Date due in full: _______________ ____, 20____
CHAPTER 29: Wilsonian Progressivism, 1912–1916 1. Wilson and the Election of 1912 (pp. 679–682)
a. Dr. Woodrow Wilson was the progressive ex-president of P______________ University and he had previously been governor of the state of N_____ J____________. In the election of 1912, he was nominated by the D_______________ Party to run against Taft, the R______________ Party nominee, and the jilted Theodore Roosevelt, who formed his own third party called the P_______________ or “Bull-M____________” Party. The authors state that in this election the people were offered the choice between “two varieties of progressivism.” What was the main difference between the following?
(1) Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism”: continued c_______________ (joining together) of the t________ (monopolies) with a powerful r_____________ (government rules) agency; women’s s______________; a m____________ wage; and a s____________ (disability and unemployment) insurance
(2) Wilson’s “New Freedom”: free trade of s_________ businesses without m______________ where regulation would not be needed; nothing on women’s s____________; no social programs at all
b. Taft and Roosevelt split the formerly Republican vote, handing the election to Wilson, who became only the second Democratic president since the Civil War. List three things about Wilson’s background and personality particularly interesting, unusual, or significant:
(1) Wilson was the first S_____________ to win the Presidency since the Civil War
(3) Wilson believed in an i_______________ mass as the road to demcoracy
2. Wilsonian Progressivism (pp. 682–685)
a. The authors highlight Wilson’s impressive progressive reform record in three areas— all dealing with regulating, controlling, or combating what he called the “T___________ Wall of Privilege”, i.e., manufacturers, bankers, and conglomerates. Briefly describe one specific example of his moves in each of these areas.
(1) Tariffs and taxes: U__________ Tariff to r_________ rates on imports; used the I__________ Tax Amendment (#16) on the wealthier families
(2) A new central bank: Federal R_________ Act with twelve regional d_________ to issue more paper money based on government promises rather than gold or silver
(3) Antitrust policy: Federal T___________ Commission was expected to crush m___________ such as the meat-packing industry crossing state lines (interstate)
b. What 1916 agricultural acts actually implemented proposals of the long-dead Populist Party?
(1) F__________ F________ L________ Act (1916): gave credit to farmers at l_____ r_________ of interest
(2) W____________ Act (1916): gave l________ on s_______ crops, e.g., wheat, corn
c. Was Wilson equally “progressive” in his attitudes toward race? Explain. Probably _____, because he was a S______________ who supported the C_____________ ideas of succession
3. Wilson’s Foreign Adventures (pp. 685–688)
a. Though Wilson was less imperialistic than Roosevelt and rejected the “dollar diplomacy” of his predecessor Taft, he did greatly expand American presence in the Caribbean by sending troops to H_________ and the D_____________ Republic and by purchasing the V______________ Islands from Denmark in 1917.
b. Although Wilson refused to protect American investments from expropriation during the Mexican Revolution in 1913, his attempts to influence Mexican politics created resentments and set the stage for an attack by the hothead General “P___________” Villa and a military expedition into Mexico in 19___ led by Gen. John J “B______ J_______” Pershing (future U.S. general in WWI).
4. World War I Begins in Europe (pp. 688-691)
a. Because of the vast web of entangling alliances in Europe, a general war was touched off in August 19___ , when the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was killed by a Serb nationalist in the town of S____________ (now the capital of Bosnia). On the one side were Germany and Austria-Hungary, called the C____________ Powers, and on the other side were Britain, France, and R___________, called the A____________. Wilson urged American neutrality, but in the battle for American affections, the A___________ (one of the two sides) clearly had the advantage, largely because of cultural and economic ties. Wall Street bankers such as J. P. M_________ lent huge sums to the Allies and American firms traded heavily with the British— not being able to do likewise with the Germans mainly because of the British blockade of German ports. The German response was to launch attacks by submarines, known as __-boats, on merchant shipping entering British waters. Wilson, a moralist and legalist, continued to insist on the right of neutrals to trade with warring parties. A major crisis occurred in 1915 when the Germans sank the British passenger liner L_____________ with much loss of life, including 128 Americans. *** Considering the Cunard Steamship Co. newspaper ad on p. 692 and the fact that the ship was also carrying supplies of ammunition, do you think the American reaction to this sinking was appropriate or was it overblown? Why?
It was appropriate because _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________
It was overblown because _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________
b. Wilson then got the Germans to agree in the S___________ pledge (named after another sunken passenger ship) to give fair warning and to stay away from American ships. Germany, of course, could always change that policy at any time. *** On p. 690, the authors refer to the War of 1812, which Jefferson attempted to avoid by declaring an embargo on trade with warring parties and Madison eventually was sucked into at least in part due to domestic pressure to resist British attacks on American shipping. *** Compare and contrast the lead-up to the War of 1812 to the situation Wilson and the country faced at the outbreak of World War I in Europe.
(1) Similarities: In both wars, the US was n__________, attacks were in shipping lanes
(2) Differences: In 1812, both sides a_______ US ships, but in WWI, it was only G_____________; in WWI, it was B________ ships attacked in WWI, not US ships as in as in 1812; in 1812, US sailors were impressed—this didn’t happen in WWI
c. If you had been making U.S. policy relative to the increasingly horrific conflagration raging in Europe, what would you have done and why? As President, I would have ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ as the war increased in hostility.
5. 1916 Election (pp. 691–703) Roosevelt refused to run in 1916, which killed the P________________ Party. Wilson then defeated the Republican candidate, ex-New York governor and Supreme Court justice Charles E__________ H____________, ironically (in view of what you’ll see in the next chapter happens shortly afterward) on the strength of the slogan “He Kept Us Out of W_______.”
VARYING VIEWPOINTS : Who Were the Progressives? (page 695)
In a way, it’s not surprising that historians should disagree about just who were the “progressive” reformers of the early twentieth century. After all, Theodore Roosevelt’s “Bull Moose” Party notwithstanding, this was not a coherent, centralized movement led by one identifiable group of people. Many people called themselves “progressives” during this period. In this essay, the authors identify five different perspectives taken by historians on this question. In one or two sentences each, who were the “progressives” according to each of these historical schools? *** Put a (1) by the side of the school of thought that you feel the authors emphasized most in the last two chapters, and put a (5) by the one you think they would most take exception to.
____ 1. Traditional view (first paragraph):
____ 2. “Psychological” view (Hofstadter):
____ 3. “New Left” view (Kolko):
____ 4. “Organizational” school (Weibe/Hays):
____ 5. Gender emphasis (Mancy/Gordon/Skocpol):
CHAPTER 29 TERM SHEET: Wilsonian Progressivism
Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party: a t_______ party based on reform that was led by T. R__________________ in 1912
“New Nationalism”: platform or party stands of the P________________
Herbert Croly: the Progressive author of The P_____________ of American Life (1910) on which the New Nationalism was built.
“New Freedom”: platform of the D________________ based on W. W____________ style of progressivism in 1912.
“Elasticity” of the currency: allows for the increase or decrease of paper m__________ as needed
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914): added forbidden acts to the list of those made illegal under the S______________ Anti-Trust Act, while giving long-overdue benefits to l___________ to exempt (not hold responsible) as monopolies
“Populist” farm laws of 1916: reform law on a________________
Workman’s Compensation Act (1916): gave benefits to civil-service (government) e______________ with disabilities