Chapter 26 I. Introduction



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Chapter 26
I. Introduction

1210- Genghis Khan and the Mongols invade Northern China from Central Asia. They destroyed numerous Dynasties.

1279- The last Song Emperor surrendered to Kublai Khan. Kublai proclaimed himself new emperor of China and the Yuan dynasty was born.
II. Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)

a. Guan Daosheng

As a woman, she became a successful painter, calligrapher, and poet. Though she painted Buddhist murals in Yuan Temples, she was known for her bamboo paintings. Fig 26-1 Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain, bamboo symbolized the ideal gentleman.
b. Wu Zhen

He was a member of the literati (scholar artist), who emerged during the Song dynasty. Literati art is personal in nature and the past. Fig 26-2 is Wu Zhen’s take on the bamboo plant.


c. Hunag Gongwong

Fig 26-3 is one of the great works of the Yuan Scholar artists. Over the years Gongwong added the details to his work whenever he felt compelled to do so.


d. Chinese Porcelain

Fig 26-4(Temple Vase) shows a delicate and a very technical medium the dragon and the phoenix represent the emperor and empress, respectively.


III. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

a. Forbidden City

The city contains three nested walled cities, the outer wall, imperial city, and imperial palace compound. (Fig 26-5)
b. Gardens of Suzhou

Chinese gardens stray from the rigid and formal palace architecture; instead the “scenic arraignments of natural and artificial elements intended to reproduce the irregularities of uncultivated nature.” Fig 26-6 Wehgshi Yuan, Garden if the Master of the Fishing Nets is 54,000 square feet. Fig 26-7 Liu Yuan Lingering Garden is famous for its rock sculptors.


c. Lacquered Wood

Ming emperors were patrons of the Orchard Factory. The artist of the table and drawers (fig 26-8) carved floral motifs and imperial emblems the phoenix and dragon.


d. Ming Court Painting

Fig 26-9 Guan Yu Captures General Pong De tells the story from an episode of the period of disunity. The wars of this time inspired one of the first great Chinese novels The Romance of the Three Kingdoms.


e. Ming Literati

Shen Zhou was a master of the Wu School of painting. He was a Literati artist and dedicated his scroll Lofty Mountain Lu (26-10) to one of his teachers.


f. Dong Qi Chang

Known as one of the most influential literati of the late Ming dynasty, he painted Dwelling in the Qingbian Mountains (fig 26-11) for the Southern School.


g. Fan Painting

Wen Shu was one of the finest flower painters of the Ming era. Fig 26-12 Carnations and Garden Rock is one of her fine fan paintings. Fan painting was imported from Japan.


IV. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

a. Shitao and the Primordial Line

Shitao studied classical paintings, but felt that he could learn form them unless he changed them in some way. His take on the classic mountain landscape is shown in fig 26-13. Shitao believed the primordial line is the root of all phenomena and representation.


b. European Influence

European Jesuit missionaries became a familiar sight in the imperial courts of china. They brought with them influences from the High Renaissance to Baroque, especially painting styles. A European artist, Giuseppe Castiglione, produced Auspicious Objects (fig 26-14).


c. Qing Porcelain

Potters at the imperial kilns expanded on the Yuan and Ming accomplishments. Porcelain was gaining wide admiration among Europeans. Fig 26-15 is a colorful porcelain dish. The dish shows important social changes in China.


V. Modern China (1912- present)

a. Marxist Art

When the Communists took control is inspired a social realism. Fig 26-16- Rent Collection Courtyard depicted the old times before the People’s Republic.


b. Heavenly Book

Artist Xu Bing came onto the postmodern scene with his large installation called A Book from Heaven (fig 26-17). The characters in the piece are all invented by Xu Bing.


VI. Korea- Choson Dynasty (1392-1910)

a. Seoul’s South Gate

Nandaemun or the South Gate was the result of a surge of building projects during the 1300’s. Fig 26-18 shows the strong stone foundations and the sophistication of the bracketed wood structure.


b. Chong Son

This artist was a great admirer of the Chinese Southern School painting. Fig 26-19 shows his piece Kumgang Mountains and his take on the traditional mountain landscape.


VII. Modern Korea (1910-present)

Song SuNam combined native and international traditions in his works. He is also one of the founders of the oriental ink movement. Summer Trees (fig 26-20) owes a great deal to the Abstract Expressionist.


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