Chapter 29: New Nations Emerge: 1946 – 1999 B

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Chapter 29: New Nations Emerge: 1946 – 1999
Before World War II, European nations controlled many colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. After the war, people in these colonies wanted to be free to make their own economic and political decisions.

In this chapter, you will watch colonies in Africa become independent and learn about apartheid. You will journey to the Middle East, where Israelis and Palestinians have been fighting for many years. You will read about Gandhi in India, and you will travel to China and Vietnam, where fierce wars were fought.

Goals for Learning

To explain how the countries of Africa gained their independence, and to describe apartheid

To explain the problems that exist between the Israelis and the Palestinians

To explain the two problems that faced Gandhi in unifying India

To describe the two groups that fought for control of China and to detail the outcome of this struggle

To detail the events of the Vietnam War


Map Skills: This is a topographic map of current-day Africa. That is, it shows Africa’s mountains, deserts, lakes, swamps, and rivers.

Study the map, then answer the following questions:

1. Which African coast—the east or the west—has the most mountains?

2. What are the names of three deserts in Africa?

3. What are the names of three lakes in Africa?

4. What are the names of three rivers in Africa?

5. What ocean lies to the east of Africa?


Reading Strategy: Summarizing
When readers summarize, they ask questions about what they are reading. As you read the text in this chapter, ask yourself the following questions:

Who or what is this about?

What is the main thing being said about this topic?

What details are important to the main idea or event?

Key Vocabulary Words
Lesson 1

African Nationalism: The struggle by native African people to gain their economic and political freedom from European colonial rulers

Pan-African Movement: A group that planned ways in which Africans could achieve economic strength and political peace

British Commonwealth of Nations: A group of nations that is loyal to the British monarch

Apartheid: The official policy of the Union of South Africa that refused to give black and other nonwhite people any political, economic, or social rights

African National Congress (ANC): A black nationalist group in South Africa

Demonstrate: To join together with other people to protest and march against something

Legalize: To make lawful

Multiracial: Having to do with all people and all races
Lesson 2

Displace: To move people from their home or land; to force people to leave their home or land

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO): The group of Palestinians dedicated to regaining from Israel their homeland in Palestine

Terrorist: A person who uses violence to frighten people and to get them to obey

Lesson 3

Passive resistance: A nonviolent way of protesting for political and social change

Lesson 5

Election: An act by which people choose someone or something by voting

Vietnamization: The U.S. plan to turn the fighting of the Vietnam War over to the South Vietnamese army

Lesson 1: Many African Colonies Become Nations

To explain how African nations gained their independence

To describe apartheid

African Nationalism

The struggle by native African people to gain their economic and political freedom from European colonial rulers

Pan-African Movement

A group that planned ways in which Africans could achieve economic strength and political peace

Between 1945 and 1990, more than 50 African countries became independent nations. The number is large because Africa is large. It has many different cultures.

Africa has three different geographic areas. The first is North Africa. It is the land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara. Muslim Arabs and Muslim Berbers live there. But they have different cultural and religious roots.

The second geographic area in Africa is the sub-Sahara. It lies below the Sahara. People from many different cultures live on the land south of the Sahara. The third geographic area in Africa is its southern tip.

What Is African Nationalism?
For many years, native Africans struggled to gain economic and political freedom from their European colonial rulers. We call their struggle African Nationalism. Beginning in 1900, the Pan-African Movement met several times to plan for the political independence of Africa.

The Pan-African Movement wanted Africans to achieve economic strength and political peace. To do this, they had to work with what they had in common. The movement helped native Africans and their descendants in every part of the world. The group trained people who became political leaders of several new African nations.

What African Nations Were Independent After World War II?
When World War II ended, North Africa had only three independent nations—Egypt and Ethiopia, and Liberia. At the southern tip of the continent lay South Africa, which also had self-rule. Between North Africa and South Africa lay all the other land of this huge continent. Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal controlled most of this in-between land.


Map Study: Independence in Africa
This map shows the political boundaries of each African nation and the year it became independent. Name two nations that became independent in the 1950s. What was the last country in Africa to become independent? How long has South Africa been an independent nation?

How Did World War II Affect African Nationalism?
World War II weakened the political position of all the European colonial powers. During World War II, more than 200,000 Africans fought on the side of their British and French colonial rulers. After the war, these people felt they had earned the right to rule themselves.

British Commonwealth of Nations

A group of nations that is loyal to the British monarch

Reading Strategy: Summarizing

Stop often as you read. Try to sum up the events using your own words.

What French Colonies Became Independent?
The European colonial powers denied self-rule and independence. France in particular did not want to lose its colonies in North Africa. However, Morocco and Tunisia—both French colonies— gained their independence.

France wanted to hold on to the colony of Algeria. The French went to war with the Arab and Berber people living there. This war lasted from 1954 to 1961. But in 1962, Algeria, the last French colony in North Africa, finally won its independence.

What Was the First Independent Nation in Sub-Sahara Africa?
African Nationalism also spread to the European colonies in sub-Sahara Africa. The first new nation in this area was Ghana. Its people gained their independence in 1957.

Great Britain had ruled this area—called the Gold Coast—for 83 years. The people living there named their new nation after an ancient African empire. Kwame Nkrumah was the new African leader of Ghana. He said, “There is a new Africa in the world.??

What Other Nations Became Independent?
Over the next 20 years, the “new Africa?? continued to grow. In 1960 alone, 17 African nations gained their independence. Because of this, historians call 1960 “the year of Africa.??

By the 1980s, more than 50 African countries had become independent nations. These new nations included Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Zaire, and Zimbabwe. Eritrea—the last area to gain its independence—became a nation in 1993.

What Is Apartheid?
Until the 1960s, the Union of South Africa was the only self-governing nation in the southern part of the continent. It belonged to the British Commonwealth of Nations—a group of nations that is loyal to the British monarch.



The official policy of the Union of South Africa that refused to give black and other nonwhite people any political, economic, or social rights

African National Congress (ANC)

A black nationalist group in South Africa

South Africa was different from the rest of Africa because whites living there controlled it. In 1948, the white-controlled government in South Africa made apartheid its official policy. This policy set blacks and other nonwhite South Africans apart from whites. White South Africans refused to give black and other nonwhite people any political, economic, or social rights. Whites also decided where nonwhites could live.

Great Britain and other nations protested this apartheid policy. South Africa then withdrew from the British Commonwealth. In 1961, South Africa became a republic.

How Did Black South Africans Fight Apartheid?
In 1976, a protest against apartheid turned into a riot. More than 500 people—mostly blacks—were killed. In 1983, a car bomb near a military base killed or injured more than 100 people. The African National Congress (ANC), a black nationalist group, said it had done the bombing.

As black South Africans struggled for equal rights, some used violence. Others did not. Bishop Desmond Tutu led nonviolent protests against apartheid. For his efforts to free South Africa from apartheid, Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984.


Jomo Kenyatta: c. 1890–1978

Jomo Kenyatta spent his life working for black rule in Kenya. As a boy, he attended a Scottish mission school. There he was called Johnstone Kamau.

As an adult, Kenyatta joined a political group. It was trying to change British colonial rule. Local government officials would not listen, however. In 1931, Kenyatta went to England to work there for the changes he desired. In England, he took the name Jomo, or “burning spear.??

Kenyatta returned to Kenya in 1946 and worked for independence. Then he was jailed for his beliefs and actions. After Kenya gained independence in 1963, he became its first president.

Reading Strategy: Summarizing

What important person is introduced in this section?


To join together with other people to protest and march against something


To make lawful

In 1986, the South African government said that blacks could no longer demonstrate against apartheid. That is, they could not join together with other blacks to protest and march against apartheid. But blacks continued to protest. The South African government put many black political leaders in jail.

Why Was Nelson Mandela Jailed for 26 Years?
On the first day that young Rolihlahla Mandela went to school in South Africa, his teacher gave him an English name—Nelson. In his native language, Rolihlahla means “he who pulls the branch of a tree.?? The English translate this word as “trouble maker.?? As an adult, Nelson Mandela did make trouble for those who wanted apartheid. He changed the history of his country.

In June 1964, a South African court sentenced Mandela to life in prison. The court said that Mandela had tried to overthrow the white minority government. The government wanted to silence Mandela because he worked to gain political, economic, and social rights for black South Africans. For 26 years, he remained in prison.

Who Released Mandela from Prison?
The South African government locked Mandela behind prison walls. But he was still a hero for black South Africans. In 1989, F. W. de Klerk became president of the Republic of South Africa. By this time, the black protest to end apartheid was growing stronger. President de Klerk legalized the African National Congress. (That is, he said that people could join it without breaking the law.) In 1990, de Klerk released Mandela from prison.



Having to do with all people and all races

How Did Mandela Help South Africans?
The ANC made Mandela its leader. Right away, Mandela called for an end to white privileges. For four years, Mandela and de Klerk negotiated over black political, economic, and social rights.

Finally, the two leaders agreed to a plan. It provided for South Africa’s first multiracial election. Multiracial means all the people and all races. A multiracial election means people of all races can vote. Because of their work together, de Klerk and Mandela were awarded the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.

In 1994, the people of South Africa elected Mandela to be their president. He served one term. Then, in 1999, at the age of 80, he retired from public office. People around the world honored him. He had broken down apartheid and united a divided nation.

Lesson 1 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.

1. Into how many geographic areas is Africa divided?

2. What is African Nationalism?

3. What is the name of the first nation created south of the Sahara?

4. How was the nation of South Africa different from other African nations?

5. Why do many South Africans and other people think that Nelson Mandela is a hero?

What do you think?

Why do you think the small white minority in South Africa adopted a policy of apartheid?


Lesson 2: Israel Becomes a Nation

To explain the problems that exist between the Israelis and the Palestinians

To describe the Arab-Israeli War and its outcome

Reading Strategy: Summarizing

What are some important details that help you understand why Israel was created?

More than 3,000 years ago, Palestine was the home of the Jewish people. But because of wars and troubles, many Jews moved to countries in Europe. However, in these places, some people persecuted them. That is, people were mean and unfair to the Jews because of their beliefs. For centuries, they dreamed of a Jewish homeland. There they would be safe; they could follow their own traditions.

What Homeland Did the Jewish People Choose?
In the 19th century, Jewish leaders began to discuss the idea of creating a Jewish nation in Palestine. By 1900, Jews were moving into the dry, desert land of Palestine. However, for many generations, Palestine had been the home of Palestinian Arabs.

How Did World War II Affect the Jewish People?
When World War I ended, Britain gained control of Palestine. In the 1930s, many Jews moved there to escape the Nazis in Germany. As you know, during World War II, the Nazis murdered over six million Jews. After the war, Jewish people wanted a homeland more than ever. They believed that only there would they be safe.

How Did Israel Become a Nation?
After World War II, thousands of Jews left Europe to create their own nation in Palestine. The British could not stop them from settling there. Finally, Britain decided to leave Palestine. The United Nations was left to control it.

In 1947, the United Nations voted to divide Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. In May 1948, the new nation of Israel was declared by Jewish leader David Ben-Gurion. The neighboring Arab nations opposed the creation of a Jewish nation.


To move people from their home or land; to force people to leave their home or land

What Was the Outcome of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War?
These Arab countries—Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria—attacked Israel. Nearly 400,000 Arabs in Palestine fled the area because of the fighting. These Palestinian refugees settled mostly in Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria.

The Israeli army quickly defeated the invading Arab armies. As a result, Israel gained most of the land in Palestine. Egypt and Jordan took the remaining land.

In the next 30 years, Israel fought four more wars against the Arab nations that surrounded it. Each time, Israel defeated their armies. However, the defeated Arab nations still refused to admit that Israel was a nation. Arab leaders even refused to meet with Israeli officials to discuss peace.

What Did the PLO Want?
These wars displaced many Palestinian Arabs. These people were forced to leave their homes. They ended up in refugee camps. They had no land of their own to live on. These displaced people demanded that they be given their own nation within Palestine.


Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

The group of Palestinians dedicated to regaining from Israel their homeland in Palestine


A person who uses violence to frighten people and to get them to obey

Some Palestinian Arabs formed the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). By the 1970s, many members of the PLO had become terrorists. They used violence to frighten Israeli citizens and to force them to leave Palestine. The PLO staged raids on Israel from neighboring Arab nations, such as Lebanon. In the early 1980s, Israel invaded Lebanon to rid it of the PLO.

Map Study: Israel in 1967

This map shows what Israel looked like before and after the Arab-Israeli War in 1967. What river forms the eastern border of Israel? What land did Israel occupy in 1967? What Arab country lies to the east of the West Bank?


Reading Strategy: Summarizing

What is the main idea of this paragraph?

When Did Children Get Involved in the Fight?
In 1987, violence spread to areas that lay south of Lebanon called the West Bank and the Golan Heights. Young Palestinian children and women put up barriers in the streets. Then they threw rocks at Israeli soldiers. They killed a few soldiers and injured others. But the soldiers also killed and injured some Arab women and children.

After this, the Israeli soldiers arrested hundreds of Palestinians. Israel believed that controlling the West Bank was necessary for its security. In fact, hundreds of Israeli families had already built homes in the West Bank.

How Did the Israelis and the Palestinians Work Together?
During the 1990s, the Palestinian Arabs began to work with the Israelis to obtain Palestinian self-rule. In 1994, the Israelis allowed the Palestinians to take control of much of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. (A few hundred thousand Jewish settlers and more than two million Palestinians live in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.)

Why Do the Israelis Not Want to Give Up Land?
In 1998, Israel celebrated because it had been a nation for 50 years. The Israelis had fought again and again to keep their homeland. However, the Palestinians did not celebrate.

Instead, the Palestinians called, once again, for the creation of their own nation. They began to argue and fight with the Israelis over land. The Palestinians wanted Israel to give up land in return for peace. The government of Israel thought that giving up land would weaken its security.

World leaders want the Israelis and Palestinians to negotiate again and to create peace in the Middle East. Both sides continue to search for the right solution.


Then and Now


Jerusalem is one of the world’s oldest cities. People have lived there for about 4,000 years. It was the center of ancient Jewish culture. Jewish kings ruled from there. King Solomon built the Temple on the Temple Mount. One of its walls still stands. It is called the Western Wall. Jews go there to pray.

Today the city is the capital of modern Israel. That country took control of East Jerusalem in the 1967 war. Palestinians also claim Jerusalem as their capital.

Jerusalem is holy to Christians and Muslims, too. Jesus taught in Jerusalem. The Last Supper and the Crucifixion both took place there. For Muslims, the Dome of the Rock is a holy shrine. They believe Muhammad rose to heaven from there.

Lesson 2 Review
On a sheet of paper, use the words from the Word Bank to complete each sentence correctly.

Word Bank






1. _____ occupied Palestine when some Jewish people returned to it in 1900.

2. _____ became a nation in 1948.

3. Israel was declared a nation by Jewish leader David _____.

4. The _____ is an organization that wants the Arab Palestinians to have their own nation.

5. In the early 1980s, Israel invaded _____ to rid it of the PLO.

What do you think?

Do you think the Arab Palestinians should have their own nation? Explain your answer.


Lesson 3: India Gains Its Independence

To explain the two problems Gandhi faced in unifying India

To define passive resistance

Passive resistance

A nonviolent way of protesting for political and social change

Reading Strategy: Summarizing

As you read, notice the topic, the main thing being said about the topic, and important details.

India is located on the huge continent of Asia. For much of its history, many different people speaking many different languages have lived in India. This happened partly because many different groups of people have invaded India.

What European Countries Took Control of India?
Since the 1500s, Europeans have traded with India. By the 1700s, France controlled much of southern India. In addition, the British East Indian Trading Company sold Indian silks and other products throughout the world.

In 1763, Great Britain took control of large areas of India. As time passed, Britain drove the French from their trading posts in India. In 1858, Britain made all of India into a colony.

Why Did Indians Want Self-Rule?
Many Indians did not want their country to be a British colony. They wanted independence. They felt that the British treated them as second-class citizens in their own country. New industries and transportation served British needs, not the needs of the Indian people. The best jobs in India went to the British.

How Did Gandhi Bring Independence to India?
In 1885, a group of Indian leaders founded the Indian National Congress. Soon, it developed into the Congress Party. Its purpose was to gain political power for Indians.

In 1920, India’s most important nationalist leader began to help India achieve independence. Mohandas Gandhi and his followers used passive resistance to fight British rule. This is a nonviolent way of protesting to get political and social change. For nearly 30 years, Gandhi led boycotts, protests, and work stoppages against the British. Finally, in 1947, Britain gave India its independence.


Reading Strategy: Summarizing

What important details will help you remember how India and Pakistan were created?

Gandhi wanted to make India a united nation. But he faced two major problems. The first problem was the caste system. The second problem was religious differences.

Why Was the Caste System a Problem for India?
There are four main castes, or classes, of people in India. These castes are divided according to work, money, skin color, and religious beliefs.

The members of each caste remained in the caste for life and followed its rules. For example, a person could marry only within the same caste. Another rule was that all the people in a caste did the same kind of work.

Gandhi knew that India could never be a true democracy as long as the caste system existed, so India’s new constitution ended it. This constitution gave every Indian the right to vote. It opened schools that would educate all Indian children. It taught all these students Hindi, the national language. In time, India became the world’s largest democracy.

Why Were Religious Differences a Problem for India?
The second problem that stood in the way of uniting India was religious differences. The majority of people in India were Hindus. They followed the Hindu religion. However, millions of Indians were Muslims. This Muslim minority wanted its own nation.

In August 1947, two new nations were created: India and Pakistan. Muslim Pakistan was further divided into East and West Pakistan. These two areas were more than 1,000 miles apart.


Religious differences between Hindus and Muslims led to violence. More than 500,000 people died in this struggle. Gandhi wanted to stop the violence. As a protest, he did not eat food for many days. But on January 30, 1948, a Hindu assassinated him. This man believed that Gandhi no longer supported the Hindus.

Lesson 3 Review
On a sheet of paper, use the words from the Word Bank to complete each sentence correctly.

Word Bank


Great Britain




1. In 1858, _____ took control of India and made it a colony.

2. In 1920, _____ began to lead the Indian people in passive resistance.

3. The majority of people in India were _____.

4. The minority of people in India were _____.

5. In 1947, part of India became the nation of _____.

What do you think?

Why would the caste system have kept India from becoming a true democracy?


Lesson 4: The Struggle to Control China

To describe the two groups that fought for control of China and the outcome of this struggle

To explain the role the United States played in China’s conflicts

European nations had colonies both in Africa and in Asia. China was not a colony. But Europe still had economic control over it. After World War II, China wanted to be independent from European nations.

What Two Groups Fought to Control China?
In Chapter 26, you read about the struggle between the Communists and the non-Communists for control of China. This struggle began in 1927. Mao Zedong led the Communist forces. Chiang Kai-shek led the Nationalists. For ten years their two armies fought each other. This civil war left China weak and divided.

What Happened When Japan Invaded China?
In 1937, Japan invaded China. Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong stopped fighting each other; they united to fight the Japanese. But neither side trusted the other.

Each side fought the Japanese in a different way. The Communists used guerilla warfare against the Japanese. In this kind of warfare, bands of fighters made surprise attacks against the Japanese and their supplies. The Communists worked closely with the Chinese peasants. The Nationalists, however, did not use guerilla warfare. They stayed mostly in the cities of southwest China.

How Did the Two Groups Differ After World War II?
When World War II ended in 1945, the fighting between the Communists and the Nationalists started again. Their civil war lasted from 1946 to 1949.

Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists had a large army. The United States sent them billions of dollars for weapons and training. But Chiang’s government was both greedy and inefficient. His military officers argued with each other.


Reading Strategy: Summarizing

What is the main idea of this section?

However, Mao Zedong’s Communist forces were united in their cause. Many of the Chinese people supported them. The Soviet Union—the first Communist nation—sent them weapons and supplies.

Which Group Won Control of China?
By 1948, the Communists had the upper hand in China. One city after another fell to them. As this happened, thousands of soldiers deserted Chiang’s army and joined Mao’s forces. By the fall of 1949, Chiang Kai-shek and his government had lost control of China.

Chiang and his followers fled the mainland of China and crossed over to the small island of Taiwan. After 22 years of struggle, the Communists set up a new government in China. They called it the People’s Republic of China.

Why Did Mao Zedong and the United States Not Trust One Another?
Mao Zedong did not trust the United States for two reasons. First, the United States had helped Chiang Kai-shek. Second, the United States had supported imperialism around the world.

The United States did not trust Mao either. The U.S. government thought that the Chinese Communists threatened freedom in Asia. The United States refused to recognize the Communist government as the legal government of China. Instead, the United States supported the Nationalist government on the island of Taiwan.

History in Your Life

Made in Asia??

Where were your shoes made? Your CD player? Many products like these come from Japan, China, or Korea. Since 1945, Asian economies have grown quickly. Postwar Japan had the fastest-growing economy in the world. Other countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong also grew. China, India, and Indonesia have developed more recently.

Asian nations differ greatly. Still, they share some attitudes. People will work hard for long hours. They want to learn new things.

For example, the Japanese studied other countries’ methods. They became efficient at making quality products. In addition, most governments help industries develop.

At first, Asian countries depended on selling their goods to Europe and America. Things have changed in Asian societies, however. A middle class has grown up in these nations. People can buy cars, color TVs, and washing machines. They travel and use credit cards. Asian consumers have become the fastest-growing market for Asian goods.


But in 1972, the United States changed its policy toward the People’s Republic of China. For the first time, the United States recognized it as the legal government of the Chinese people.

Lesson 4 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence.

1. The leader of the Chinese Nationalists was _____.

A Mao Zedong

B Chiang Kai-shek

C Lenin

D Gandhi

2. The leader of the Chinese Communists was _____.

A Mao Zedong

B Chiang Kai-shek

C Tojo

D Mandela

3. The Chinese Nationalists and Communists united to fight against the _____ in World War II.

A Americans

B British

C Japanese

D French

4. After the war, the two groups fought one another again and the _____ won.

A Nationalists

B Republicans

C Nazis

D Communists

5. In 1972, the United States recognized that the legal government of China was the _____.

A People’s Republic of China

B Nazis

C Nationalists

D Chiang Kai-shek Party

What do you think?

Why did Mao Zedong and his followers win the civil war in China?


Lesson 5: Vietnamese Wars for Independence

To show the development of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

To explain the role of the United States in the Vietnam War


An act by which people choose someone or something by voting

Writing About History

Choose a nation from this chapter that gained its independence. Research key events in its fight for independence. In your notebook, write the words for an imaginary national anthem.

After World War II, nationalist independence movements spread across Southeast Asia. In 1946, the United States gave the Philippine Islands their independence. South of the Philippines, the Netherlands gave freedom to Indonesia. However, France refused to free its colonial lands in Indochina.

What Did Ho Chi Minh Want for Vietnam?
Japan had conquered Indochina during World War II. The Vietnamese, under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, fought against the Japanese. After the war, Ho Chi Minh wanted Vietnam to be an independent nation, not a French colony.

Between 1946 and 1954, Ho Chi Minh and his Communist followers fought a fierce guerrilla war against the French. The United States sent aid to the French. The United States did not want another Communist government in Asia. However, in 1954, the Vietnamese Communist forces captured a French fort. Because of this, the French government decided that it could not win the war.

What Happened After the Communists Defeated France?
Ho Chi Minh and the French agreed to divide Vietnam into two areas. The Communist area became known as North Vietnam. The non-Communist area became South Vietnam. Two other areas in Indochina became independent: Cambodia and Laos.

The division of Vietnam was not meant to be permanent. The government of South Vietnam was supposed to hold an election. In an election, people choose someone or something by voting. In this election, the Vietnamese people would choose how to unite their country.


The U.S. plan to turn the fighting of the Vietnam War over to the South Vietnamese army

Reading Strategy: Summarizing

What important details help you understand the events of the Vietnam War?

But this election never took place. North Vietnam began a guerrilla war to unite Vietnam into one Communist nation. Communists in South Vietnam, called the Vietcong, joined this struggle.

What Did the United States Do About the Guerrilla War?
In the early 1960s, the United States began to send military advisers to South Vietnam. Their job was simply to help the South Vietnamese government. But by 1968, nearly 500,000 American troops were fighting a war in South Vietnam. However, many Americans protested this war.

The Vietnam War lasted from 1960 to 1975. In 1969, the United States government started to gradually withdraw its forces from South Vietnam. The American plan was to turn the fighting of the war entirely over to the South Vietnamese army. The United States called this plan Vietnamization.

What United North and South Vietnam?
After the United States pulled all its soldiers out of Vietnam in 1975, the South Vietnamese government collapsed. The North Vietnamese took control of South Vietnam’s capital city, Saigon.

The next year, North and South Vietnam united into one Communist country, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The government gave a new name to Saigon, the former capital of South Vietnam. It became Ho Chi Minh City.

After many years of struggle, the United States and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam found ways to work together. Trade between the countries increased, and the United States investment in Vietnam grew. There was more travel and tourism in the country. There was also a renewed effort to locate American soldiers that had been missing in Vietnam since the war.


Map Study: Southeast Asia
This is a current map of Southeast Asia. What large country lies on the northern border of Vietnam? Is Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) in the northern or southern part of Vietnam? Which nation lies to the northeast of Thailand?

Lesson 5 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.

1. Who controlled Vietnam until 1954?

2. Who led the Communists in their fight for an independent Vietnam?

3. What was the Communist area of Vietnam called? the non-Communist area?

4. Which army did the United States support in the Vietnam War?

5. What happened after the United States Army pulled out of Vietnam in 1975?

What do you think?

Should the United States have fought in the Vietnam War? Explain your answer.


Document-Based Reading
Statement of Nelson Mandela

This is an excerpt from the statement of the president of the African National Congress, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, at his inauguration as president of the Democratic Republic of South Africa. He spoke in Pretoria, South Africa, on May 10, 1994.

Today, all of us do, by our presence here, and by our celebrations in other parts of our country and the world, confer glory and hope to newborn liberty.

Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.

Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans must produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity’s belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all … each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld.

Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal. The national mood changes as the seasons change.

That spiritual and physical oneness we all share with this common homeland explains the depth of the pain we all carried in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in a terrible conflict …

We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom

We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success.

We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world.

Let there be justice for all.

Let there be peace for all.

Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all.

Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world.

Let freedom reign.

The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement!

God bless Africa!

Document-Based Questions
1. What is the disaster Mandela refers to?

2. What does Mandela say happens when each South African touches the soil?

3. How does Mandela say is the way to achieve success?

4. To what animal does Mandela compare South Africa?

5. What does work, bread, water, and salt represent?


Spotlight Story: The Spinning Wheel and Salt—Weapons of the Indian Revolution
Mahatma Gandhi was the father of Indian independence. He was a man of ideas, trained as a lawyer. Gandhi believed in nonviolence. He thought that passive resistance was his people’s best weapon. This is a form of nonviolent protest. It is used against laws seen as unfair. Gandhi believed that the force of truth could defeat British military force. Violence would not work.

In 1919, British colonial laws changed. Some Indian leaders organized strikes and riots against the laws. That led to a tragedy in the town of Amritsar, when British soldiers fired on a gathering of unarmed people. Hundreds were killed.

Gandhi decided to work for independence. In 1920, he became head of the Indian National Congress. The Congress Party became India’s largest political party.

Indian leaders wanted both political and economic freedom. Great Britain sold India a lot of cotton cloth. That made the colony a valuable market for British industry. Gandhi urged Indians not to buy British cotton goods but to spin cotton thread and weave their own cloth. He hoped that this would make India less valuable to Britain. The simple spinning wheel became a powerful symbol. Gandhi himself wore only homespun cloth. He was often seen beside a spinning wheel.

Gandhi told his followers to disobey unfair British laws. One of those laws was the Salt Act. The law made it a crime to make salt from sea water. Indians had to buy expensive salt from the government. In 1930, Gandhi started a “salt march?? to the sea in protest. He began the 200-mile march with 78 followers. Every day more and more people joined the march.
The march lasted 24 days. When it reached the sea, there were hundreds of people. They began to make salt the traditional way. They boiled sea water to get the salt out of it. More Indians joined Gandhi and his followers. Thousands of people—including Gandhi—were arrested.

Under constant pressure, the British changed many laws. In 1935, India won some self-government. Full independence finally came in 1947. When the country was divided, violence did occur. Still, India had won independence with two simple weapons—salt and the spinning wheel.

1. What is passive resistance?

2. Describe what happened in Amritsar in 1919.

3. What political party did Gandhi lead?

4. Why did the spinning wheel become a symbol of Indian independence?

5. What was the salt march?


Chapter 29 SUMMARY
In 1900, European nations controlled most of Africa. The Pan-African Movement led the struggle for African independence.

African nationalism grew after World War II. Ghana, a British colony, became the first independent nation in sub-Saharan Africa in 1957.

A minority of white settlers controlled South Africa. The policy of apartheid strictly separated nonwhite and white South Africans.

The African National Congress was one nationalist group. Its leader Nelson Mandela spent 26 years in prison for protesting apartheid. In 1994, he was elected president in South Africa’s first multiracial election.

After World War II, many Jews moved to Palestine, but Arabs already lived there. In 1947, the United Nations divided Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. Jewish leaders declared the new nation of Israel.

Israel won several wars against neighboring Arab countries. Because of these wars, many Palestinians became refugees. Some formed the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), which led terrorist attacks on Israel. In the 1990s, some Arab and Israeli leaders worked toward peace and Palestinian self-rule.

India was a British colony. Many Indians wanted independence. The Congress Party under Mohandas Gandhi fought the British, using passive resistance.

India became an independent democracy in 1947. People in every caste had political rights. Religious differences led to the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state.

Beginning in 1927, Chinese Nationalists and Communists fought a civil war. They united to fight the Japanese in World War II.

The Chinese civil war began again after World War II. The Communists won in 1949. Mao Zedong set up a Communist government—the People’s Republic of China. In 1972, the United States accepted the People’s Republic as a legal government.

Southeast Asia was a French colony, Indochina. Ho Chi Minh, a Communist, led the Vietnamese fight for independence. After a French defeat, Indochina was divided into North and South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.

North Vietnam began a guerrilla war to unite Vietnam under Communist rule. The United States helped South Vietnam. After the United States left in 1975, all Vietnam became one Communist nation.


Chapter 29 REVIEW
On a sheet of paper, use the words from the Word Bank to complete each sentence correctly.

Word Bank






Great Britain





1. After World War II, _____ was one of the independent nations in Africa.

2. Bishop Desmond _____, who worked to get rid of apartheid, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984.

3. The white minority in South Africa put Nelson _____ in jail for 26 years.

4. In 1948, David _____ announced a new nation: Israel.

5. _____ controlled India from 1858 to 1947.

6. Mohandas _____ used passive resistance to gain freedom for India.

7. The nationalist leader in China in 1927 was _____ Kai-shek.

8. The Communist leader in China in 1927 was _____ Zedong.

9. The Communist leader in _____ in 1946 was Ho Chi Minh.

10. _____ had colonies in Indochina after World War II.

On a sheet of paper, write the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence.

11. The South African policy of not letting blacks vote or choose where to live is _____.

A Vietnamization

B African Nationalism

C apartheid

D Pan-African Movement

12. In _____ soldiers hide, make surprise attacks, and set traps for the enemy.

A guerilla warfare

B multiracial

C persecution

D apartheid


13. _____ have fought the Israelis for land to set up a nation.

A Arab Palestinians

B Vietnamese Communists

C Chinese Communists

D Japanese

14. The United States used a plan called _____ to get out of a war in Southeast Asia.

A African Nationalism

B Vietnamization

C Pan-African Movement

D British Commonwealth

15. _____, the president of the Republic of South Africa, and ANC leader Nelson Mandela, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

A F. W. de Klerk

B Desmond Tutu

C Ho Chi Minh

D Yitzhak Rabin

On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.

16. Why did India divide into two countries?

17. What two Chinese groups fought over control of China? Which side won? Why?

18. Why did the United States fight a war in Vietnam?

Critical Thinking
On a sheet of paper, write your response to each question. Use complete sentences.

19. How would you solve the problems in the Middle East between the Palestinians and the Israelis?

20. Do you think Gandhi’s passive resistance would have worked to end apartheid in South Africa? Explain your answer.

Test-Taking Tip: Learn from your mistakes. Review corrected homework and quizzes. Correct any errors you may have made.


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