outlawed war; an example of the optimism that existed during part of the 1920s.
Pablo Picasso, who was influenced by African art.
policy, and government-guided economics; started in Italy.
communities” within the British empire, called the British Commonwealth of Nations.
rapidly in this era into shipbuilding and other heavy industries.
triggered the Mexican Revolution.
unsuccessfully by the U.S. government in 1913.
“Tierra y Libertad”; demanded land reform.
constitution that promised land reforms.
versions of Mexico’s Indian heritage and potential Marxist future in murals.
church and many politicians; resisted the secularization of the culture and government.
from the 1930s to the end of the century.
kept Russia in World War I and resisted major reforms; overthrown by Bolsheviks at the end of
Bolsheviks: Violent, radical wing of the Social Democrats in Russia, led by Vladimir Lenin;
took power from provisional government; later renamed “Communists.”
Communist forces) and Whites (an amalgam of non-Communists); the Reds won, largely
because of the organizational skills of Leon Trotsky.
Leon Trotsky: Lenin deputy who organized the Red Army during the civil war and later lost a
power struggle to Stalin.
Communist framework; food production increased under this program; ended by Stalin.
regime from 1923 to 1991.
powers of its Western counterparts.
after Lenin’s death; installed the nationalistic “socialism in one country” program,
collectivization, and widespread purges.
Sun Yat-sen: Western-educated leader of the Revolutionary Alliance, the Guomindang, and at
times, China, in the 1910s and 1920s; struggled with warlords for control of the nation.
establish himself as the ruler of a dynasty to replace the Qing; forced from power.
Western-style government that featured intellectuals and students as its leaders; sank under the
weight of problems facing China in the early 20th century.
Li Dazhao: Headed Marxist study circle at University of Beijing; saw peasants as harbingers of
Communist revolution in China; influenced Mao Zedong.
Guomindang and Communists forged an alliance against Japanese aggression; the ruling party in
mainland China until 1949, it failed to implement most of the domestic programs it proposed.
Whampoa Military Academy: Established in China with Soviet help; it gave the Nationalists a
military dimension previously missing; first leader was Chiang Kai-shek.
Communists, yet he formed an alliance with them to fight Japan.
1934 to remote regions; solidified Mao’s leadership and created much of his myth.
Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics.
Porfirio Díaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Díaz; initiated revolution against Díaz when
released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913.
Mexican Constitution of 1917: Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key
resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked
formal end of Mexican Revolution.
Red Army: Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik
follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background.
encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and the world.
land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural
Great Depression: Worldwide economic collapse that began in late 1929 and continued until
the outset of World War II.
alliance in the 1930s.
assistance to people affected by the crisis and of government reform of economic institutions.
economic movement promoted socialist programs combined with authoritarianism.
Nazis forged a totalitarian state.
the 1930s; Germany and Italy aided the victorious Franco.
Depression, Latin America began to produce for itself through the rapid expansion of
Syndicalism: In Latin America, organizing labor for the purpose of gaining control of political
proposed using the state as a mediator between different social and economic groups.
combination of charisma and intimidation.
to induce the people there to cooperate with the conqueror’s wishes.
the millions under Stalin’s direction.
soldiers, and peasants.
reality was, especially under Stalin, a rubber-stamp organization.
Three major patterns emerged: First, western Europe recovered from the war only incompletely;
second, the United States and Japan rose as giants in industrial production; third,
revolutions of lasting consequence shook Mexico, Russia, and China.
A brief period of stability, even optimism, emerged in the middle of the 1920s. The Kellogg-
Briand Pact, outlawing war, was signed by a number of nations. By the latter half of the decade,
general economic prosperity and the introduction of consumer items like the radio and affordable
automobiles buoyed consumer hopes. Cultural creativity appeared in art, films, and literature.
Women, who lost their economic gains in the war’s factories, attained voting rights and social
freedoms in several countries. In science, important advances continued in physics, biology, and
Postwar conditions appealed to Italian people. The fascists appealed to the strong sense of
nationalism in the Italian people. There was also growing dissension among and within the
classes. On top of that, many of the booms of the Roaring Twenties failed to reach Italy.
freedoms in several countries. Declining birth rates and overall prosperity allowed women to
engage in more leisure activities. Women openly dated, smoked, and drank.
The U.S. economy boomed between World War I and the Great Depression and established itself
as an innovator in products, technology, and corporate practices. The nation also exported its
culture around the world through music and movies. Primary to this was the fact that World War
I left the United States untouched by the war and the factory infrastructure was untouched.
Identify some political and social changes among the settler societies in this era.
Settler societies, such as Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, became more autonomous during
this era. Canada saw an increasingly strong economy and rapid immigration during the 1920s.
Australia emphasized socialist programs like nationalization of railways, banks, and power
plants, and experienced rapid immigration as well.
Describe the factors that led to Japan’s shift from a liberal democracy to a militarycontrolled
After World War I, Japan became Asia’s leading industrial power. The industrial combines
rapidly expanded in areas like shipbuilding. Like Western countries, Japan saw its political
institutions challenged by war and depression. In response, the nation developed an aggressive
foreign policy pushed by a government controlled by the military.
Was the Great Depression inevitable? Why or why not?
Although depressions occur on a cyclical pattern, the depth and severity of the “Great
Depression” could have been lessened if certain factors could have been attended to by the
Western Powers. Among those factors are the Treaty of Versailles, government controls for
inflation, and knowledge of economic principles within leadership groups in the Western
Totalitarianism is a government that exercises massive and direct control over all activities of its
subjects. Totalitarian governments purge opposition, censor news, control movement of citizens,
and distribute commodities.
Both the U.S.S.R. and Germany exercised massive and direct control over all the activities of
their subjects. Both governments purged opposition, censored news, controlled movement of
citizens, and distributed commodities. Whereas Germany tried to expand its ideals by conquering
neighbors, the U.S.S.R. remained highly introverted.
Trace the unique course of the United States in answering the dilemma of the Great
The United States government offered direct aid to Americans in economic trouble in the form of
the New Deal. The Social Security system, government economic intervention and agricultural
planning, and banking regulations were all attempts to recover from the depression. Most
importantly for Americans, the New Deal restored confidence in the economy and in the
Its economic dependency and weak liberal regimes were made clear by the world financial crisis
of the 1930s. Reform movements gained momentum. Corporatism, with its roots in Fascism,
sought to create states acting as mediators between different social groups. The most successful
example of political change came from Mexico, where land was redistributed and oil wells were
Japan’s policies subdued the effects of the depression. The depression hit Japan hard, but the
expansionist policies provided a unifying force and stimulated growth in war industries.
Relate Great Depression to political instability.
The depression weakened western Europe. Political institutions and ideals were brought into
question. The desperation that was seen by the average citizen was used as political capital by
radical and fringe groups seeking power through the weak parliamentary systems.
Traditional habits were challenged, especially within colonial territories. Western women gained