Chapter 25: The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 key terms toussaint L’Overture

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CHAPTER 25: The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920


Toussaint L’Overture: Leader of the slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue in

1791; led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.

Mask of Ferdinand: Term given to the movements in Latin America allegedly loyal to the

deposed Bourbon king of Spain; they actually were Creole movements for independence.

Miguel de Hidalgo: Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians

and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.

Augustín Iturbide: Conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who joined the

independence movement; made emperor in 1821.

Simon Bolívar: Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela,

Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran


Gran Colombia: Existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and

Ecuador became separate independent nations.

José de San Martín: Leader of movements in Rio de la Plata that led to the independence of the

United Republic of Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and


João VI: Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to

1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.

Pedro I: Son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian

independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.

José Rodríguez de Francia: Ruler of independent Paraguay as dictator until 1840.

Andrés Santa Cruz: Mestizo general who established a union between independent Peru and

Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.

Caudillos: Leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in

defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.

Centralists: Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments

with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.

Federalists: Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than

centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.

Monroe Doctrine: United States declaration of 1823, which stated that any attempt by a

European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.

Guano: Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.

Positivism: A philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Comte; stressed observation and

scientific approaches to the problems of society.

Antonio López de Santa Anna: Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the

Mexican republic in 1835.

Manifest Destiny: Belief that the United States was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the


Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848): Treaty between the United States and Mexico; Mexico

lost one-half of national territory.

Benito Juárez: Indian lawyer and politician who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna;

defeated by the French, who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.

La Reforma: Name of Juárez’s liberal revolution.

Maximilian von Habsburg: Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of

French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867.

Gauchos: Mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.

Juan Manuel de Rosas: Federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded

loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.

Argentine Republic: Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise

between centralists and federalists.

Domingo F. Sarmiento: Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of

Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in

education and transportation.

Fazendas: Coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused

intensification of slavery.

Modernization theory: The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society

became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and

attitudes were abandoned or transformed.

Dependency theory: The belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but

were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were

achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.

Porfirio Díaz: One of Juárez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated

politics for 35 years.

Cientificos: Advisors to Díaz’s government who were influenced strongly by positivist ideas.

Spanish American War: Fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898;

resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the


Panama Canal: The United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part

of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panamanian isthmus.

Auguste Comte: 19th-century French philosopher; founder of positivism, a philosophy that

stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.

Mexican-American War: Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848;

led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces and loss of about one-half of Mexico’s national

territory to the United States.


Trace the causes of political change in Latin America.

Four external events had a major effect on Latin American political thought. The American

Revolution provided a model for colonial rebellion. The French Revolution offered revolutionary

ideology. The slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue, led by François-Dominique

Toussaint L’Overture in 1791, ended in 1804 with the independent republic of Haiti. The final

and precipitating factor was the confused political situation in Spain and Portugal caused by

French invasion and occupation.

Contrast the Brazilian move to independence with other Latin American independence


Because of political unrest and invasion in Portugal, the king of Portugal was forced to flee to

Brazil in 1820. In 1822, Brazil was declared independent with a monarchy ruling. This contrasts

from the rest of Latin America’s colonies as they fought protracted revolutions for independence.

Ultimately each of these colonies became republics.

Compare the centralist versus the federalist controversy.

There were many differences among leaders about the forms of republican government.

Centralists wanted strong governments with broad powers, while federalists favored awarding

authority to regional governments.

Characterize the liberal politics of the period from 1850 to 1870.

Liberals, influenced by the French and United States models, stressed individual rights, opposed

the corporate structure of colonial society, and favored a federalist government.

Identify the successes of reform at resolving the problems of race, class, and gender.

Women, despite participation in the revolutions, gained little ground during the 19th century.

They continued as wives and mothers under the authority of men; they could not vote or hold

office. Lower-class women had more economic and personal freedom but otherwise shared in

subordination. Public education became more open to women to prepare them for more

enlightened roles in the home. Most of the new nations legally ended the society of castes in

which status depended on color and ethnicity; in reality, very little changed for natives and

former slaves. Control of land, politics, and the economy was dominated by a small, white,

Creole elite that displayed rigid social structures.

Summarize the economic boom of the period after 1870.

The increasing demand in industrializing Europe stimulated Latin American economic growth.

Political alliances were forged to influence governments in their favor at the expense of the

peasants and the working class. Export products fueled the expansion and provided resources for

imports of foreign manufactured goods and local development projects. The developing

commerce drew the interest of foreign investors. Germany and the United States joined Britain

as major participants. The capital brought in was useful, but it placed key industries under

foreign control, and it influenced the internal and external policies of governments.

Generalize the ways that the United States entered the political and economic affairs of

Latin America.

The Spanish-American War of 1898 brought the United States directly into Latin American

affairs. American investment in Cuba predated the war, and following it there was direct

involvement in the Caribbean. Cuba became an American economic dependent, and Puerto Rico

was annexed. When Colombia was reluctant to meet American proposals for building the

Panama Canal, the United States backed a revolution in Panama and gained exclusive rights over

the canal. Latin Americans, as a consequence, became very suspicious of the expansionist United


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