Chapter 29: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, and American in the 1960s

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Chapter 29: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, and American in the 1960s

Civil Disobedience- a non-violent form of protest used by MLK. An example is a sit-in at a segregated store.

Rowe v. Wade- a landmark USSC case that legalized abortions in America in 1973

Equal Rights Amendment –A proposed Constitutional Amendment to end gender discrimination in the 1970s. It never passed.

American Indian Movement- demanded rights and property that they said was guaranteed to them under their earlier treaties

Berlin Wall- Communist East Germans built it in the 1960s to keep EG from running away into the free side of West Berlin. It came down in 1989, signaling the end of communism in East Germany.

Vietnamization- Nixon used this term to transfer the fighting from American GIs to South Vietnamese soldiers.

Assassination of JFK- November 22, 1963 in Dallas Texas. The official report is that only Lee Harvey Oswald killed JFK and he acted alone. Many conspiracy theories stem from this report.

New Frontier- a plan from JFK that would help society and the economy, but didn’t last long because he died.

Super Bowl- The merger of the American Football League and the National Football League led to the need for a championship game. The first contest was played on January 15, 1967 Vince Lombardi’s Green Bay Packers defeated the Kansas City Chiefs.

Guerrilla Warfare- non-traditional/conventional (“hit and run”) fighting in the jungles in Vietnam.

OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries-made for greater control over oil production/sale.

Civil Rights Act of 1964: -Johnson signed it, and it was the most sweeping civil rights law in American history, called for protection of voting rights for all Americans, opening of public facilities for all races, and equal job opportunities.

Affirmative Action: -Taking positive steps to eliminate the effects of past discrimination in hiring which led to equal opportunity employment.

Mainstreaming: -People who are handicapped or have disabilities got a fair education too.

Great Society: -Branch of the New Deal from LB Johnson’s perspective. Which included the VISTA program, the Office of Economic opportunity. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Medicare, and Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: -The resolution gave power to the president as “the commander in chief”, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the U.S. This allowed LBJ to escalate the war in Vietnam without a Congressional “declaration of war.”

War Powers Act: -law helped reverse the precedent set by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The president, Lyndon B. Johnson, had to notify congress within 48 hours of sending troops, and had to bring troops home within 60 days unless voted to stay.

Equal Rights Amendment:

-A proposed Constitutional amendment that would grant equal legal protection to men and women. It failed to be ratified.

Draft (and Resisters): -American youth became increasingly hostile toward the Johnson and Nixon Administration and all war related issues.

Assassination of MLK Jr.: April of 1968, James Earl Ray killed him in Memphis, Tenn. Conspiracies exist.

Woodstock Festival: -Three day festival in Woodstock, New York in August, 1969. Goal was to promote peace, love, and rock ‘n’ roll. Much drug use.

Motown Music: -new type of music that was urban based (Detroit) in the 60’s such as the Temptations and Jackson 5.

Voting Rights Act of 1965- Act of Congress that ended literacy tests, ended poll taxes, and put an end to denying African Americans the right to vote.

United Farm Workers- a union of migrant farm workers that received poor pay and worked under hazardous conditions

American with Disabilities Act of 1990- Act of Congress that prohibits discrimination based on physical or mental disabilities. Example: new gov’t buildings must be “handicap accessible” with elevators, ramps, etc.

Cuban Missile Crisis- Khrushchev and the Soviets tried to deliver nuclear missiles in Cuba that could reach the US. JFK blockaded Cuba to prevent the landing of the missiles.

“Hawks” vs. “Doves”- differences of opinion concerning war.

Hawks- stood behind the President

Doves-Favored withdraw and end of the war

Southern Christian leadership conference- founded by MLK Jr. to encourage nonviolent passive resistance

Bay of Pigs Fiasco- JFK’s attempt to stop Fidel Castro. America armed and trained many Cuban exiles with the plant to invade Cuba and start an uprising against Castro. They were quickly crushed and this was a great embarrassment to the US

Peace Corps/ Vista/ AMERI Corps- groups that were involved in helping people in developing nations and here in the US. Created by JFK and LBJ

Assassination of Robert Kennedy- 2 months after MLK’s death RK was assassinated. Robert was a presidential candidate committed to civil rights

Counter Culture- certain people that were against traditional, conservative values (Ex: Hippies/ Beatniks)

Apollo II/ Moon Walk- President Kennedy committed to landing a person on the moon by the end of the 1960’s. By July 1969, the US lands the first astronauts on the moon and walk. Major victory over the Soviets.

Lyndon B. Johnson- became President after JFK was assassinated. He recognized the urgency of pushing forward with civil rights. He signed the Civil Rights of 1964 and passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but escalated the war in Vietnam with hundreds of thousands of drafted men and millions of dollars.

James Meredith- African American Air force Veteran, who tried enrolling in the all white University of Mississippi. That caused much conflict, but he eventually enrolled with federal troops escorting him.

Richard Nixon- Republican, President from 1969-1973, during the Vietnam War/Watergate scandal.

Beatniks/Hippies- “opponents of the dominant culture.” They were a new breed of Rebel. They were passionate, spontaneous, and free- counter culture. They were anti-Vietnam protesters. The 1960’s resulted in more drug use.

The Beatles-“Beatle Mania” starts in 1964 with their “British Invasion.” Introduced LSD and marijuana to popular music. There first number one hit was “I want to hold your hand.” More popular songs were “She loves you,” and “Please please me.”

James Earl Ray- Convicted of shooting Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4th, 1968 in Tennessee. He was racist against blacks. Some conspiracies surround this assassination.

Reverend, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

-Civil rights activist (nonviolent)

-Founded the S.C.L.C. (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) in 1957

-Assassinated April 1968 by James Earl Ray

Malcolm X

-Member and gifted speaker of the Black Muslims (“Nation of Islam”)

-He realized that he was being lied to by his “religion” and softens his views against whites/America

-Assassinated in New York on February 1965 by members of his religion for his new attitudes.

Henry Kissinger

-Wins the Nobel Peace Prize for making a peace treaty with North Vietnam in 1973

-Republican, Nixon’s Chief foreign policy advisor

John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK)

-Tries to land a man on the moon (doesn’t live to see it happen, but it happens under LBJ’s presidency)

-Started the Peace Corps

-Youngest president to be elected

-Helped improve relations with Latin America


-Bay of Pigs Fiasco—bad effect– Cuban Missile Crisis---good effect

-Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald---Conspiracy theories exist about who really did/plann it

Buzz” Aldrin / Neil Armstrong

-Apollo 11 commanders

-Moon Walk (no relation to Michael Jackson)

-“One small step for man, One Giant Leap for mankind!”

Medger Evers- A field secretary of the NAACP, who worked to desegregate Jackson, Mississippi. In June of 1963, Evers was murdered by a sniper outside his home.

Cesar Chavez- Emerged as a migrant workers’ labor leader. He started a union for migrant farm workers. The union became known as United Farm Workers. He believed also in nonviolent methods.

Ho Chi Minh- Founder of the Vietnamese Communist Party. The key military and political leader of North Vietnam. After the war ends, Saigon is renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor.

Robert Kennedy- Brother of the late president John F Kennedy, Robert Kennedy was a presidential candidate committed to civil rights. He was assassinated in 1968.

Lee Harvey Oswald- An ex-marine and Communist. The official history is that he killed John F Kennedy.

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