Chapter 26 The Civil Rights Movement

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Chapter 26 - The Civil Rights Movement

Section 1

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

  • The 1896 Supreme Court ruling Plessy vs. Ferguson strengthened segregation.

    • Plessy vs. Ferguson stated that separate but equal facilities was legal.

    • African Americans were forced to use separate facilities such as bathrooms, drinking fountains, movie theatres, schools and many others.

    • Many of the facilities were not equal and not maintained very well.

  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was organized to fight discrimination.

    • It’s goal was to “eradicate…race prejudice and secure complete equality before the law.”

  • After serving in the armed services in World War II, minorities wanted justice between the races at home.

  • When Branch Rickey hired Jackie Robinson, he helped to integrate Major League Baseball.

  • Harry Truman ordered the desegregation of the Armed Forces.

  • This is one of the few Civil Rights laws Truman could pass because he did not need approval of the Southern states.

  • The Korean was the first war in which African Americans and white Americans fought side by side.

  • Segregation in the Schools

    • Thurgood Marshal argued for school desegregation in the Supreme Court case Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka.

    • In this case, the Court ruled to end school segregation.

    • In 1957, nine African American students tried to enter Central High School in Little Rock Arkansas.

    • Governor Orval Faubus called in the state’s National Guard to keep them out.

    • President Eisenhower called in federal troops to protect the students

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    • Rosa Parks was arrested when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger.

    • The Women’s Political Council organized a boycott of buses on Parks’ trial day.

    • Martin Luther King Jr. urged African Americans to continue the boycott.

    • Some white leaders were outraged by the boycotts. Some even bombed King’s home.

    • After the boycott went on for more than a year, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.

Section 2

An Expanding Role for Government

  • Chief Justice Earl Warren believed the Constitution should be interpreted flexibly.

  • In Miranda v. Arizona, the Court Ruling expanded the rights of the accused.

    • “You have the right to remain silent…”

  • In Tinker v. Des Moines School District, the Court expanded the concept of freedom of speech.

  • John F. Kennedy was not only the youngest president in history but also the first Catholic president.

  • Presidents Kennedy’s Domestic Goals:

    • End Poverty

    • Fight Disease

    • Ensure Justice for All

    • Space Program

  • Kennedy had a wide variety of goals and programs however many were not enacted due to a less than agreeable congress.

  • Kennedy was not allowed to see the achievement of the many goals he had put forth. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 2nd 1963 by an unknown assailant.

  • Kennedy’s vice-president, Lyndon B. Johnson, was sworn in as the President shortly after Kennedy’ death.

  • Great Society : Expanded opportunity and provided a decent standard of living for all Americans.

Head Start: Free education for needy children.

  • To assist the elderly in paying medical bills

  • Medical Assistance to the needy

  • Assistance for paying for groceries

  • Medicare

  • Medicaid

  • Food Stamps

  • To provide cash payments to the poor

  • Builds middle and low income housing for needy families.

  • Welfare

  • Housing and Urban Development (H.U.D.)

Section 3

The Civil Rights Movement Continues

  • 1957 – Martin Luther King Jr. joins with other African American church leaders to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

  • 1960 – Four African American college students refuse to leave a lunch counter, starting a type of protest known as a sit-in protest.

  • 1961 – Freedom Rides take place to desegregate public transportation across state lines.

  • 1962 – James Meredith tries to attend the University of Mississippi and riots break out.

  • 1963

    • Massive demonstrations take place in Birmingham, Alabama, and police respond with Violence.

    • Nearly 250,000 people come together to support civil rights legislation in the famous March on Washington.

  • 1964 – President Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through congress. This act outlaws segregation, advances voting rights, bans job discrimination and brings forth school desegregation.

  • 1965

    • In King’s march for voting rights people walk from Selma to Montgomery. States troopers set upon the marchers with tear gas, clubs and whips.

  • 1964 – President Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through congress. This act outlaws segregation, advances voting rights, bans job discrimination and brings forth school desegregation.

  • 1965

    • In King’s march for voting rights people walk from Selma to Montgomery. States troopers set upon the marchers with tear gas, clubs and whips.

    • Congress passes the Voting Right Act of 1965, which removes barriers to voting and African Americans ability to register.

    • Malcolm X, once a believer in black separation, is killed.

    • Riots occur in the Watt neighborhood of Los Angeles in response to police brutality.

  • 1967 – Thurgood Marshal becomes the first African American Supreme Court justice.

  • 1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. is killed. Riots occur throughout the country.

  • 1970 – Affirmative Action, a program through which groups who were previously discriminated against get preferential treatment, is established. Critics argue that it gives unfair advantages in jobs and education

Section 4

Other Americans Seek Rights
Women’s Rights

  • Betty Friedan’s the Feminine Mystique criticized women’s limited role in society.

  • Friedan helped organize the National Organization for Women (NOW) which was a women’s advocates group.

  • NOW’s goals were: medical school and law practices hire more women and daycare facilities provided to working mothers.

  • NOW led a movement to ratify an amendment that would give equal protection to women. It was known as the Equal Rights Amendment.

  • The Equal Rights Amendment was proposed in 1972. The ERA was designed to outlaw any form of sex discrimination.

    • Argument for the ERA: Provide equal protection regardless of sex.

    • Arguments against the ERA: undermines traditional values, women might lose certain rights that already have such as, alimony and immunity from the draft.

  • The 1963 Equal Pay Act ensured equal pay for men and women doing the same job or amount of work.

  • Civil Rights Act of 1965 banned discrimination based on sex.

  • In the 1960s and 1970s, the number of women working outside the home and attending college increased

Mexican Americans

  • In the Southwest, many Mexican American children went to Mexican Schools, which were not as good as the all-white schools.

  • Mexican American World War II veterans formed the American GI Forum to challenge discrimination.

  • In Hernandez v. Texas, the Supreme Court ruled that excluding Mexicans from juries was illegal

  • Cesar Chavez was one of the founders of the United Farm Workers. He organized a nationwide boycott of California grapes. The boycott led to American growers agreeing to negotiate with the UFW.

  • The Voting Rights Act of 1975 was important because it established bilingual elections.

  • Legislation for bilingual education was passed.


Native Americans

  • The National Congress of American Indians had some success in regaining land, mineral and water rights for Native Americans.

  • The AIM was more militant. Armed members went to Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Its goal was to remind people of Native American treatment in the past.

Older Americans

  • Mandatory retirement means stopping people from working at a certain age.

  • The AARP championed health insurance for retired Americans.

  • Maggie Kuhn formed the Gray Panthers to fight age discrimination.

Americans with Disabilities

  • Organization for the disabled championed laws the required public accommodations.

  • The Education for Handicapped Act of 1975 guaranteed free education to those with disabilities.

  • The Americans With Disabilities Act made it illegal to discriminate in hiring practices.

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