Super Bowl- The merger of the American Football League and the National Football League led to the need for a championship game. The first contest was played on January 15, 1967 Vince Lombardi’s Green Bay Packers defeated the Kansas City Chiefs.
Guerrilla Warfare- non-traditional/conventional (“hit and run”) fighting in the jungles in Vietnam.
OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries-made for greater control over oil production/sale.
Civil Rights Act of 1964: -Johnson signed it, and it was the most sweeping civil rights law in American history, called for protection of voting rights for all Americans, opening of public facilities for all races, and equal job opportunities.
Affirmative Action: -Taking positive steps to eliminate the effects of past discrimination in hiring which led to equal opportunity employment.
Mainstreaming: -People who are handicapped or have disabilities got a fair education too.
Great Society: -Branch of the New Deal from LB Johnson’s perspective. Which included the VISTA program, the Office of Economic opportunity. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Medicare, and Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: -The resolution gave power to the president as “the commander in chief”, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the U.S. This allowed LBJ to escalate the war in Vietnam without a Congressional “declaration of war.”
War Powers Act: -law helped reverse the precedent set by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The president, Lyndon B. Johnson, had to notify congress within 48 hours of sending troops, and had to bring troops home within 60 days unless voted to stay.
Equal Rights Amendment:
-A proposed Constitutional amendment that would grant equal legal protection to men and women. It failed to be ratified.
Draft (and Resisters): -American youth became increasingly hostile toward the Johnson and Nixon Administration and all war related issues.
Assassination of MLK Jr.: April of 1968, James Earl Ray killed him in Memphis, Tenn. Conspiracies exist.
Woodstock Festival: -Three day festival in Woodstock, New York in August, 1969. Goal was to promote peace, love, and rock ‘n’ roll. Much drug use.
Motown Music: -new type of music that was urban based (Detroit) in the 60’s such as the Temptations and Jackson 5.
Voting Rights Act of 1965- Act of Congress that ended literacy tests, ended poll taxes, and put an end to denying African Americans the right to vote.
United Farm Workers- a union of migrant farm workers that received poor pay and worked under hazardous conditions
American with Disabilities Act of 1990- Act of Congress that prohibits discrimination based on physical or mental disabilities. Example: new gov’t buildings must be “handicap accessible” with elevators, ramps, etc.
Cuban Missile Crisis- Khrushchev and the Soviets tried to deliver nuclear missiles in Cuba that could reach the US. JFK blockaded Cuba to prevent the landing of the missiles.
“Hawks” vs. “Doves”- differences of opinion concerning war.
Southern Christian leadership conference- founded by MLK Jr. to encourage nonviolent passive resistance
Bay of Pigs Fiasco- JFK’s attempt to stop Fidel Castro. America armed and trained many Cuban exiles with the plant to invade Cuba and start an uprising against Castro. They were quickly crushed and this was a great embarrassment to the US
Peace Corps/ Vista/ AMERI Corps- groups that were involved in helping people in developing nations and here in the US. Created by JFK and LBJ
Assassination of Robert Kennedy- 2 months after MLK’s death RK was assassinated. Robert was a presidential candidate committed to civil rights
Counter Culture- certain people that were against traditional, conservative values (Ex: Hippies/ Beatniks)
Apollo II/ Moon Walk- President Kennedy committed to landing a person on the moon by the end of the 1960’s. By July 1969, the US lands the first astronauts on the moon and walk. Major victory over the Soviets.
Lyndon B. Johnson- became President after JFK was assassinated. He recognized the urgency of pushing forward with civil rights. He signed the Civil Rights of 1964 and passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but escalated the war in Vietnam with hundreds of thousands of drafted men and millions of dollars.
James Meredith- African American Air force Veteran, who tried enrolling in the all white University of Mississippi. That caused much conflict, but he eventually enrolled with federal troops escorting him.
Richard Nixon- Republican, President from 1969-1973, during the Vietnam War/Watergate scandal.
Beatniks/Hippies- “opponents of the dominant culture.” They were a new breed of Rebel. They were passionate, spontaneous, and free- counter culture. They were anti-Vietnam protesters. The 1960’s resulted in more drug use.
The Beatles-“Beatle Mania” starts in 1964 with their “British Invasion.” Introduced LSD and marijuana to popular music. There first number one hit was “I want to hold your hand.” More popular songs were “She loves you,” and “Please please me.”
James Earl Ray- Convicted of shooting Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4th, 1968 in Tennessee. He was racist against blacks. Some conspiracies surround this assassination.
Reverend, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
-Civil rights activist (nonviolent)
-Founded the S.C.L.C. (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) in 1957