Chapter 29 Outline Introduction



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Chapter 29 Outline

Introduction

The introduction to Chapter 29 talks about an individual named Dorothy Burlage. It goes on to talk about how the culture of the 60s in the United States was rapidly changing as the lifestyles of the 50s developed into a sort of counterculture where girls did not indulge in sexual activity or pursue careers, or when African-Americans were afraid to vote or pursue an integrated society. These individuals asserted themselves to strive for equal rights and protest for what they believed in and transformed American culture. Before his resignation on August 5, 1974, Richard Nixon ended the Vietnam war and began a sort of truce (détente) with the two Communist countries of China and the Soviet Union. However, Nixon's abuse of power led to his disgrace as a president foiling the very laws he had been fighting for.
The Youth Movement

As baby boomers started to go to college, the numbers alone assured them the force they would exert upon the country. Even though most baby boomers went along with the crowd during the 60s going to college, drinking beer, and joining fraternities, some rejected the times and stuck with the theories of the 50s believing in America the Great and condemning acts of radicals.
Toward a New Left

During the 1960s, students who admired outsiders of the 1950s rebelled announcing the Port Huron Statement in June 1962 that demanded “a new left” and created the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The SDS thought of a “participatory democracy” where a person could control decisions that affected their lives directly instead of the government. SDS also thought this ideal would treasure love and creativity and end materialism, militarism, and racism. Television played a role in showing disastrous events like the assassination of John F. Kennedy and the atrocities of the Vietnam War.
Characteristics of the New Left movement:

  • Rejected Marxist ideals

  • Followed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in ideals and actions.

  • Believed in a rejection of compromise would restructure society to their liberal ideals.


Terms discussed:

Port Huron statement

Students for a Democratic Society
From Protest to Resistance

After the school board at the University of California, Mario Savio founded the Berkeley Free Speech Movement (FPM) which included many student groups protesting the right to political activity on campus. Savio called on the students of the FSM to stage a sit-in at Sproul Hall. The arrests that followed just contributed to the continuance of these practices where more students would take the place of incarcerated brethren. This outbreak was heard on school campuses around the country. Students had more sit-ins to reform the school system including necessary ROTC programs, dress codes, parietal codes, and the grading system. Their proposed grading system included fewer required courses, smaller classes, and teachers teaching instead of demanding students to research. These radical students strove for integration and a reduced impact of the military on school. The Vietnam War and the draft pushed the movement towards a more massive movement. The SDS organized teach-ins, anti-war marches and rallies, and harassments of military recruiters on campus. Soon, the SDS supported draft resistance and civil disobedience and by 1968, it claimed 100,000 members on 300 campuses. Like the expansion to a nationwide scale, this movement saw copies in many universities across the world. The New Mobilization saw the rise of 300,000 students with the everlasting March Against Death where students marched in Washington D.C., to show their support for the antiwar movements. The youth in the 1960s saw themselves as being able to influence the political choices that affected their lives.
Terms discussed:

Mario Savio

New Mobilization
Kent State – Jackson State

After an attempt at “Vietnamizing” fighting in Vietnam and getting troops out, Nixon invaded Cambodia, the staging area for North Vietnamese troops, and enraged antiwar protesters. In a radical attempt against the war, students flew rampant breaking windows and other atrocities. Governor of Ohio James Rhodes, in response, sent in the National Guard and chaos ensued. After telling the crowd to disperse, the protesters politely said no when they started throwing rocks. As a result, the National Guard threw in tear gas and many protesters and innocent bystanders choked and dispersed. Untrained and unprepared for crowd control, the National Guard fired into the crowd. The aftermath included 4 dead with 2 innocent bystanders on their way to lunch. Ten days after this massacre, Mississippi police fired into a women's dorm at Jackson State College. The aftermath resulted in the death of 2 black students. These two massacres provoked strikes like none before. Many students who never thought of pushing a finger were now radical. The terrifying ordeal divided the US. Two groups were set: the radicals and the people who realized the onslaught created by the radicals' repercussions.
Terms discussed:

Vietnamization

Kent State

Jackson State
Legacy of Student Frenzy

The once radical protesters of the New Left dispersed after a group of 3 bombed a science building at the University of Wisconsin resulting in the death of another student which left the nation to condemn the tactic. After the dispersal, some aggravated students resorted to “streaking” (running around campus nude), but others dispersed in a more healthy hobby. The dispersal left students involving in women's rights, new careers, parenthood, or even mystic cults, but the most radical stuck to their plans by organizing underground movements to continue the antiwar movement. Backlash to this event escalated where a conservative resurgence was put into place when Ronald Reagan became governor of California. Impacts on this rebellion towards universities came with a less dictatorship lifestyle, dress codes and curfews disappeared, ROTC became an elective, not a requirement, minorities increased, and students were involved with the evolution of their education. Multiculturalism, the inclusion of minorities and women in textbooks, took a huge role in this victory for students. Also as a result, Many female activists became the backbone of the Feminist movement in the 70s.
Terms discussed:

Multiculturalism
The Counterculture

The student activists of the 60s led to another rebellion on the American culture. This culture rejected middle-class societies and preferred to make what they need, share with others, and not give into consumerism. These “hippies” used drugs, rejected employment, and confided in sexual activities. This counterculture, defined by historian Theodore Roszack, was “a culture so radically disaffiliated from the mainstream assumptions of our society that it scarcely looks to many as a culture at all, but takes on the alarming appearance of a barbarian intrusion.”
Hippies and Drugs

Instead of thinking of marijuana as a “weed” that killed mercilessly, the counterculture of the 1960s embraced it as a gateway into a world beyond belief. This “weed” became so popular that almost half the students enrolled were “high”. Some even tried hallucinogenic stimulants like LSD and professors got fired for proposed “acid tests” where they would give their students LSD and watch movies like Hair (1967) or Alice's Restaurant (1969) that stimulated the senses with electric rock music and neon strobe lights. Influenced by mysticism, these hippies embraced the perfect marriage of “sex, drugs, and rock-and-roll”.
Hippie characteristics include:

Shaggy beards and long hair

Wore surplus military clothing, ripped jeans, and tie-dye T-shirts

Experimented with marijuana and LSD

Despised consumerism and rejected normal society
Terms discussed:

hippies
Musical Revolution

Songs who protested the Vietnam War and racism were very popular during the second half of the 1960s and paralleled the antiwar and civil rights movements in youth society. In August 1969, the Woodstock festival enabled 400,000 hippies to indulge in rock music, drugs, sex, and their ideals on the government. This counterculture put forth the ritualistic murder of five innocents due to the madness of Charles Manson and his followers. Other catastrophes proceeded with a breakout of violence at a Rolling Stones concert where many patrons died. Criticism on the era concluded, two decades later, that the normal culture that proceeded the everlasting 1950s would never be the same.
Terms discussed:

Beatlemania
The Sexual Revolution

The sexual attitude of the 1960s rose through the “go anywhere, do anything” way of the counterculture. This feeling towards sex rose with the birth control pill and the option of abortion. Although many states barred abortion the Roe vs. Wade case went all the way to the Supreme Court and abolished these state practices. Another landmark case of the Supreme Court involved the right to own pornography for the individual's own use. Soon, success culminated in the viewing of rated R of X movies. Television was also affected with the inclusion of sex jokes and the casualty of sexual implications. Despite Congress's attempt to reduce this culture, it soared as movies, television, and books began to embrace this culture. With the moral implications of abortion, the birth control pill, and divorce, the baby boomers era ended when birth rates fell.
Terms discussed:

abortion

birth control

Roe vs. Wade
Gay Liberation

The Gay Liberation Front broke out in 1969 that revealed a new sense of identity and self acceptance of the gay culture. These groups fought for equal rights, the inclusion of lesbians in the Womens Rights Movement, and the removal of the immorality usually placed to the gay community. They eventually won their right to be classified as a normal sexual orientation compared to the previous mental disorder associated with being a homosexual. With the inclusion of sexual orientation on civil rights, many homosexuals came out of the closet and embraced their orientation.
Terms discussed:

Gay Liberation Front
1968: The Politics of Upheaval
The Tet Offensive in Vietnamese

Critics of the time laughed when Eugene McCarthy would challenge Johnson for the presidency therefore dividing a nation. He was implicit that the Democrats would enter into a policy of antiwar diplomacy. The Tet Offensive started when North Vietnamese troops invaded South Vietnam and made their way to Saigon. Even though American troops technically won the battle, it was a knockout towards American intelligence. It showed exactly how unprepared the US was for this war. The media emphasized the casualties and the threats of the North Vietnam which led many to believe the government was full of lies and denied their attention to the war. This gained the support of the public towards Eugene McCarthy (mentioned earlier) and dropped LBJ's approval rating to the point that stopped him from reelection.
Terms discussed:

Tet Offensive

Eugene McCarthy
A Shaken President

Many advocates of the counterculture cut their hair and decided to be “clean for Gene” to support Eugene McCarthy. However, the Democratic society saw a new, more familiar nomination in Robert Kennedy. In a last attempt by Johnson, he stopped all bombing of North Vietnam in the search for peace. President Johnson soon announced that he will not seek any more terms in office. Although his domestic plan towards the war on poverty would be easily forgotten by critics of the Vietnam War.
Terms discussed:

Eugene McCarthy
Assassinations and Turmoil

Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by James Earl Ray on April 4, 1968. People began to believe assassinations were a part of a group and not that just one man was responsible for assassinations of the same magnitude as JFK and MLK. In response to MLK's death black ghettos turned to violence: the exact opposites of Martin Luther King Jr.'s ideals.
As the 1968 election loomed, three Democratic candidates struggled towards nomination: Hubert Humphrey- LBJ's vice president, Eugene McCarthy- advocated a moral crusade against the Vietnam War, and Robert Kennedy- appealed to a poor audience towards upwards economic movement. Kennedy, however was, like his brother, assassinated. The deaths of Kennedy and MLK disbanded the democratic party and could not unite against the Republicans. All was lost for the democratic party. The abandonment of the democratic party led people to Richard Nixon or George Wallace. Richard Nixon appealed to the audience that appalled the activists of the 1960s. He promised to end the war with honor and restore “law and order” to the country. He advocated the “forgotten Americans ... who do not break the law”. George Wallace vowed to crack down on violence and to stop rioting in the streets. Radical groups outspoke their views on the candidates by threatening to infect the water system of Chicago with LSD. This resulted in the mayor to send in the troops to cause mass disorder that infected audiences watching at home. This crippled the democratic party and saw Hubert Humphrey's nomination.
Terms discussed:

1968 election

Richard Nixon

George Wallace

Hubert Humphrey

assassinations of MLK and Robert Kennedy
Conservative Resurgence

Nixon's policies for the election of 1968 included a bashing of the Supreme Court for giving rights to radicals, an approval of judges that would enact a “law and order” policy, and an ideal to limit the people on welfare and give them jobs. He also sent the US in a backwards direction asserting a doctrine of segregation. Wallace also backlashed against the welfare system and integration. Although Nixon won the electoral vote, the popular vote between him and Hubert Humphrey was neck and neck. The conservationism of Nixon and Wallace proved to dominate American politics during the rest of the 20th century.
Terms discussed:

Law and order policy

George Wallace
Nixon and World Politics
Vietnamization

The Nixon Doctrine implicated a new role in the Third World counties across the world as a helpful partner rather than purely military. Nations facing communism would be helped by the US, but they would have to defend the enemy by themselves without US help. The role of US soldiers in US became worse. Many experimented with drugs and also practiced the “fragging” of their own troops. Nixon advocated his three steps to end the war honorably. First, he practiced Vietnamization by replacing American troops with the South Vietnamese. After a year, however, the doctrine would not work. His second proposal sent Henry Kissinger to negotiate with the North Vietnamese to end the conflict. The last step included the escalation of bombing and air strikes upon North Vietnam despite his withdrawal of American troops.
Terms discussed:

Vietnamization

fragging

Henry Kissinger
LBJ'S War Becomes Nixon's War

The Vietnam war escalated into Cambodia and Indochina North Vietnam troops increased their offensive into Cambodia provoking the South Vietnamese. Nixon believed a path to bomb the North Vietnamese all he could would bring about the cause for peace and negotiation.
America's Longest War Ends

Henry Kissinger announced his peace plan that provided for US withdrawal of troops, the return of US prisoners of war (POW), and the allowance of North Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. This negotiation assured Nixon's reelection, but the South Vietnam president would not sign for a cease-fire agreement. This escalated when North Vietnam wanted greater accommodations and Nixon again bombed Vietnam. The treaty was reignited a year later, but North and South Vietnam strove towards an advantage proving the treaty to be insufficient. The Vietnamization of American forces was complete. The war veterans returned to America and were shunned by society and thought of them as disturbed and dangerous. All America wanted to do after the war was to forget about the atrocities committed.
Terms discussed:

POW
Détente

A new opportunity came through the report for the United States to accept the People's Republic of China. For years, the US had refused its admittance to the UN, or trade with its allies. China wanted to end isolation. The US wanted to put the two greatest communist nations against each other. Both of them wanted to stop Soviet expansion in Asia. Nixon soon announced his recognition of the People's Republic of China and flew there to show his gratitude. Nixon also announced the same kind of report with the Soviets promoting trade, technological cooperation, and the limitation of nuclear weapons. SALT I was created in order to limit missile systems, freeze nuclear weapons for five years, and committed both sides to equality besides nuclear superiority.
Terms discussed:

detente

SALT I

People's Republic of China

Soviet Union
Shuttle Diplomacy

After the Six-Day War of 1967, Arab states refused to negotiate with Israel of its right to exist. Palestinians turned to the Palestinian Liberation Organization and demanded Israel's destruction. With US aid, Israel was able to counterattack. In response, the Arab states cut oil supplies from the US and its allies. This proved fatal to US oil supplies. Inflation ensued as the US was looking for alternative oil resources. Kissinger advocated “shuttle diplomacy” where he looked for a cease-fire, Israel to cede Arab territory, and to end the oil embargo. The Nixon administration aided antidemocratic nations of Argentina, Brazil, Nigeria, South Korea, and Portuguese agents in Angola on the notion of their opposite stance against the Soviet Union. A Chilean disaster ensued when Chileans elected a communist leader. The Nixon administration reacted by completely cutting Chile off. They returned support only after Chile was overthrown by a dictatorship society. This showed that America was committed to its ideal of Containment.
Terms discussed:

Palestinian Liberation Organization

shuttle diplomacy
Domestic Problems and Divisions
Richard Nixon: Man and Politician

Richard Nixon, the man, was a very shadowy person who never revealed his true self to the public. On the other hand, Richard Nixon, the politician, was highly intelligent and controlled his every move. Nixon's true self was insecure, paranoid, and suspicious of enemies lurking around every corner.
The Nixon Presidency

America celebrated the moon landing and the defeat of the Soviets in the space race. Without a mandate, president Nixon developed wage and price controls, used affirmative action policies, and gave voting rights to 18 year olds. After a polluted river caught on fire, the emphasis on energy conversion was never higher. In response to this public outrage, new laws limited pesticide use, protected endangered species and marine mammals, safeguarded coastal islands, and controlled strip-mining. This put in place the first Earth Day to be celebrated on April 22, 1970. An overpopulation crisis came with this movement. Many believed the birth rate should not exceed the death rate. Nixon tried to beat the welfare system by offering a minimal income for all Americans. Conservatives hacked at this plan for the cost and the principle of the act. Liberals did not think it was enough to compensate for all Americans. The act eventually died in Congress.
Terms discussed:

Earth Day

space race
A Troubled Economy

With inflation on the rise, President Nixon tried to cut government spending and increase taxes. This resulted in the first recession since Eisenhower and critics condemned this tactic as “stagflation”, a merger of inflation and stagnation (slow economic growth and the rise of unemployment). Nixon went from policy to policy looking for a way to stop the dreaded inflation. Even after reelection, Nixon could not find a way to fix the economic problem of this time.
Terms discussed:

stagflation
Law and Order

In order to secretly divide America so he could win the 1972 election, Nixon opposed court-ordered busing and took a stand against criminals, drug users, and radicals. In order to continue his plans, Nixon authorized illegal investigations against thousands of citizens and used the government to its full capacity to help him win the election. Nixon initiated the Huston plan that infiltrated into the privacy of American lives and got to the point of breaking and entering to gather or plant evidence. FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover opposed the plan, but Nixon secretly embraced this plan to discredit this foe. The Pentagon Papers were placed in the media for all to see despite Nixon's skepticism. He did not want the secrets of his actions towards the Vietnam War exposed, so he battled the constitutionality of these papers. The Supreme Court, however, ruled the printing of the papers constitutional under the first amendment.
Terms discussed:

the Pentagon Papers
The Southern Strategy

Nixon hoped to win over the South by trying to re-segregate schools. With the judicial branch in his way, he planned to reverse the civil rights appeal of the Warren court. Appointing 4 new justices, Nixon once again beat the system. Nixon's Vice President Spiro T. Angew, encouraged by Nixon, verbally assaulted the democratic party and other aspects to the government's annoyance in the 1970 midterm election.
Terms discussed:

Spiro T. Agnew

Southern Strategy
The Crisis of the Presidency
The Election of 1972

Nixon was in great shape for the upcoming election of 1972. With the war gone, third party candidate George Wallace out of the race, and most of the solid south turned his way, Nixon should not have been so paranoid about his reelection. After easily winning the nomination, George McGovern dropped his vice president candidate that did not resonate with the public. However, when this occurred his political standpoint was drastic when other political figures would not run with him. His policy demonstrated income redistribution, immediate Vietnam withdrawal, $30 billion defense cut, and pardons for people who avoided the draft. Richard Nixon developed the CREEP (Committee to Re-Elect the President) organization to use dirty tricks to cause confusion within the democratic party. During one of his scams, his men got caught trying to install bugs in the Watergate complex by a security guard. With the event seemingly covered up, Nixon won by a considerable margin. This election proved to dwindle from the amount of attendants at the polls where voters did not seem to care for government.
Terms discussed:

election of 1972

George McGovern

CREEP
The Watergate Upheaval

Federal judge “Maximum John” Sirica convinced James McCord of CREEP to confess the Watergate scandal. The clues were beginning to unravel to the media leading them closer and closer to the president. Nixon felt he would survive the crisis when it was his word against the word of a fired employee. However, a bombshell was dropped when a presidential aide gave out information regarding bugs in the oval office to record every conversation. Chaos ensued when Nixon refused to give out the evidence. When Nixon tried to fire leaders who were against him, his own cabinet fell apart in the process of resignation. His approval rating went down the drain.
Terms discussed:

Watergate scandal
A President Disgraced

After a subpoena forced Nixon to reveal the tapes, he let them out in a censored version excluding the evidence. Impeachment procedures were put through. Nixon knew he was defeated, so he announced his resignation and gave out the tapes revealing the Watergate scandal.
Terms discussed:

Watergate scandal


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