Chapter 3: Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent Short Answer 1. Which is an inference about why city-states fought each other for farmland?
2. Which people grew more powerful due to trade rather than from winning battles?
3. The Sumerian plow is most like the modern-day
4. What kind of political unit was Carthage?
5. What technology did the Hittites and Assyrians use in battle?
6. Which statement best represents the development of a civilization?
7. One purpose of cylinder seals was
8. When did the first cities develop in Mesopotamia?
9. Some surplus food
10. People came to work as craftsmen in Mesopotamia because of
11. Which of the following best describes Sumerian advances in medicine?
12. What was most likely the reason that ziggurats were tall?
13. Scribes had power in Sumerian society. What can you conclude from this?
14. The resource for which Phoenicia was well known was
15. Which two land features gave Mesopotamia its name?
16. Which natural obstacle led Phoenicians to use the sea for trade?
17. What did Sargon’s empire have in common with other Mesopotamian city-states?
18. The first group to rule after Hammurabi was
19. The Assyrian capital was named
20. Which of the following best describes cuneiform?
He was among the first leaders to have a permanent army.
This text refers to
22. One characteristic that Sumerians believed their gods possessed was a need to
23. Crops grew well in Mesopotamia because
24. What was the relationship between trade and the spread of the Phoenician alphabet?
25. What purpose did the wall around a city serve?
26. Which is the best explanation for why Mesopotamians built canals?
Sumerians enjoyed music. Kings and temples hired musicians to play on special occasions. Music and dance provided entertainment in marketplaces and homes.
What can you infer from this text?
28. In 1792 bc, Hammurabi became Babylon’s most powerful monarch. About how long ago was that?
29. What is the difference between canals and rivers?
30. Who served a role between the Sumerians and the gods?
After you have finished your assignment and reported to your monitor [teacher], come to me, and do not wander about in the street.
32. You are a farmer in ancient Mesopotamia and you grow 500 bushels a year. Your family uses 300 bushels a year. What do you have?
33. Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar both
34. Which sequence of events shows how Mesopotamia developed?
Complete each statement. If you chose the first word in the set bubble in the letter A on your Scantron Sheet, bubble in the letter B if your choice is the second word in the set. 35. Sumerians believed that the ____________________ could bring a good harvest or a terrible flood. (gods/king) 36. The city-state of ____________________ rose to power after the death of Sargon I. (Babylon/Ur) 37. A king known as ____________________ became a legendary figure in Sumerian literature.
(Ur-Zababa/Gilgamesh) 38. In Mesopotamia, people called the ____________________ developed the world’s first civilization. (Phoenicians/Sumerians) 39. The army of ____________________ defeated all the city-states of Sumer and conquered northern Mesopotamia. (Sargon I/Kish) 40. Despite the growth of cities, Mesopotamian society was still based on ____________________.(warfare/agriculture) 41. Mesopotamia is an area of land between Asia Minor and the ____________________.(Persian Gulf/Caspian Sea) 42. Sumerian city centers were dominated by ____________________.(palaces/temples) 43. Farmers and laborers made up the Sumerian ____________________ class. (middle/working) 44. Sumerians used sharp ____________________ to make symbols on clay tablets. (reeds/knives) True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If the statement is True bubble in letter A on your Scantron. If the statement is False bubble in the letter B. ____ 45. By 4000 BC, some Sumerian cities may have had 100,000 residents.
____ 46. The amount of land controlled by each city-state depended on its population.
____ 47. Hammurabi’s Code showed that not all people were treated equally in Babylon.
____ 48. Sumerians developed a math system based on the number 100.
____ 49. Irrigation made farmers in Mesopotamia more productive.
____ 50. The Akkadians and the Sumerians lived in peace for many years.
____ 51. Religion was not very important in Sumerian society.
____ 52. Babylon was located near present-day Baghdad, Iraq.
____ 53. Being a scribe in Sumer was a way to move up in social class.
____ 54. Sumerian women could be important religious leaders.
____ 55. The Sumerians first used their method of writing to create stories and poems.
____ 56. The reason for the Assyrian Empire’s success was its strong army.
____ 57. Sumerians invented the wheel and the plow.
____ 58. Hunter-gatherer groups first settled in Mesopotamia more than 20,000 years ago.
____ 59. Mesopotamia means “the land between the rivers” in Greek.
____ 60. Most Sumerians lived in two-story houses with about a dozen rooms.
____ 61. Phoenicia became powerful because its land was rich in resources.
____ 62. The invention of the alphabet changed the purposes for which written language was used.
____ 63. Farming was very easy in the region of Mesopotamia.