Chapter 26 Imperialism, Alliances, and War Gita Kaw

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Chapter 26 Imperialism, Alliances, and War Gita Kaw

The Economic, Cultural, and Strategic Factors Behind the Expansion of European Power and its New Imperialism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

The New Imperialism -- Assert Western dominance over Asia, Middle East, Africa

..Colonies, Protectorates, and Spheres of Influence

..White Man’s Burden -- Duty to subjugate lesser evolved peoples

Motives for the New Imperialism: The Economic Interpretation

..Money vs. Power

..Economic Darwinism -- Fittest capitalist states engulf lesser fit ones

Cultural, Religious, and Social Interpretations

..Missionaries -- Brought benefits of superior civilization to “backwards” peoples

Strategic and Political Interpretations: The Scramble for Africa

Great Britain

..Suez Canal -- Allowed Britain route necessary to maintain control of land holdings in India. Started scramble.

France and Smaller Nations

..Congo -- France took this, much of W. Africa, Algeria, & Madagascar


The Irrational Element

..“Open Door Policy” -- Opposed foreign annexation in China so all nations could trade on equal terms
Emergence of the German Empire, the Formation of the Alliance Systems, and the Search for Strategic Advantage Among Europe’s Major Powers (1873-1890)

Bismarck’s Leadership (1873-1890)

War in the Balkans

..Areas of Control

..Three Emperors’ League -- 3 conservative empires of Germany, Austria, & Russia. Disintegrated due to Austrian/Russian animosity. Established to isolate France from Russia & Austria & prevent war on 2 fronts

..Jingoism -- Superpatriotism supporting Disraeli’s efforts to contain Russia from becoming a Mediterranean power

The Congress of Berlin of 1878 -- Britain & Austria forced Russia to agree to conference to review provisions of Treaty of San Stefano. Berlin as site & Bismarck as leader represent Germany’s new power.

..“Honest Broker” -- Bismarck’s self-proclaimed nickname b/c he used Congress of Berlin to avoid war between Russia & Austria he didn’t want to be dragged into. Broke up 3 Emperor’s League & ultimately made better alliances

German Alliances with Russia and Austria

..The Dual Alliance -- Secret treaty between Germany & Austria. Scared Russia away from relations w/ Germany

The Triple Alliance -- Italy joined Dual Alliance. Diplomatic success for Bismarck while stayed friendly w/ Britain & isolated France.

The Coming of World War I

1879 1878 1873

1912-1913 1911 1909-1908 1907 1905 1904 1902 1902-1899 1898 1894 1890 1888 1882

..Willhelm II (r. 1888-1918) -- Compensated for crippled arm w/ ambition & impetuousness. Believed he had divine right, wanted to rule world, & to have more naval & imperial power than Britain. Dismissed Bismarck & butchered foreign policy

Forging of the Triple Entente (1890-1907)

Franco-Russian Alliance -- France & Russia ofrgot mutual differences & allied against Germany

..General Leo von Caprivi -- Bismarck’s successor. Alienated Russia by not renewing Reinsurance Treaty so as to cozy up to Britain. Failed to end British isolationism & antagonized Russia for nothing

Britain and Germany

..“Splendid Isolation” -- Britain = Mr. Incredible. Germany = Buddy/Syndrome. “Fly home, Buddy. I work alone.” ~ Mr. Incredible. So, Señor Rivera hated this analogy. Stick it to the man.

..“Risk” Theory -- Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz of Germany theorized strong Navy directed at British Navy wouldn’t defeat it, but would weaken significantly until inferior to even France & America

..Boer War -- Britain faced hostility after crushing a rebellion by S. African farmers. No longer sure of value of splendid isolation

The Entente Cordiale -- Britain allied w/ Japan against Russia & later France to avoid Germany’s great potential enemy. 1st breach in British isolation

The First Moroccan Crisis

..Sir Edward Grey -- In response to threat of a German attack on France, he authorized conversation between Britain & France b/c their military & naval plans were mutually dependent & they were thus effectively, if not formally, allies

British Agreement with Russia

..Triple Entente -- Britain, France, & Russia, ranged against Triple Alliance. Germany & Austria Hungry geographically surrounded by enemies
The Origins and Progress of World War I

The Road to War (1908-1914)

The Bosnian Crisis

The Second Moroccan Crisis

War in the Balkans

Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June-August 1914)

The Assassination/ “Spark” -- Of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austrian throne in Bosnian capital, Sarajevo.

..Black Hand -- Political terrorist society a.k.a. Union of Death responsible for assassination. Chief of intelligence of Serbian army’s general staff conspired

Germany and Austria’s Response

..“Blank Check” -- German Kaiser & Chancellor promised support for attack on Serbia, giving Austria a “blank check” to move quickly while world was still hostile towards Serbia

The Triple Entente’s Response

..Mobilization -- Russia mobilized its troops in response to Austria’s aggression towards Serbia. Germany mobilized its own troops in response. Mobilization seen as act of war

..“Dear Nicky, Dear Willy” Letters -- Series of telegrams between cousins Tsar Nicholas & Wilhelm. Nicky didn’t want war. Willy didn’t like being told what to do

..Schlieffen Plan -- Germans to achieve quick victory by invading France through Belgium & Luxembourg. British couldn’t stay neutral at invasion of Belgium

Strategies and the Stalemate: 1914-1917

..“Jubilation” over War

..Helmuth von Moltke -- Nephew of Bismarck’s most effective general, Moltke assigned to execute Schlieffen plan while Schlieffen was dying. Accidentally strengthened left instead of right wing & failed by narrow margin

The War in the West

..Artillery -- Germany had better artillery than French. Actually okay b/c French troops were freed to be used against main German army

..Battle of the Marne -- France & Britain stopped German advance on Paris. Nature of war became matter of position, rather than movement

..Trench Warfare -- Stretched from N. Sea to Switzerland. Strategically placed machine guns made assaults lethal

..New Weapons -- Tanks. Poison gas attempted but ineffective. Nature of warfare quickly changing

..Stalemate -- Caused by trench warfare. Churchill planned to break w/ Gallipoli campaign


The War in the East

..Ludendorff/Hindenburg -- Junior German officer/elderly General. Dominated at Tannenberg & Missourian Lakes. More than 2 million causalities in one year

..Battle of Tannenberg -- Ludendorff/Hindenburg defeat an entire Russian Army. New phase of smart warfare

..Role of Nationalism -- Both sides tried to use nationalism to their advantage. Central: Make Turks unite Muslims in Europe, Africa, India against Britain. Allies were better at this

..T. E. Lawrence -- Guided Arab independence from Turkey based on allies’ appeal to nationalism

..Gallipoli Campaign -- Churchill’s plan to end stalemate by attacking Dardanelles & capturing Constantinople to get Turkey out of war, bring help to Balkan front, & ease communications w/ Russia. Failed & cost many resources/lives.

..Battle of Verdun/Somme -- Gen. Erich von Falkenhayn, successor of Moltke, underestimated defense at Verdun & lost after inflicting few casualties

..Henri Petain -- Commander of Verdun famous for “They shall not pass.” Boosted French confidence in its defense

Return to the West

The War at Sea


April 1915 August-September 1914

November 1918 March1918 November 1917 March 1917 February 1917 May 1915

..Lusitania -- German torpedoed British liner. 118 of 1,200 who drowned were American. After, stern warning from US, Germany rescinded naval power

..Submarine Warfare -- Britain didn’t recognize distinction between blocking war supplies vs. Basic food & peaceful cargo. Enraged Germans who used submarine warfare to destroy British shipping & starve it out. Converted area around British isles into war zones for even neutral parties

America Enters the War
The Russian Revolution -- March revolution was neither planned nor lead by any political faction. Result of collapse of monarchy’s ability to govern. Though public opinion had supported Russia’s entry into war, the conflict put great demand on Russia’s resources & efficiency of Tsarist government. Tsar unable to control demonstrations against his rule. Had to abdicate & Duma formed provincial government in his place

The Provisional Government

..Alexander Kerensky -- Moderate socialist who led provincial government but couldn’t curb public discontent w/ war, food shortages, & lack of necessities at home. Demands by peasants for land reforms undermined by government

Lenin and the Bolsheviks

..Leon Trotsky -- Lenin’s chief collaborator in his attempt at a coup. Lenin fled to Finland & Trotsky was imprisoned. Eventually established Soviet control. Organized coup that concluded w./ armed assault on provisional government

..Soviets -- Political alliance of workers & peasants who united around Lenin’s themes of peace, bread, & land. Bolsheviks wanted all power for Soviets

..October Revolution -- Failure of a right-wing countercoup gave Bolsheviks another chance. Trotsky, released from prison, led powerful Petrograd Soviets. Lenin returned & insisted time was right to take power. Bolsheviks gained control of Russia

The Communist Dictatorship

..Treaty of Brest-Litovsk -- Bolsheviks pulled Russia out of war because they believed war benefits capitalism. Signed armistice w/ Germany & later accepted this treaty by which Russia yielded Poland, Baltic states, Ukraine, and some of Transcaucasus region. Also agreed to heavy war indemnity. Allowed Russia to concentrate resources & efforts on domestic concerns. Height of German success.

..“Reds” vs. “Whites” -- Bolsheviks vs. those who opposed Bolsheviks in Russian Civil War (1918-1921). Tsar & family murdered. Trotsky overcame “Whites’” attempts to wrest power & Bolsheviks got firm control
The End of World War I

Germany’s Last Offensive

German Republican Government Accepts Defeat

..Underlying “-isms” as Causes -- Individual freedom, democracy, & free enterprise gave way to cynicism, nihilism, dictatorship, statism, official racism, & class warfare(-ism?)

..Role of Women -- Demand of munitions industries & shortage of men brought women out of traditional roles & into factories & other war-related work
The Settlement at Paris

Obstacles Faced by the Peacemakers

..Big Four -- Wilson (US), Lloyd George (Britain), Clemenceau (France), Orlando (Italy) met in/around Versailles to try & restore world order after costly wars. Too many complex issues made task much more difficult for them than it had been for those who gathered in Versailles a century before

..Fourteen Points -- Wilson’s idealistic war aims. Set right of nationalities to self-determination. Impractical as map of Europe couldn't be drawn to match ethnic groups perfectly to their homelands. Made compromise difficult

The Peace (Treaty of Versailles) -- Representatives of victorious states gatheres w/ goal to come up w/ peace treaty to contain Germany & establish new world order which would avoid all wars. Ineffective

Major Campaign and Events of World War I

*Please feel more than free to make any changes you deem necessary. I apologize in advance for the misalignment of certain events and their dates. Text boxes and I have a sort of love/hate relationship. Thanks!*
b/c wasn’t strong enough to deter future war & excluded Russia & Germany alone to fester in isolation

The League of Nations -- Association of sovereign states set up after WWI to pursue common policies & avert internal aggression. Ineffective b/c didn’t have armed forces at its disposal. Exclusion of Germany and USSR undermined its claims of evenhandedness



The East


..Clause 231 -- War-guilt clause which assigned responsibility of WWI to Germany alone. Germans didn’t feel war guilt they’d been assigned & thought its forced assumption of such war debt was unfair

Evaluation of the Peace

The Economic Consequences of the Peace

..John Maynard Keynes -- Most influential economic critic of treaty and Wilson. Took part in peace conference but resigned in disgust at its direction. His book, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, attacked reparations & other aspects of treaty. Weakened the treaty & led to US & Britain not ratifying it & leaving the League of Nations. Left France to defend itself w/out support of League of Nations

Divisive New Boundaries and Tariff Walls

Failure to Accept Reality

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