Chapter 3 Federalism: Forging a Nation Chapter Outline

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categorical grants

Federal grants-in-aid to states and localities that can be used only for designated projects.


The passing down of authority from the national government to the state and local governments.

Practice Exam

(Answers appear at the end of this chapter.)

Multiple Choice
1. The framers of the Constitution created a federal system of government because

a. the states already existed.

b. they felt that it would protect liberty.

c. they felt that it would provide the foundation for an effective national government.

d. the confederal system in existence was ineffective.

e. All these answers are correct.

2. ________ initially proposed that Congress charter a national bank.

a. Thomas Jefferson

b. Alexander Hamilton

c. James Madison

d. John Marshall

e. Aaron Burr

3. What was the constitutional basis for the Supreme Court’s decision in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)?

a. Under the doctrine of implied powers, Congress had the power to create a national bank because it was assigned the powers to tax, borrow money, and regulate interstate commerce under the Constitution.

b. National law was supreme over conflicting state law.

c. Under the doctrine of implied powers, Congress had the power to create a national bank because it was assigned the powers to tax, borrow money, and regulate interstate commerce under the Constitution, and national law was supreme over conflicting state law.

d. Sovereign states can tax the national government.

e. Congress lacked the authority to charter a national bank.

4. ________ created the doctrine of nullification based on the premise that each state had the constitutional right to nullify a national law.

a. John Marshall

b. Alexander Hamilton

c. Andrew Jackson

d. John C. Calhoun

e. Roger Taney

5. What happened in the Dred Scott case of 1857?

a. The Supreme Court justices intensified the conflict between the North and South.

b. The Supreme Court justices struck down the Missouri Compromise of 1820 as unconstitutional.

c. The Supreme Court justices ruled that Dred Scott was property, and therefore ineligible to sue in the federal courts.

d. The Supreme Court justices ruled that slavery was unconstitutional.

e. All the statements are true, except the answer indicating that the Supreme Court ruled slavery unconstitutional.

6. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court justices created

a. modern free speech doctrine.

b. the doctrine of fiscal federalism.

c. the doctrine of dual federalism.

d. the “separate but equal” standard.

e. the doctrine of implied powers.

7. Why do southern states get more revenue from the federal government than most other states?

a. The South is a Democratic region.

b. The South is a liberal region.

c. The South is both a Democratic and liberal region.

d. Poverty is more widespread in the South than other areas.

e. None of these answers is correct.

8. All of the following nations have a unitary or modified unitary form of government EXCEPT

a. Canada.

b. France.

c. Great Britain.

d. Japan.

e. Sweden.

9. Which of the following is true about the Supreme Court between 1865 and 1937?

a. It consistently ruled in favor of expanding the powers of Congress.

b. It consistently restricted national power.

c. It consistently ruled that Congress could not regulate child labor.

d. It consistently restricted national power and decreased the power of Congress to regulate business.

e. It consistently ruled against the segregation of the races.

10. At the worst depths of the Great Depression, ________ percent of the nation’s work force was unemployed.

a. 5

b. 10

c. 15

d. 25

e. 50
11. In 1994, which Republican House leader declared that the “1960s-style federalism is dead”?

a. Robert Dole

b. Bill Clinton

c. Newt Gingrich

d. Trent Lott

e. Strom Thurmond
12. Devolution has resulted in

a. a modification of fiscal and cooperative federalism, rather than their demise.

b. the demise of fiscal federalism.

c. the demise of cooperative federalism.

d. more power centralized at the national level.

e. None of these answers is correct.

13. ________ was a leading figure in the American Revolution and later opposed ratification of the Constitution on the grounds that the national government should be a union of states and not also of people.

a. John Adams

b. Benjamin Franklin

c. Alexander Hamilton

d. James Madison

e. Patrick Henry

14. Which of the following is a concurrent power?

a. national defense

b. interstate commerce

c. taxation

d. education

e. police protection

15. Federalism was invented in

a. the ancient Greek city-states.

b. the medieval period.

c. Great Britain in 1514.

d. France in 1676.

e. America in 1787.

16. In 1937, Justice ________ abandoned his opposition to Franklin Roosevelt’s policies and thus gave the president judicial support of key provisions of his New Deal legislation.

a. Edward Sanford

b. Owen Roberts

c. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

d. Joseph McKenna

e. William Day

17. Which of the following is true of the issue of the creation of a national bank?

a. Thomas Jefferson opposed a national bank for fear it would serve only wealthy interests at the expense of ordinary citizens.

b. Thomas Jefferson supported the right of the federal government to create a national bank based on its constitutional powers to tax and regulate commerce.

c. Alexander Hamilton rejected the idea that a national bank could be formed under the “implied powers” of the federal government.

d. Congress refused to establish a national bank for fear that it was encroaching on state powers.

e. Jefferson was ultimately successful in convincing Congress to establish a national bank and expanding federal power.

18. Which Supreme Court case allows Congress to ban marijuana even in states that have authorized it for medical use?

a. Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents

b. Garcia v. San Antonio Authority

c. Printz v. United States

d. Gonzalez v. Raich

e. McCulloch v. Maryland

19. During the six years under the Articles of Confederation,

a. Congress could not tax or conscript citizens.

b. most states paid their full dues to Congress.

c. Congress routinely usurped the commerce powers of the states.

d. Congress shaped the national economy.

e. Congress greatly limited the power of the executive branch.

20. In Schechter v. United States (1935), the Supreme Court

a. invalidated the 1932 elections.

b. invalidated the National Industry Recovery Act, ruling that it usurped powers reserved to the states.

c. prevented a state from regulating labor practices.

d. prevented Congress from creating a federal regulatory agency.

e. prevented Congress from creating the Medicaid program.

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