Chapter 25—America Moves to the City, 1865-1900 short answer



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MULTIPLE RESPONSE
167. By 1900, American cities were becoming

a.

heavily populated.

b.

segregated by race and ethnic group.

c.

segregated by occupation.

d.

geographically compact.

e.

more homogeneous.

ANS: A, B, D REF: p. 539


168. The New Immigrants who came to America after 1880

a.

were mostly poor European urban workers.

b.

were usually literate.

c.

were from southern and eastern Europe.

d.

tended to settle in northeastern cities.

e.

were largely Roman Catholic or Jewish.

ANS: C, D, E REF: p. 543


169. Many native-born Americans tended to blame New Immigrants for

a.

the corruption of city government.

b.

low industrial wages.

c.

the degradation of life in American cities.

d.

importing alien social and economic doctrines.

e.

the rising American divorce rate.

ANS: A, B, C, D REF: p. 550


170. By 1900, congressional legislation barred ____ from immigrating to America.

a.

illiterates

b.

the Chinese

c.

contract laborers

d.

Jews

e.

socialists

ANS: B, C REF: p. 551


171. Carrie Chapman Catt argued that women should be granted the right to vote because

a.

women were in all respects the equal of men.

b.

in the city, women needed to affect such issues as public health and education.

c.

women should at least have the same rights as African American males.

d.

suffrage was the logical extension of a woman's traditional role in caring for her family.

e.

they were morally superior to men.

ANS: B, D REF: p. 563

172. In the late nineteenth century, orthodox Protestant churches were being challenged by

a.

the theories of Charles Darwin.

b.

the mounting emphasis on materialism.

c.

fundamentalist insistence on a literal interpretation of the Bible.

d.

the social doctrines of Catholicism and Judaism.

e.

African Americans' rejection of Christianity.

ANS: A, B, D REF: p. 552-553


173. Late-nineteenth-century novels often pursued themes of

a.

romantic sentimentality.

b.

social problems and conflict.

c.

the American West.

d.

the corrupting influences of the city.

e.

the dilemmas of the new woman.

ANS: B, C, D, E REF: p. 565-568


174. Leading pastimes of late-nineteenth-century Americans included

a.

bicycling.

b.

watching football.

c.

watching baseball.

d.

the circus.

e.

vaudeville.

ANS: A, B, C, D, E REF: p. 570-571


ESSAY
175. The arrival of immigrants on American shores in the late nineteenth century involved both push and pull factors. Describe the major motives that caused emigrants to leave Europe and come to the United States during this period.

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

176. Fear of newly arriving immigrants has been a constant in American history. With respect to the New Immigrants of the late nineteenth century, describe what the native-born Americans were concerned about. Do you think their fears were well founded? Why or why not?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



177. Do you think that the United States needed laws restricting immigration in the nineteenth century? List the kinds of restrictions actually imposed and state whether you agree with each restriction. Why or why not?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

178. Cite at least one figure in each of the following categories and describe the major theme of his or her work: a. journalism and popular writing, b. serious novels and poetry, and c. sculpture and architecture. Then tell why you think your choice reflects the reality of life in the late nineteenth century in each case.

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



179. What were the primary changes in American education in the late nineteenth century? What did the developments in basic public education have in common with the changes in American colleges and universities?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

180. What was the impact of industrialization and urbanization on late-nineteenth-century American churches, schools, and family life? Cite at least two changes wrought on each of these institutions during this period.

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



181. The text's authors assert that "women were growing more independent in the urban environment of the cities" in the late nineteenth century. What did the city environment have to do with women's liberation, and what forms did their new independence take?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

182. Explain the statement that the late-nineteenth-century cities "grew up, out, and apart." Had you been alive at the time, what might have attracted you to the city? What might have caused you to stay there or to go back "down on the farm"?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



183. In what ways was the city a "frontier of opportunity for women"? Name at least two women who seized this opportunity and elaborate on their experiences.

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

184. In what ways did religion begin to address the issues facing urban American society, and in what ways was it increasingly confined to a private and personal sphere?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



185. Describe the impact of the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin on American religious and cultural life? Why did many people find Darwin's ideas challenging or difficult?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

186. Some historians have called pragmatism "America's only distinctive contribution to philosophy." In what way might it be true to say that pragmatism reflected unique qualities of American society and culture? How would pragmatists respond to the charge that theirs was an anti-intellectual philosophy?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



187. Why did sensational journalism and scandal-mongering expand, even as Americans' levels of education and cultural achievement increased?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

188. Which post-Civil War writers best reflected the social concerns of the new urban age? Which writers reflected a nostalgic interest in the American or European past? Which tendency do you admire most, and why?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



189. Was the new morality and rising frankness about matters of sexuality and marriage a reflection of women's rising status, or part of an attempt to keep women in a subordinate place?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

190. How did the new urban forms of sports and recreation reflect both the greater opportunities and the greater stresses of big-city life?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



191. How were the growing social class divisions in large American cities reflected in the provision of different forms of art, music, and recreation for the elite and the masses?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

192. The text observes that even though urban Americans were separated by ethnic, racial, and workplace divisions, they also shared much of the same popular forms of culture. How did technology and industry contribute to this standardization in the cultural sphere? Were there losses as well as gains in the decline of popular or local folk culture?



ANS:

Student answers will vary.


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