Multiple Choice Explanations 1. The framers created a federal system for all the reasons noted (e). They could have modified the confederal system in existence, or created a federal or unitary system. They determined that a federal system would be more plausible to meet their objectives.
2. A dispute in federalism arose when President George Washington’s secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton (b), proposed that Congress establish a national bank. Thomas Jefferson, secretary of state under President Washington, opposed the bank because he felt that Congress lacked the specific authority under the Constitution to create it.
3. In his opinion in McCulloch v. Maryland, Chief Justice Marshall determined that under Article I, section 8, Congress had implied powers under the necessary and proper clause. He also determined that, under the supremacy clause, states did not have the constitutional authority to tax the national government. Thus, (c) is the correct answer.
John C. Calhoun (d) established the doctrine based on his belief that the Constitution created “a government of states...not a government of individuals.”
In an opinion that provoked outrage, Chief Justice Taney determined that Dred Scott was property, and therefore had no constitutional rights. He also struck down the Missouri Compromise of 1820, declaring that Congress did not have the authority to outlaw slavery in any part of the United States. This decision intensified the conflict between North and South as secession evolved a few years later, so (e) is the correct response.
Plessy was convicted for violating a Louisiana law that required that African American and white citizens ride in separated railroad cars. The Supreme Court justices upheld the conviction, ruling that states could segregate by race so long as the facilities were “separate but equal” (d).
Many federal grant programs are designed to assist low-income people, and poverty is more widespread in the South (d).
During this period, the Supreme Court was dominated by laissez-faire conservatives who generally sought to limit the powers of Congress in favor of states’ rights. This validated the position that big business was more or less outside of government control. Thus, (d) is the correct answer.
Unemployment reached a record high of 25 percent (d) in twentieth-century America during the most difficult times of the Great Depression, which began in 1929.
When the Republicans regained control of the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate following the 1994 elections, the new speaker, Newt Gingrich (c) made this declaration.
While devolution over the last decade or so has shifted some authority away from the national government and to the state and local governments, it has resulted in only a modification of fiscal and cooperative federalism rather than their general demise (a).
Patrick Henry (e) declared “Give me liberty or give me death” during the American Revolution. He later opposed ratification of the Constitution because he felt that the national government should be a union of states and not also of people.
National defense and interstate commerce are national powers. Education and police protection are state powers. Taxation (c) is a power shared by both the national government and the states.
Federalism was invented in America in 1787 (e) and was different from any form of government the world had known. Other governments at the time had unitary systems.
For reasons that are still not clear, Justice Owen Roberts (b) abandoned his opposition to Roosevelt’s policies and thus gave the president a working majority on the Court.
Thomas Jefferson, Washington’s secretary of state, opposed the bank on the grounds that its activities would benefit the wealthy at the expense of ordinary people. Jefferson claimed the bank was unlawful because the Constitution did not expressly authorize it. Thus, the correct answer is (a).
According to the Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Gonzales v. Raich, Congress has the power to ban marijuana on the basis of the commerce clause, so (d) is the correct answer.
Under the Articles, Congress had no powers to tax or conscript citizens; all power resided with the states (a). Congress was very weak and ineffective during this time period, and there was no separate executive branch at the national level.
In a blow to President Franklin Roosevelt, the Supreme Court invalidated the NIRA in 1935 (b), which prompted Roosevelt’s court-packing plan two years later.