Chapter 3 North America Multiple Choice Introduction The two major language groups in Canada are



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Chapter 3

North America


Multiple Choice
Introduction
 1. The two major language groups in Canada are:

A. English and Spanish B. English and French C. English and Canadian

D. Canadian and French E. only English is spoken widely in Canada
 2. _____ percentage of North American society lives in urban areas.

A. 75% B. 90% C. 50%

D. 10% E. 35%
 3. Every year about _____ of Americans change residence.

A. 25% B. 17% C. 10%

D. 40% E. 50%
 4. The three major ages of North America since Columbus, in chronological order, are:

A. urban, industrial, agricultural

B. agriculture, industrial urbanization, postindustrial society and economy

C. postindustrial society and economy, agriculture, industrial urbanization

D. urban, rural, postindustrial society and economy

E. 1492-1700, 1701-1980, 1980-present


 5. The United States is approximately _________ times larger than Canada in terms of population.

A. 2 B. 3 C. 10

D. 25 E. Canada’s population is larger than that of the United States
 6. Which of the following is true?

A. Canada is a fragmented state.

B. The United States is a fragmented state.

C. Canadians live, for the most part, more than 200 miles from the U.S. border.

D. Hawai’i causes the United States to be called a fragmented state.

E. All of the above are false.


 7. Approximately _____ percent of the Canadian population speaks French.

A. 5 B. 15 C. 25

D. 55 E. 90
 8. ___ percent of Quebec’s population is French speaking.

A. 20 B. 10 C. 85

D. 100 E. 98


 9. Which of the following is inaccurate? Both Canada and the United States:

A. are federal states

B. have plural societies

C. possess varied natural resource bases

D. have large populations by world standards

E. have strongly urbanized populations


10. Which Canadian province contains the majority of French-speaking citizens?

A. Nova Scotia B. British Columbia C Manitoba

D. Quebec E. Maine
11. Blacks today constitute about ______ percent of the United States’ population.

A. 13 B. 27 C. 39

D. 48 E. 3
North America’s Physical Geography
12. The major mountain chain in the eastern United States is the:

A. Rockies B. Appalachians C. Cascades D. Atlantic Mountains E. there are no mountains in the eastern United States


13. The physiographic region called the Canadian Shield:

A. is the geologic core of North America

B. is an intermontane zone

C. consists of an extensive sedimentary surface

D. is bordered on the west by the Appalachian Mountains

E. is also known as the Arctic Coastal Plain


14. Which of the following states contains territory located in the Intermontane Basin and Plateau physiographic province?

A. Wisconsin B. Texas C. Pennsylvania

D. Nevada E. New York
15. Which western United States city is least likely to suffer from the adverse effects of the “rain shadow” phenomenon?

A. San Francisco B. Denver C. Salt Lake City

D. Las Vegas E. Phoenix
16. Which of the following states is not located within Humid America?

A. Tennessee B. Utah C. Iowa

D. Arkansas E. Florida
17. The Great Lakes’ main outlet to the sea is the:

A. Mississippi River B. St. Lawrence River C. Colorado River

D. Columbia River E. Great Lakes have no outlet to the sea


18. Which of the following is false?

A. Tornadoes are much less common in North America than in other parts of the world.

B. Winds are named for the direction from which they come.

C. An isohyet connects points of equal rainfall.

D. Drier climates give rise to a grassland cover.

E. The St. Lawrence Seaway is now of limited utility.


19. An isohyet is a:

A. type of tornado B. Pacific hurricane C. line of equal temperature

D. type of weather inversion E. line of equal rainfall
20. A continental climate is most likely found in:

A. New York B. Oregon C. Florida

D. Delaware E. Kansas

The United States
21. Which of the following cities is not located on one of the Great Lakes?

A. Chicago B. Toronto C. Pittsburgh

D. Buffalo E. Detroit
22. Which of the following is not a major component of United States population movement?

A. north to south movement B. immigration C. east to west

D. illegal immigration E. Canada to the United States
23. Which of the following statements about migration is false?

A. pull factors attract migrants to destinations

B. push factors motivate people to move away

C. every migration from source to destination produces a counter-stream

D. 75 million Europeans left Europe between 1835 and 1935

E. longer distances to a destination attract more migrants than shorter distances


24. Which of the following areas was not one of the cultural hearths of the United States?

A. New England B. The Ohio River Valley C. Middle-Atlantic Pennsylvania

D. Tidewater Maryland E. Tidewater Virginia

Twentieth-Century Industrial Urbanization
25. Which of the following cities reached its peak as a dynamic economic center during the Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920)?

A. Pittsburgh B. Boston C. Los Angeles

D. New Orleans E. Miami


26. The first era in Borchert’s epochs of metropolitan evolution was:

A. Iron Horse B. Sail-Wagon C. Steel-Rail

D. Auto-Air-Amenity E. none of the above
27. During the Sail-Wagon epoch most of the important American cities were found in the:

A. Midwest B. Northeast C. South

D. Ohio River Valley E. northern part of Maine
28. An amenity is:

A. a form of transportation used in the Midwest

B. something pleasant in the environment

C. an epoch of metropolitan evolution in Canada

D. only found in Sunbelt locales

E. found in the northern part of Maine


29. The core area of the United States is known as the:

A. Northeast B. Atlantic Seaboard C. American Manufacturing Belt D. Borchert epoch E. mega-urban area


30. Which of the following is not a primary conurbation?

A. Lower Great Lakes (Chicago-Detroit-Pittsburgh) B. Desert (Phoenix-Tuscon)

C. California (San Diego-Los Angeles-San Francisco)

D. Peninsular Florida (Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, Miami) E. Megalopolis


31. In 1900, the geographic form of the American city was most strongly shaped by:

A. the automobile B. concentric rings of expanding industry

C. the electric streetcar D. rapidly growing suburban communities

E. pedestrian traffic


32. In 1980, the geographic form of the American city was most strongly shaped by:

A. the automobile B. concentric rings of expanding industry

C. the electric streetcar D. rapidly growing suburban communities

E. rapid transit


33. The largely black areas in US cities are often called:

A. ghettos B. neighborhoods C. outer cities

D. amenities E. urban realms
34. The final era of the Adams model of intraurban structural evolution is the:

A. Automobile era B. Electric Streetcar Era C. Freeway Era

D. Walking-Horsecar Era E. Error Era


35. Which of the following is false?

A. Many U.S. suburbs have now become full-fledged outer cities

B. the urban realms model has been applied to Los Angeles by James Vance

C. the recreational automobile era was from 1920-1945

D. all CBDs are found in the suburbs

E. the electric streetcar was the first mass transit that just about everyone could afford



Cultural Geography
36. Which religious group does not fit with the area identified?

A. Mormons and New York B. Jews and urban areas C. Baptists and the South

D. Catholics and the Northeast E. Lutherans and the upper Midwest
37. Which city contains the United States’ largest cluster of Asian ethnics?

A. Los Angeles B. Miami C. New York

D. Montreal E. Pittsburgh
38. One of the fastest growing U.S. minorities is the:

A. Asians B. Italians C. Jews

D. Farmers E. Cajuns
39. A group which will soon become more numerous than Americans of African descent are the:

A. Hispanics B. Amerindians C. Pakistanis

D. Russians E. Canadians
40. Which of the following areas has the least significant number of Hispanics?

A. California B. Ohio C. Florida

D. Texas E. New Mexico
41. Which ethnic group does not fit with the area identified?

A. Hispanics and Oregon

B. Asians and the Pacific coast

C. Native Americans in the West

D. Hispanics and South Florida

E. Jews and urban areas



The Changing Geography of Economic Activity
42. Which of the following is a secondary economic activity?

A. iron mining B. beer brewing C. retail sales

D. managing a corporation E. farming


43. Which of the following jobs belongs to the tertiary sector of the American economy?

A. computer systems specialist

B. chief executive of a multinational corporation C. auto assembly line welder

D. office receptionist E. farmer


44. The transformation of raw materials into finished products is associated with the ____________ sector of a nation’s economy.

A. primary B. secondary C. tertiary

D. quaternary E. quinary
45. Which of the following is not a fossil fuel?

A. natural gas B. oil C. coal

D. electricity E. petroleum
46. The United States is particularly well endowed with:

A. molybdenum B. zinc C. tin

D. coal E. none of the above
47. Which of the following is a major oil producing state?

A. Maine B. New York C. Ohio

D. Texas E. none of the above
48. Which of the following is a natural gas producing state?

A. Maine B. New York C. Ohio

D. Texas E. none of the above
49. In the 1990s, less than ______ percent of the American population lives on farms.

A. 2 B. 12 C. 24

D. 33 E. 52
50. Moving inland from the Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Belt surrounding Megalopolis, the next agricultural region encountered is the:

A. American Manufacturing Belt B. Dairy Belt

C. Spring Wheat Belt D. Corn Belt E. Forest Belt
51. Which city is not located within the American Manufacturing Belt (the Continental Core)?

A. Atlanta B. New York C. Detroit

D. Pittsburgh E. Philadelphia
52. Economies of scale are:

A. a result of the expansion of primary activity B. due to historical inertia

C. advantages of banking in the American Manufacturing Belt

D. savings accruing from large-scale production E. none of the above



53. The geographic concept that best explains the persistence of industry in the American Manufacturing Belt today is:

A. historical inertia B. supranationalism C. the law of primate activity

D. mental mapping E. the tobacco lobby
54. Which of the following is false?

A. The U.S. microprocessor industry is concentrated in Silicon Valley.

B. The U.S. is currently in a post-industrial revolution

C. Silicon Valley may be thought of as a technopole

D. The Mercedes-Benz factory in Alabama turned out to be a great investment for the state

government

E. Stanford University is an important component of Silicon Valley
Canada
55. Which city is located closest to the Canadian capital of Ottawa?

A. Toronto B. Windsor C. Vancouver

D. Minneapolis E. Washington, D.C.
56. Montreal and the lower course of the St. Lawrence Seaway are located in the Canadian province of ________ .

A. British Colombia B. Alberta C. Nova Scotia

D. Quebec E. Ontario
57. The capital of Canada is:

A. Montreal B. Toronto C. Ottawa

D. Vancouver E. Whitehorse
58. Which of the following is one of Canada’s Atlantic provinces?

A. Nova Scotia B. British Columbia C. Manitoba

D. Quebec E. Maine
59. Which of the following is one of Canada’s Prairie provinces?

A. Nova Scotia B. British Columbia C. Manitoba

D. Quebec E. Maine
60. Which of the following is one of Canada’s Pacific provinces?

A. Nova Scotia B. British Columbia C. Manitoba

D. Quebec E. Maine
61. Aboriginal peoples in Canada have had their rights recognized by the Federal government as evidenced by the formation of:

A. the Yukon B. Nunavut C. the Northwest Territories

D. the Meech Lake accord E. Cree Country

62. Which of the following is Canada’s most populace province?

A. Nova Scotia B. Ontario C. Manitoba

D. Prince Edward Island E. Alberta


Population in Time and Space
63. The inhabitable zone of permanent settlement of a country is known as its:

A. ecumene B. amenity C. Nunavut

D. manufacturing belt E. core area
64. More than 60% of Canadians live in an area known as:

A. Main Street B. Megalopolis C. Nunavut

D. Alberta E. core area
65. Canada began to unify around:

A. 1867 B. 1800 C. 1914

D. 1776 E. 1650
66. The first European group to settle Canada were the:

A. French B. British C. Spanish

D. Dutch E. none of the above
67. The two European powers that fought over control of the area that became Canada were the:

A. French and British B. British and Dutch C. French and Spanish

D. Dutch and French E. none of the above
68. Which of the following was known as Upper Canada?

A. Nova Scotia B. Ontario C. Manitoba

D. Quebec E. Nunavut
69. One of the conditions of the entry of British Columbia into Canada was:

A. the building of the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway

B. the opening of the Panama Canal

C. the establishment of regular ferry service through the Northwest Passage

D. the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway

E. none of the above


70. Canada’s primate city is:

A. Montreal B. Canada has no primate city C. Toronto

D. Vancouver E. Boston
71. The major Canadian heartland is known as:

A. Megalopolis B. The AMB C. Main Street

D. San-San E. the Toronto-Montreal axis

72. The three eras of Canada’s economic development are:

A. Frontier-Staples Era, Era of Socialism, Era of Global Capitalism

B. Frontier-Staples Era, Era of Industrial Capitalism, Era of Global Capitalism

C. Walking, Sail, Railroad

D. Main Street development, primary development, secondary development

E. none of the above
73. Quebec has asked for status as a _______ society in order to stay in the Canadian federation.

A. special B. different C. French

D. distinct E. none of the above
Cultural/Political Geography
74. The province that has threatened to leave the Canadian union because of cultural and linguistic differences is:

A. Quebec B. Nunavut C. NAFTA

D. Ontario E. British Columbia
75. Which of the following is false?

A. the French speaking area of Canada is not exactly coterminous with the province of Quebec

B. some English-speaking communities in Quebec have made it known that they might want to

secede from Quebec

C. the Cree in Northern Quebec would also like independence from Canada

D. Quebec has twice voted for independence

E. the territory of the Cree has significant hydroelectric power
Economic Geography
76. The most important sectors of the Canadian economy are:

A. primary and secondary B. tertiary and quaternary C. primary and tertiary

D. secondary and tertiary E. maple leafs and ice hockey
77. Which of the following do not go together?

A. Canadian Shield - rich mineral deposits

B. Alberta - oil

C. Manitoba - wheat

D. Southern Ontario - postindustrial transformation

E. Bananas - Nunavut


78. A regional state is:

A. a province about to secede from a country

B. a member of a supranational economic group C. one of the Four Canadas

D. a grouping of provinces or states E. a natural economic zone



NAFTA
79. NAFTA includes all of the following countries except:

A. Bahamas B. United States C. Mexico

D. Canada E. All are in NAFTA
80. NAFTA may be supplanted by:

A. The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)

B. The Latin American Free Trade Association

C. GATT D. USNAFTA E. the European Union


81. The North American Free Trade Agreement:

A. went into effect in the year 2000 B. includes Cuba

C. includes the United States, Canada, and Mexico

D. makes North America the largest trade bloc in the world E. all but A above



The North American Core
82. Which of the following is not a corner city of the American Manufacturing Belt (Continental Core)?

A. St. Louis B. Boston C. Milwaukee

D. Philadelphia E. Washington, D.C.
83. Which statement below best defines the North American Core? It:

A. encompasses a great rectangle from Boston to Washington to St. Louis to Milwaukee and

includes southernmost Ontario.

B. incorporates the subsidiary cores of California and British Columbia into a continent-wide network.

C. consists of the prime farmlands of the Midwest (the Corn belt) and the eastern states.

D. lies astride the United States-Canadian boundary westward from the area of the Great

Lakes, extending to British Columbia (including Vancouver) and Washington (Seattle).

E. is constituted by the source area of modern North American culture: the east coast of the

United States and the St. Lawrence Valley, Canada.
84. The core region metropolis that has gained the most from post industrialization is:

A. Washington, D.C. B. Boston C. Detroit

D. Baltimore E. Pittsburgh
85. Toyota recently opened a plant in the area of:

A. Detroit B. Lexington, KY C. New York

D. Baltimore E. Chicago


The Maritime Northeast
86. Northern New England is tied culturally and economically to:

A. Quebec B. Atlantic Canada C. British Columbia

D. Prince Edward Island E. Newfoundland
87. Which of the following statements is true?

A. New England’s economy declined in the late 1990s.

B. All economic sectors in New England have suffered during the past two decades.

C. Microcomputers have had little effect on New England’s economy.

D. New England’s economy has been on a roller coaster since 1980, and was on an upturn

during the late 1990s.

E. All of the above are false.
88. Which of the following statements is false?

A. New oil deposits in offshore Newfoundland may transform that province’s economy.

B. The Atlantic Provinces have had disagreements over fishing rights with other nations.

C. Prince Edward Island is now connected to the mainland via an eight-mile bridge.

D. Newfoundland is Canada’s richest province.

E. All of the above are false.


French Canada
89. Which of the following is not part of the Francophone area?

A. southern part of Quebec B. New Brunswick C. northern Maine

D. western New York E. all of the above are parts of the Francophone area
90. A unique form of rural settlement developed in French Canada is called:

A. long lots B. village centered agriculture C. riverside lots

D. township and range E. none of the above
91. Canada’s large cluster of Francophones in New Brunswick are known as:

A. Acadians B. Ontarioans C. French

D. Brunswickers E. none of the above
92. Quebec has:

A. a declining birth rate.

B. offered incentives for French speakers from elsewhere to move to Quebec.

C. significant hydroelectric power.

D. a population that has rapidly urbanized.

E. all of the above are true.



The Continental Interior
93. Which state is located in the U.S. Wheat Belt?

A. Iowa B. Texas C. Kansas

D. Maine E. None of the above states produce significant quantities of wheat
94. Which state is located in the U.S. Corn Belt?

A. Iowa B. Texas C. Florida

D. Maine E. None of the above states produce significant quantities of corn

95. Which of the following statements about the Continental Interior is false?

A. The small family farm continues to predominate.

B. Many young persons are leaving the area, leaving behind an aging population.

C. Telemarketing has become a major enterprise.

D. Spring wheat is grown in the more northerly parts of the region.

E. Hogs are raised in conjunction with corn.
The South
96. The North American region which has undergone the most change in recent years is:

A. the South B. the Continental Core C. Agricultural Heartland

D. New England/Atlantic Provinces E. French Canada
97. The “bulldozer revolution” is associated with which region?

A. the South B. the Continental Core C. Agricultural Heartland

D. New England/Atlantic Provinces E. French Canada
98. The region with the greatest disparity in income between rich and poor is:

A. the South B. the Continental Core C. Agricultural Heartland

D. New England/Atlantic Provinces E. French Canada
99. Which city bills itself as the “Gateway to Latin America?

A. Tampa B. Houston C. Miami

D. Georgia E. New Orleans
100. Which of the following is not a demographic change that has occurred in The South?

A. migration of whites from the North

B. migration of blacks from the North

C. Significant growth in the French-speaking population.

D. migration of retirees to Florida, North Carolina, and elsewhere

E. migration of Asians



The Southwest
101. The Southwest is a tricultural region comprised of:

A. blacks, whites and Native Americans

B. whites, Alaskans, and Hawaiians

C. Native Americans, Hispanics, and Anglos

D. Mexicans, Native Americans and Americans

E. none of the above


102. The three-pronged foundation of the Southwest is:

A. sail-wagon, horsecar-walking, steel-rail

B. coal, natural gas, oil

C. urban, rural, and suburban settlement

D. electricity, water, and the automobile

E. none of the above


103. Much of the growth of Texas is based on which raw material?

A. coal B. oil C. molybdenum

D. cactus juice E. electricity
104. Which of the following is one of the world’s most productive post-industrial complexes?

A. Phoenix and Tuscon

B. Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio

C. El Paso

D. Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach

E. Charlotte, Atlanta, and Charleston


105. Which of the following areas is compared to Israel’s Negev Desert in terms of regional development?

A. Phoenix and Tuscon

B. Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio

C. El Paso

D. Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach

E. Charlotte, Atlanta, and Charleston


The Western Frontier
106. The fastest growing metropolitan area in the US is:

A. Miami B. Las Vegas C. Dallas

D. Phoenix E. Denver
107. Utah, Nevada, Idaho and western Colorado are all part of the:

A. Western Frontier B. Continental Interior C. Maritime Northeast

D. Southwest E. Pacific Hinge


108. Many disenchanted Californians have moved to the:

A. Western Frontier B. Continental Interior C. Maritime Northeast

D. Southwest E. Pacific Hinge
109. Software Valley is found in which state?

A. California B. Utah C. Nevada

D. New York E. Montana
110. Higher income, recreation-seeking city dwellers invading an area that has a less affluent population trying to preserve a way of life based on declining activities such as mining and extensive agriculture defines which of the following regions?

A. Western Frontier B. Continental Interior C. Maritime Northeast

D. Southwest E. Pacific Hinge
The Northern Frontier
111. The North American region which is the largest and the least densely settled is the:

A. Northern Frontier B. Continental Interior C. Maritime Northeast

D. Southwest E. Pacific Hinge
112. The North American region in which First Nations has the greatest interest is:

A. Northern Frontier B. Continental Interior C. Maritime Northeast

D. Southwest E. Pacific Hinge
113. The North American region which is most dependent upon the extraction of raw materials is the:

A. Northern Frontier B. Continental Interior C. Maritime Northeast

D. Southwest E. Pacific Hinge
114. The Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut are all part of the:

A. Northern Frontier B. Continental Interior C. Maritime Northeast

D. Southwest E. Pacific Hinge
115. Technological breakthroughs are beginning to allow the exploitation of which of the following Albertan commodities?

A. tar sands B. diamonds C. hydroelectric power

D. oil E. cold weather bananas
116. The North Slope of Alaska contains large quantities of:

A. tar sands B. diamonds C. hydroelectric power

D. oil E. cold weather bananas



The Pacific Hinge
117. All of the following are found in The West Coast region except:

A. California B. the Route 128 corridor C. Olympic Mountains

D. San Francisco E. earthquakes
118. Much of the growth in the Pacific Hinge occurred:

A. after the discovery of gold

B. after World War II

C. between the two world wars

D. when the Russians entered North America in the 1400s

E. in the 1990s


119. The Pacific Hinge is called a “hinge” because:

A. the potential for earthquakes is so great that the area is like a hinge, hanging off the remainder

of the continent

B. it represents a gateway to Asia and the Pacific Rim

C. of the large Hispanic population

D. it is a humid area of the West

E. it is a major agricultural area
120. The most important factor in the growth of the Pacific Northwest has been:

A. cheap oil B. cheap hydroelectric power C. the Seattle Seahawks D. its warm climate E. the damming of the Colorado River


121. _________ is the city with the most Asians in North America.

A. Denver B. Vancouver C. Seattle D. San Diego E. Chicago



__________________________________________________________

Chapter 3

North America

True-False
Introduction
 1. The opposite of the Sunbelt is the Rainbelt.
 2. French shares equal official status with English in Canada.
 3. The United States is a geographically fragmented country, but Canada is not.
 4. Most Canadians live within 10 miles of the United States’ border.
 5. More than 75 percent of North Americans live in urban areas.
 6. Nearly 90 percent of residents of Quebec are Francophone.
 7. Racial segregation in the United States can be said to be de facto.
 8. Both the United States and Canada have a maturing postindustrial society and economy.
 9. The United States is slightly less than ten times larger in population size than Canada.
10. Approximately 75 percent of the Canadian population today uses English as their first or major language.
11. Both the United States and Canada exhibit cultural pluralism.
North America’s Physical Geography
12. The Rockies and Appalachians have a different geographic orientation than the Alps, which leads to different weather patterns in the two areas of the world.
13. Physically homogeneous regions are called physiographic provinces.
14. The Rocky Mountains are aligned in a generally north-south direction.
15. The intermontane region of North America is found in eastern Canada.
16. The most important physical feature of the western U.S. is the Gulf Coastal plain.


17. Yearly temperature ranges are much larger where continentality prevails.
18. The rain shadow effect has its greatest influence on the climate of San Diego.
19. The natural vegetation where rainfall is under 20 inches per year is forest in North America.
20. An isohyet is a line of equal temperature.
21. There are more tornados in the central US each year than anywhere else on earth.
22. Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia are all Fall line cities.
The United States
23. Push factors motivate people to move away from an area.
24. Migration streams are due only to pull factors.
25. A major reason for growth in the Sunbelt is that many new immigrants are settling there.
26. Even African Americans are moving to the Sunbelt after years of moving north.
27. Despite the westward-moving frontier, many parts of California were settled by easterners before the Great Plains region.
28. During the colonial era in the US, Tidewater Virginia and Maryland specialized in the growing of tobacco.
29. The United States Civil War took place in the 1890s and the South took many years to recover.

Twentieth-Century Industrial Urbanization
30. In the Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830), the leading cities were Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.
31. The correct order of the epochs of metropolitan evolution is Sail-Wagon, Iron Horse, Steel-Rail, Auto-Air-Amenity.
32. Another name for the American Manufacturing Belt is the continental core area.
33. The name Megalopolis applies to the vast, coalescing urban region between Boston and Washington, D. C.


34. The correct order of the intrametropolitan urbanization model is the Walking-Horsecar, Recreational Automobile, Electric Streetcar, and Freeway Eras.
35. Ghettoes developed in North American cities in the 1920s, as unemployed blacks from the South came North to work in factories, and whites refused to share their living space with them.
36. The shaping of the spatial form of the American metropolis from 1920-1945 was more heavily influenced by private automobiles than public transit systems.
37. The suburban area of a city that has significant non-residential activity is known as an outer city.
38. James Vance recognized the nature of the multicentered metropolis in his “urban realms” model.

Cultural Geography
39. Most Baptists are concentrated in the Southeastern United States.
40. Most Jews are concentrated in Megalopolis, southern California, southern Florida, and the Midwest.
41. Mormons are concentrated in the Northeast.
42. African Americans constitute about 25 percent of all Americans.
43. Most Hispanics are located in California, Texas, New Mexico, and South Florida.
44. Fifty percent of all immigrants still settle in either New York City or Chicago.
45. The black population is expected to be larger than the Hispanic population before 2000, thereby making it the largest U.S. minority.

The Changing Geography of Economic Activity
46. The services sector of the economy includes a wide range of activities, from retailing, to finance, to education, to routine office-based jobs.

47. A much lower percentage of workers are employed in agriculture in North America than a century ago.


48. Most Americans are employed in the primary sector of the economy.
49. Primary industries include steel manufacturing, automobile production, and furniture making.

50. The Appalachian region is the most important coal region.
51. Much of U.S. oil comes from New England.
52. The general pattern of U.S. agriculture is consistent with the basic idea of von Thünen.
53. Only 1.5 percent of Americans live on farms.
54. The dairy belt is north of the corn belt.
55. Most of the Rocky Mountain area supports grazing and irrigated crops.
56. The old cotton belt is centered in Kansas.
57. Economies of scale only develop in industrial areas.
58. Historical inertia tends to make certain locational patterns remain the same.
59. Within the American Manufacturing Belt, the Midwest has shown more positive changes than has the Northeast.
60. Los Angeles, San Diego, and Silicon Valley are all located in Southern California.
61. A technopole is an urban area that emphasizes traditional industry.
62. The Research Triangle is located in North Carolina.
Canada
63. Like the US, Canada is a federal state.
64. Prince Edward Island is an Atlantic province.
65. British Columbia is a Pacific Province of Canada.
66. Nunavut is a new aboriginal province in southern Quebec.
67. The Inuit are a native tribe for whom Nunavut was formed.

Population in Time and Space
68. An ecumene is the inhabitable zone of permanent settlement in an area.
69. Main Street is the conurbation from Quebec City to Windsor.
70. In spite of its central location, Main Street Canada contains 60 percent of Canada’s land area and 2 percent of its population.
71. Despite a settlement history as long as that of the United States, the modern Canadian state was not formed until after the U. S. Civil War (1861-1865).
72. The original European settlers in French Canada were the Protestant Huguenots from Britain.
73. The British North America Act established the Canadian Federation in 1867.
74. The three stages in the development of twentieth century Canada are the Frontier-Staples Era, the Era of Industrial Capitalism, and the Era of Global Competition.
Cultural/Political Geography
75. Quebec is the Canadian province that has expressed some desire to secede from Canada.
76. The successful succession of Quebec from the Canadian confederation in 1982 resulted in the birth of the new country of Francophone (“French Canada”) on January 1, 1992.
77. Complicating Quebec’s secession from Canada is that First Nation and Inuit peoples claim large sections of northern Quebec.
78. In 1995, Quebec voted to become independent from Canada, but the move was overturned by the Canadian Supreme Court.
Economic Geography
79. The Canadian Shield is a large geological feature that has almost no natural resources.
80. 70 percent of the Canadian workforce is now employed in the tertiary and quaternary sectors of the economy.
81. NAFTA is likely to de-emphasize east-west economic connections in Canada and to invigorate north-south connections between various Canadian provinces and US states to the south.
82. A “regional state” is a natural economic zone.


NAFTA
83. The North American Free Trade Agreement adds Mexico to Canada and the United States as a third partner in a “common market.”
The North American Core
84. The Manufacturing Belt is seeing continuing increases in industrial employment.
85. Megalopolis is the name for the large region around Boston that includes the Route 128 freeway corridor.
86. New York City remains the national leader in finance and advertising and is home to significant elements of the broadcast and print media.
87. The automobile industry remains important in the Midwest, with both American and Japanese companies having automobile assembly plants in the area.

The Maritime Northeast
88. New England feels a great cultural and economic affinity with the Atlantic Provinces of Canada.
89. Primary activities contribute very little to the economy of the Maritime Northeast.
90. The economy of New England has experienced both spectacular prosperity as well as hard times during the past twenty years.
91. Newfoundland is Canada’s poorest province.
92. The cost of doing business in New England is higher than in the South or the Southwest.
French Canada
93. The St. Lawrence Seaway is the major river in French Canada.
94. The urbanization of the French within Quebec has lead to lessening ties to the Roman Catholic church and to decreases in the birth rates.
95. French speakers in New Brunswick are known as ecumenes.
96. Agriculture in French Canada is often done on “long lots” designed to be perpendicular to the St. Lawrence and other rivers and to give each farm access to roadways.

The Continental Interior
97. Wheat farming is, in general, located to the west of corn farming in the US.
98. The Spring Wheat belt is north of the winter wheat belt.
99. Gateway 2000's original home office was in Illinois.
100. Large scale corporate farming is beginning to dominate the Continental Interior at the expense of the family farm.
101. The population of the Continental Interior has increasing numbers of elderly persons.

The South
102. The southern tier of the United States is a uniformly booming area.
103. The “bulldozer revolution” has occurred in the Maritime Northeast.
104. Increasing numbers of Asians and Hispanics may be found in the South.
105. Miami is the “Gateway to Latin America.”

The Southwest
106. The Southwest can be identified as a bicultural region of Hispanics and Anglos.
107. Electricity, water, and the automobile have all acted to develop the Southwest.
108. The Telecom Corridor is a technopole in the Dallas-Fort Worth area.
109. Development in Arizona has been compared to Israel’s Negev.

The Western Frontier
110. The Western Frontier includes the states of Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and western Colorado.
111. The Las Vegas area is the hottest growth area in the Western Frontier.
112. Many transplanted Floridians have settled in the Western Frontier.

113. “Managing growth without restricting economic activity” are buzzwords heard in the North American Core.

The Northern Frontier
114. The Northern Frontier is the largest region in North America.
115. The Canadian Shield is located in the Northern Frontier.
116. The Northern Frontier has significant quantities of raw materials, including oil.
117. Thirty percent of the population of the Northern Frontier is in Alaska.

The Pacific Hinge
118. California is America's most populous state.
119. Aircraft manufacturing is particularly important in the Pacific Northwest.
120. Unlike much of the rest of the western parts of the US, the Pacific Hinge has adequate rainfall.
121. The San Andreas fault is located in California.
122. Vancouver is the most Asianized metropolis in North America.
Matching
123. Atlantic Province

124. Corn Belt

125. Adirondacks

126. Oil shale

127. Francophone Canada
A. New York

B. Colorado

C. Nova Scotia

D. Illinois

E. Quebec



128. Site of Canadian capital

129. Winter Wheat Belt

130. Vancouver

131. Corn Belt

132. Mississippi Delta
A. British Columbia

B. Kansas

C. Louisiana

D. Iowa

E. Ontario
Fill Ins
133. The northward extension of the Sierra Nevada through the states of Oregon and Washington is called the __________ Mountains.
134. The most widespread natural vegetation in Arid America, where annual precipitation is less then 50 centimeters (20 inches), is __________ .
135. The westernmost and largest of the five Great Lakes is Lake __________ .
136. The outlet to the sea for the Great Lakes is the __________ River.
137. The Atlantic Seaboard Megalopolis stretches northeastward from Washington, D.C. to the vicinity of the metropolitan area of __________.
138. The conurbation produced by the coalescence of the Boston Washington urban corridor along

the northeastern seaboard of the United States is known as __________ .


139. The four “corner” cities of the American Manufacturing Belt are: Washington, D.C., St. Louis,

Milwaukee, and __________.


140. Secondary economic activities involve jobs in the __________ sector, which is engaged in the

transformation of raw materials into finished products.


141. The three leading fossil fuels are petroleum (oil), natural gas, and __________ .
142. The overall regional distribution of U.S. agricultural activity can be explained within the spatial

framework of the model developed by __________ .


143. Montreal and the lower course of the St. Lawrence River are located in the Canadian province of _______.
144. The capital of Canada is __________ .



North America Page

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