011– Free Response Questions by Chapter


Chapter 3: The development of the U.S federal system
Free-Response Questions

1.   The government under the Articles of Confederation was collapsing, yet political leaders still feared a new form of republic.

 

a)   Identify and describe two reasons the leaders feared the new plan.



b)   Give two specific examples of how fears you identify in part.

A)   Were alleviated in the compromises reached at the Constitutional Convention.

 

2.   The two party system was already well entrenched in early years of the United States as a republic.



 

a)   Identify the two mayor viewpoints concerning governmental controls and give one label used to identify the groups.

b)   Explain how in the early split two political camps shaped any two of the compromises that were reached during the writing of the Constitution.

 

Chapter 4: The federal Constitution of 1787 and the amendments


Free-Response Questions

1.   Federalism is a form of layered governmental powers.

 

a)   Identify two ways in which federalism developed under the U.S system of the government.



b)   Explain two ways this transformation of federalism occurred.

 

2.   The Preamble of the Constitution promises the country certain goals of the government.



 

a)   Identify any of the goals.

b)   Identify and explain where these goals are addressed in the Constitution.
Chapter 5: Federalism and the U.S government
Free-Response Questions

1.   Federalism in the United States has shifted from a form know as “dual federalism” to more “cooperative federalism.”

 

a)   Define two kinds of federalism.



b)   Explain why this newer system of “cooperative federalism” favors the powers of the central government.

 

2.   Federalism was designed to protect the rights of citizens.



 

a)   Identify three ways the structure of federalism is used to protect the rights of U.S residents.

b)   Explain how the three ways identified in part (A) actually work to protect citizens.

 

Chapter 6: Political Beliefs and Behaviors


Free-Response Questions

1.   The Labels liberal and conservative have changed dramatically in how they have been applied in U.S politics.

 

a)   Identify three such changes in U.S political history.



b)   Explain why these changes occurred.

 

2.   Voter participation can be viewed as a negative for the country but also as a positive piece of evidence about our political system.



 

a)   Identify two negatives of the low U.S voter turnout patterns.

b)   Identify two ways the low turnout is possibly a form of positive evidence about our political system.

 

 



 

Chapter 7: Public Opinion and Polling
Free-Response Questions

1.   The U.S public tends to view political polls in a positive light, while leaders tend to have negative opinion of polls.

 

a)   Explain two ways the public views use and results of polls.



b)   Explain two ways leaders see the same polls in a negative light.

 

2.   Political socialization is the way voters tend to create their beliefs and actions about government.



 

a)   Identify three forms of political socialization.

b)   Explain the three forms.

c)   Identify the most important form of political socialization.

 

Chapter 8: Political Parties
Free-Response Questions

1.   (A) Identify two key roles of political parties play in the politics of the United States.

(B) Explain how the two roles you identified influence or control the agenda       of the nation.

 

2.   The Democratic and Republican parties are broad coalitions of mayor voting groups.



 

a)   Identify three of the major subgroups of each party’s coalition.

b)   Explain how each of the party coalitions has a form of unity in beliefs.

c)   Explain why each coalition has major points of difference in goals.

 

 

 



Chapter 9: Campaigns and Elections
Free-Response Questions

1.   Most efforts at restricting campaign contributions have generally failed.

 

a)   Identify the difference between “hard money” contributions and “soft money” contributions.



b)   Identify two reasons efforts at restricting contributions have failed.

c)   Explain at least one reason some insist that campaign-funding restrictions should fail.

 

2.   The Electoral College is clumsy and misunderstood, and it is an anachronism.



 

a)   Explain two reasons the Electoral College is still in place.

b)   Explain two reasons the Electoral College is opposed.   

 

 



Chapter 10: Interest Groups, Lobbies, and Political Action Committees
Free-Response Questions

1.   Interest and lobby groups have increased dramatically in a number and influence.

 

a)   Explain two reasons for the increase in interest groups and lobby organizations.



b)   Explain two reasons why lobby groups have a negative image in historic and public views.

 

2.   Lobby leaders and lobby professionals wield many forms of power in Washington D.C.



 

a)   Identify three ways lobby leaders wield power with the congress.

b)   Explain why these forms of power are effective.

 

 



Chapter 11: Media and Its Functions
Free-Response Questions

1.   The media has been described as a powerful in influencing development of the political agenda of the government.

 

a)   Identify three ways in which the president or the Congress attempt to control media access and influence.



b)   Explain two ways the media appears to achieve so much influence.

 

2.   The impact of media coverage has varied and charged over the history of the U.S. Politics.



 

a)   Describe two of the periods of media coverage.

b)   Describe the goal of the media in trying to affect/bias the political agenda.

 

 



Chapter 12: The Legislative Branch
Free-Response Questions

1.   The idea of “necessary and proper” powers has been used to expand the scope of Congress’s authority.

 

a)   Identify the political name of the use of these powers.



b)   Identify the power listed in Article 1 of the Constitution that Congress has most often expanded.

c)   Identify and describe how one of the following cases was used for such expansion of powers.



Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S, 1964

 

2.   Congress has created a system if lawmaking that is slow, difficult, and usually kills bills.



 

a)   List and explain two ways Congress stops legislations.

b)   Explain two reasons why this might be intentional and a positive.

Chapter 13: The Executive Branch
Free-Response Questions

1.   Thought founders intended Congress to be the prime federal branch; presidents now find themselves the center of more attention and power.

 

a)   Identify and describe two ways this trend toward presidential power has occurred (not counting the presidential authority over the bureaucracy).



b)   Identify and explain how presidential authority over the federal bureaucracy has increased executive powers.

 

2.   Recent Congress has attempted to regain authority from president.



 

a)   Identify and describe at least two such efforts by Congress.

b)   Identify and describe one way Congress has failed in these efforts.

 

 



Chapter 14: The Federal Bureaucracy
Free-Response Questions

1.   The federal bureaucracy has gained power within the federal system.

 

a)   Identify and explain a “legislative” power that the bureaucracy has assumed.



b)   Identify and explain an “executive” power assumed by the bureaucracy.

c)   Identify and explain a “judicial” power assumed by the bureaucracy.

 

2.   Many see the bureaucracy as growing too rapidly and gaining too much power.



 

a)   Identify how each of the three branches of the federal government can attempt to control the bureaucracy.

b)   Explain at least one option the general public has in controlling bureaucratic powers.

 

Chapter 15: The Judicial System and Civil Liberties


Free-Response Questions

1.   The judicial system of the United States is still the most “federal” part of the government.

 

a)   Define how the court system is “federal” in structure.



b)   Identify three kinds of authority federal courts control and what this overall level of power is called.

c)   Identify two kinds of authority state courts control and what this overall level of power is called.

 

2.   Cases can reach the Supreme Court in two ways.



 

a)   Define the two ways cases go to the Supreme Court.

b)   Identify two kinds of cases that go directly to the Supreme Court.

c)   Identify at least two steps that occur when cases are appealed and accepted by the Supreme Court.

 

Chapter 16: The Federal budget and Economic Policies
Free-Response Questions

1.   The executive branch has taken over the initiative in overall the process of the federal spending.

 

a)   Identify and explain a way the executive branch has done this.



b)   Identify and explain a way Congress has attempted to block this power of the executive.

 

2.   Discretionary spending programs have become MORE difficult for the federal government.



 

a)   Identify three reasons for this trend.

b)   Explain how the identified reasons have contributed to the difficulties.

 

 



Chapter 17: Domestic Policy Domestic
Free-Response Questions

1.   When large-scale problems are facing the nation, solutions are attempted. The government works in predictable patterns in order to put solutions in place.

 

a)   Identify and explain any three steps government uses to address problems.



b)   Describe how cost-benefit analysis can affect the process.

 

2.   The government enacts different kinds of policies.



 

a)   Identify three types of policies the government enacts.

b)   Describe the political goals of the three types of policies.

 

Chapter 18: Foreign Policy: Military and Economic


Free-Response Question

1.   NAFTA is a significant and well known example of foreign policy of the United States.

 

a)   Identify and describe the goals of NAFTA or any other important international organization of which United States is a member.



b)   Identify and explain one reason why different U.S. political groups might oppose an organization such as NAFTA or the organization you identified. 

 

2.   Executive decisions concerning foreign policy are checked by the legislative branch.



 

a)   Describe two ways such policies are checked.

b)   Identify and describe the mayor way such checks are informally avoided by the executive branch.

c)   Explain why the president has a clear advantage in foreign policy decisions.

Answers
Chapter 3: The Development of the U.S. Federal System.

Free-Response answers



1.   4-points Rubric:

2 points in part (A): (Any two reasons

  • Fear of a loss of state authority

Fear of a loss of Tax authority

Fear of a too-powerful executive

Fear of a loss of many civil rights for state constitutions

Fear of a national control of military powers

Fear that the goals of the declaration of Independence would be abandoned.

2 points in part (B): (Any two from the Constitution)

Specific mentions of state powers in sections such as Article 4

Restrictions on tax legislation, it only being originated in the publicly elected house.

Many checks on the executive, such as override or approval

The limits of powers listed in Article 1 (Protection of Writs of Habeas Corpus)

Promises of a Bill of Rights

Control of the military by the House and Senate (selected states)

Promises of the proper goals in the Preamble


2.   5-point Rubric

3 points in part (A): (identify two, label one)

A desperate need for better central controls and organization versus an emphasis on local freedoms and civil freedoms

Locke’s view versus those of Hobbes or Montesquieu, who favored more central powers

Whigs or Tories

Nationalist or Localist

Federalist or Anti-federalist

Federalist or Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans

2 points in part (B): (explain the two sides shaping the Constitution)

More central powers to tax

More central powers to control interstate trade

More central powers over a military

More central powers with a federal court system

Retained local power states

Retained local control of selecting the Senate

Retained local controls over selecting the executive


Chapter 4: The Federal Constitution of 1787 and the Amendments

Free-Response Answers


1.   4-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (identify the two forms)

States and federal government are separate and relatively equal.

State rules apply to states; federal rules and the Constitution apply of federal areas/ jurisdiction only.

National laws come to dominance.

National rules and rights to apply to states.

The Bill of Rights applies to states.



2 points in part (B): (explain the change)

Supreme Court makes interpretations of federal authority

Great Depression changes demand for federal authority

WWII changes demand for federal authority


2.   6-points Rubric

2 points in part (A): (identify any two goals)

A more perfect union

Justice

Domestic tranquility

Common defense

General welfare

Blessings of liberty

4 points in part (B): (2 for identifying in the Constitution, 2 for explanations)

Stronger central powers, such as federal tax powers, courts and executive, make a more perfect union.

Some limits of Congress and state powers in Articles 1 and 4, along with federal courts, give justice.

Writs of habeas corpus, no bills of attainder, no ex post facto laws, no taxes on exports, and guarantees of republican governments would create domestic tranquility.

Congress’s power to regulate the military and the president’s powers to be commander in chief would provide defense.

Congress’s powers to regulate trade and commerce and the court’s ability to solve conflicts would help with general welfare.

The immediate creation of a Bill of Rights furthered the blessings of liberty.

 

Chapter 5: Federalist and the U.S Government

Free-Response Answers
1.   4-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (define the two types)

Dual-state and federal governments are relatively independent, judicial rights are separate to their own jurisdiction, separate Bills of Rights, separate definitions of citizenship for states.

Cooperative-interstate trade in federal realm, issues related to interstate trade (civil rights) also in the federal realm, federal funds help states but imply federal control of the rules; civil rights from the federal Bill of Rights apply to states, citizenship a national issue.

2 points in part (B): (explain how this favors the federal powers)

States need money and must rely on federal help; therefore, federal rules override state choices.

All states must follow federal rights standards.

Interstate trade can be interpreted very widely, thus applying many federal regulations on business and individuals.


2.   6-points Rubric

3 points in part (A): (identify three ways the structure is used)

Checks of power

Separations of power

Balances of power

Different jurisdictions of power

Reserved powers

Supremacy Clause

3 points in part (B): (explain how the three ways protect)

No branch can function fully independently without the influence of other branches.

Each branch has only certain powers and no others

No branch should dominate (too much away).

At least three levels of powers exist, and each is often unique (local, state, national).

Powers are specifically protected for individuals and states, especially when not covered in the Constitution.

If Conflicts occur, they can be resolved by national authority, especially if local and state governments abuse rights.

 

Chapter 6: Political Belief and Behaviors

Free-Response Questions
1.   6-point Rubric

3 points in part (A): (identify three changes)

Early Republic: Liberal meant local controls; conservative meant nationalist.

Jeffersonian liberal versus Hamiltonian conservative.

Civil War: Liberal meant nationalist; conservative meant states’ rights.

Progressive Era: Liberal meant nationalist, conservative meant laissez faire.

 Great Depression/Civil Rights: Liberal meant national support for workers; conservative meant pro business and less government.



3 points in part (B): (explain)

Federalist won under Washington, built a stronger government, became the status quo; Localist under Jefferson was radicals.

Slavery and states’ rights became the status quo; liberals wanted national control of citizenship.

Populism and Progressivism became liberal and radical, calling for national controls of unions, property.

Great Depression liberals further aim of national economic control and safety nets; conservatives want local controls and less national government.
2.   4-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (identify two negatives)

Less political unity

Less support for parties and leaders

Less optimism about government

Less belief that things can change

Less belief in the overall republic (apathy)

Less belief that one vote makes a difference

2 points in part (B): (two ways possibly form a positive evidence)

Trust in the currents system

Trust in the two parties

Trust in that things won’t get too radical

Trust in economic stability

 

 



Chapter 7: Public Opinion and Polling

Free-Response Answers


1.   4-points Rubric

2 points in part (A): (two ways leaders see polls positively)

The leaders are listening

The media is paying attention

The public has an influence

The agenda will be formed by the public

Parties will know who is supportive



2 points in part (B): (two ways leaders see polls negatively)

Public may not tell the truth

The public is fickle

The public intentionally misleads

The public has little real knowledge or information

2.   7-point Rubric

3 points in part (A): (identify three forms)

Family influence

Media

Education

Age

Wealth

Job

Religion



4 points in parts (B) and (C): (explain; identify the most important)

Home training and patterns of parents dominate as the most important.

Media is important in close elections but usually short-lived in influence.

More education leads to move voting and less interest.

Younger people don’t care or vote; older people do care and vote.

Wealthier residents vote more and are more conservative.

Whether one is union or nonunion influences voting and liberalism.

More religious citizens tend to be more involves and conservative.

 

Chapter 8: Political Parties

Free-Response Answers


1.    4-points Rubric

2 points in part (A): (identify two key roles)

Find candidates

Influence the public

Gather money

Support those in office

Provide for opposition to the majority

Build political agendas

2 points in (B): (explain)

Parties look for qualified candidates who can get elected, and then they support and train the candidates.

Parties get the message of the party platform out to the public; provide information, run ads, etc.

Parties raise funds that can be used for ads, flyers, etc.

Parties can be message leaders, and can support other party members across the country.

Parties can band together as the “loyal” opposition to force compromises.

Parties canvas members for future issues and seek solutions to problems.
2.    10-point Rubric

6 points in part (A): (three groups in each party identified)

Democrats: African Americans, union members, liberal progressives, the “New Left,” feminists, Hispanics

Republicans: Neo-conservatives, upper class, supply side conservatives, Christian Coalition, Southern conservatives, westerners

2 points in part (B): (points of unity)

Democrats: Economic guidance by government, civil rights for minorities, pro-environmental programs, pro-worker rights

Republicans: Economic privacy, state’s rights, pro business, less government

2 points in part (C): (points of difference)

Democrats: Hispanics may be less loyal due to religious beliefs, split over civil rights agendas, splits between unions and feminists

Republicans: Splits over religious beliefs, emphasis on business and taxes, North versus South.

 

 



 

Chapter 9: Campaigns and Elections

Free-Response Answers


1.   4-point Rubric

1 point in part (A): (hard contributions versus soft contributions)

Hard money contributions are regulated contributions given directly to candidates for their campaigns; soft money contributions are less-regulated monies given to parties for activities such as “party building.”



2 points in part (B): (two reasons restrictions have failed)

Too many loopholes

Party building can be pro or can toward candidate

No limits on contributions not controlled by parties

Little incentive to change for those in office and benefiting form current rules.

1 point in part (C): (one reason restrictions should fail)

People should be able to spend their money

Restrictions penalize the wealthy

Free speech would be limited

 

2.   4-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (two reasons the system remains)

Large states benefit.

Reduces costs of campaigning everywhere.

Cuts potential of vote fraud in every precinct.

Creates greater majority than popular votes.

No replacement system is a real improvement.



2 points in part (B): (two reasons to oppose)

Too biased toward large states

Too biased toward states dominated by one party

Biased against small parties

Block’s public votes

 

Chapter 10: Interest Groups, Lobbies, and Political action Committees

Free-Response Answer
1.   4-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (Why an increase in lobby groups)

Is now legal to give campaign money.

Os also legal and encourage to register and to lobby.

More issues and single-issue groups exist.

More groups exist outside of two political parties.

There is more diverse population to represent.



2 points in part (B): (why a negative image)

Too locally dominant

Suppress minorities

Too divisive

Too controlling of a few leaders

Too powerful if wealthy

Too likely to bribe leaders

Too Controlled by wealth and contributions

 

2.   6-point Rubric

3 points in part (A): (three forms of influence)

Testify

Contact

Research

Lead the group

Fund campaigns

Go to Court

3 points in part (B): (explain why powerful)

Access to committees in Washington at critical debate times

Great control and influence one-on-one

Expertise and staff resources that even Congress might not have

Representative of large groups with many followers and lots of money

Tremendous influence over who gets elected or how easy it might be

Funds and data to go to court and sue (deep pockets)

 

 Chapter 11: Media and Its Functions



Free-Response Answer
1.   5-point Rubric

3 points in part (A): (ways leaders attempt to control the media)

Carefully manage the press conferences

New leaks to select members of the media at key time

Timed interviews, reports, access via government-run studios

Campaign strategies and sound bites

Carefully controlled debates

Control of questions to be answered

Control of who gets to ask the questions

Party- and partisan-controlled Internet sites (blogs)

2 points in part (B): (media’s influence)

Selecting the stories to cover

Selecting the bias of the coverage

Controlling time given to stories

Setting the agenda through control of issues/biases

Controlling reports on the public’s reactions/support

 

2.   3-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (periods of media coverage)

Political pamphlets/essays that were for or against the candidates

Regional biases (slavery crisis)

National corporate news to sell issues

Radio/television news “from” leaders or for issues

Internet reports form very biased and personal viewpoints



1 points in part (B): (goal of media in bias)

Support specific candidates or parties because the media outlet agrees with them.

Make money by selling crisis stories.

Support political agendas, such as progressivism.

Gain fame and wealth by exposing scandals.

Earn money by finding and audience.

 

 

 



 


Chapter 12: The Legislative Branch

Free-Response Answers


1.   4-point Rubric

1 point in part (A): (identify)

Elastic Clause



1 point in part (B): (identify)

Commerce Clause

Regulate interstate commerce

2 points in part (C): (identify issue/describe)

Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 – Conflicts over the control of interstate trade are in the hands of Congress. They are not in the hands of the states. Licenses across state boundaries fall within the commerce powers of the Congress.

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S., 1964 – Civil rights requirements from the federal government (acts of Congress) apply to private businesses if they conduct interstate trade activities or benefit substantially form interstate trade.

 

2.   6-point Rubric



4 points in part (A): (Identify and Explain)

Chairperson or subcommittee chairperson – pigeonhole or delay bill to death

Subcommittee or committee - vote bill down

Floor debate – vote bill down

Other chamber – vote bill down at some step

President – veto or pocket veto and bill dies

Congress – no override vote

2 points in part (B): (reasons this might be positive)

Deliberation is good

Majority consensus is needed

Emotional responses need time to be considered

Consensus form multiple branches shows need

Plenty of points of access by the public, lobby forces, or other leaders is good

 

 Chapter 13: The Executive Branch



Free-Response Answers
1.   6-point Rubric

4 points in part (A): (identify and describe evidence of trend toward president)

Military initiative; Polk’s placing troops in conflict and forcing Congress to act

Emergency initiative; Lincoln’s suspension of writ of habeas corpus rights during the emergency of 1861

Economic initiative; FDR’s creation of offices and agencies to help during the great depression crisis

Deregulation initiative; Carter’s starting the trend of cutting federal involvement (other examples of this nature would work)

2 points in part (B): (identify and explain power over the bureaucracy)

Executive orders; have the power to law to require actions of the agencies

Executive memoranda; power of actions over certain agencies

 2.   6-point Rubric



4 Points in part (A): (identify and describe efforts by congress)

Limit military powers; take back control of troops in conflict

Restrict budget powers; force president to spend money

Appointments; restrict and investigate appointments more

Investigate; openly attack presidential behaviors

Budget fights; try to enforce policies by not passing budgets



2 points in part (B): (identify and describe failures by Congress)

Gingrich budget fights; public ended up blaming Congress

Impeachment; Clinton scandals don’t lead to removal

Crisis; powers go back to president after 9/11

Division; Congress continues to be split, with many supporting the president

 

 Chapter 14: The Federal Bureaucracy



Free-Response Answers

1.   6-point Rubric

2 points for each identify and explain in (A), (B), (C)

Legislative: Agencies must create the rules and the regulations needed to enact their duties, because Congress doesn’t have the time or expertise.

Executive: Agencies put general rules into effect, often after they have had the duty to create the very rules they execute.

Judicial: Agencies rule on licenses, access, and activities allowed for businesses and individuals, with penalties and fines possible.

Congress doesn’t have time.

Congress doesn’t have the expertise.

The president does not have time.

The court system can’t handle all possible agency problems.

 

2.   4-point Rubric

3 points in part (A): (identify how branches can control the bureaucracy)

Legislative: Controls the budgets, creates new rules/ restrictions, and can cut agency.

Executive: Orders and memoranda direct agencies to follow presidential directives.

Judicial: If challenges are brought, the agency actions can be cut down, overturned, and eliminated.



1 point in part (B): (Public controls)

Lobby Congress

Lobby the agency directly

Challenge agency in court

 

 Chapter 15: The Judicial system and civil liberties



Free-Response Answers
8-point Rubric

1 point in part (A): (define)

Dual court system: Two distinct level of the jurisdiction, strong state involvement



4 point in part (B): (three kinds of federal, label)

“limited and exclusive jurisdiction”

Federal civil law

Federal criminal law

Federal appeals

Constitutional jurisdiction counterfeiting, interstate conflicts, state versus state

Crimes made federal, kidnapping, civil rights abuses, attacking federal officials

3 points in part (C): (two kinds of state authority, label)

“General law/general jurisdiction”

State civil laws

State criminal codes

State appeals

Common law of state courts

State statutory laws

 

6-point Rubric



2 points in part (A): (two ways to the Supreme Court)

Appeal from lower federal court

Appeal from the highest state courts

Original jurisdiction cases



2 points in part (B): (two cases that go directly to the Supreme Court)

State versus state

Ambassadors and public ministers

2 points in part (C): (two steps to acceptance)

Submission of Writ of certiorari

Rule of four vote

 

 Chapter 16: The Federal budget and Economic policies.



Free-Response Answers

1.   4-point Rubric
2 points in part (A): (identify and explain executive)

Bully pulpit/State of the Union; setting the overall agenda and getting public support for priorities

OMB; creating the massive budget, raising or lowering amounts for programs supported or opposed by the executive

Veto; threats are often sufficient to guide Congress’s votes



2 points in part (B): (identify and explain Congress’s attempts to block)

CBO to counter the information and expertise of the OMB

Potential to override veto

National attention/leaders trying to mobilize the public to their goals

Laws stopping presidents from ignoring funding mandates

 

2.   6-point Rubric



3 points in part (A): (identify three reasons)

Mandatory spending increases

Debt service

Population growth

Politics/pork

Economic demands



3 points in part (B): (explain)

Aging population and Social Security/Medicare/Medicaid

Continuing deficits adding to interest payment

More services needed for more people, infrastructure

More programs from Congress and local districts

More needs due to recessions, demand for stability

 

Chapter 17: Domestic policy development

Free-Response Answers


1.   7-points Rubric

6 points in part (A): (identify and explain three steps)

Agenda setting; deciding the priorities based on needs, public opinions, national concerns.

Policy formulation; study possible solutions, analyze approaches, and debate solutions, laws, rules funding possible benefits.

Policy adoption; put legislation together, creates rules, set funds.

Policy implementation; agencies begin to regulate, solve.

Evaluation; feedback creates information for more revisions, better solutions, reduction of regulations, etc.



1 point in part (B): (cost-benefit analysis)

The financial costs of programs are compared to the possible financial rewards. If rewards are not financial, how are they valued? This analysis can determine if the program should be attempted.

 

2.   6-point Rubric

3 points in part (A): (identify)

Distributive

Regulatory

Redistributive



3 points in part (B): (describe the goals)

Give assistance to individuals, groups, or companies for social help, financial help, or competitive market help.

Create or limit behaviors of the public and business, stop certain activities, or encourage some activities.

Help those who need assistance or have been denied access and assistance.

 

 

 Chapter 18: Foreign Policy: Military and Economic



Free-Response Questions
1.   4-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (identify and describe goals)

Goals American Free Trade Agreement; cut tariffs and increased trade

United Nations; created global cooperation and restrict welfare

World Trade Organization; more free trade and protections worldwide



2 points in part (B): (identify and explain opposition)

No protections for U.S. workers/unions

No protections for foreign workers

No protection for the environment

Fewer protection for children

Too much control to international businesses/military government

Too little independence for the United States

Too much interference form other countries

Too much support for hostile nations

Bulky bureaucracies/costly organizations

 

2.   5-point Rubric

2 points in part (A): (describe two ways policies checked)

Confirmation hearings for ambassadors

Budget and rules for the State Department

Treaty confirmation votes

Budget controls over programs to other nations

2 points in part (B): (identify and describe a way to avoid)

Executive agreement/deals between leaders

No congressional approval needed

Easier/powerful



1 point in part (C): (explain presidential advantage)

One-on-one possibilities

Information, contacts via State Department/ embassies

Information from agencies such as CIA



Speed and decisive action needed.

Public turns to executive and demands action.

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