1791; led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
deposed Bourbon king of Spain; they actually were Creole movements for independence.
and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.
independence movement; made emperor in 1821.
Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran
Gran Colombia: Existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and
Ecuador became separate independent nations.
United Republic of Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and
João VI: Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to
1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.
independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.
with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.
centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.
scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Mexican republic in 1835.
lost one-half of national territory.
defeated by the French, who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.
French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867.
loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
between centralists and federalists.
education and transportation.
intensification of slavery.
became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and
attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
Dependency theory: The belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but
were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were
achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.
Porfirio Díaz: One of Juárez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated
politics for 35 years.
resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the
Panama Canal: The United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part
of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panamanian isthmus.
stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces and loss of about one-half of Mexico’s national
territory to the United States.
CLASS DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
Trace the causes of political change in Latin America.
Four external events had a major effect on Latin American political thought. The American
Revolution provided a model for colonial rebellion. The French Revolution offered revolutionary
ideology. The slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue, led by François-Dominique
Toussaint L’Overture in 1791, ended in 1804 with the independent republic of Haiti. The final
and precipitating factor was the confused political situation in Spain and Portugal caused by
French invasion and occupation.
Contrast the Brazilian move to independence with other Latin American independence
Because of political unrest and invasion in Portugal, the king of Portugal was forced to flee to
Brazil in 1820. In 1822, Brazil was declared independent with a monarchy ruling. This contrasts
from the rest of Latin America’s colonies as they fought protracted revolutions for independence.
Ultimately each of these colonies became republics.
Compare the centralist versus the federalist controversy.
There were many differences among leaders about the forms of republican government.
Centralists wanted strong governments with broad powers, while federalists favored awarding
authority to regional governments.
Liberals, influenced by the French and United States models, stressed individual rights, opposed
the corporate structure of colonial society, and favored a federalist government.
Identify the successes of reform at resolving the problems of race, class, and gender.
Women, despite participation in the revolutions, gained little ground during the 19th century.
They continued as wives and mothers under the authority of men; they could not vote or hold
office. Lower-class women had more economic and personal freedom but otherwise shared in
subordination. Public education became more open to women to prepare them for more
enlightened roles in the home. Most of the new nations legally ended the society of castes in
which status depended on color and ethnicity; in reality, very little changed for natives and
former slaves. Control of land, politics, and the economy was dominated by a small, white,
Creole elite that displayed rigid social structures.
Summarize the economic boom of the period after 1870.
The increasing demand in industrializing Europe stimulated Latin American economic growth.
Political alliances were forged to influence governments in their favor at the expense of the
peasants and the working class. Export products fueled the expansion and provided resources for
imports of foreign manufactured goods and local development projects. The developing
commerce drew the interest of foreign investors. Germany and the United States joined Britain
as major participants. The capital brought in was useful, but it placed key industries under
foreign control, and it influenced the internal and external policies of governments.
The Spanish-American War of 1898 brought the United States directly into Latin American
affairs. American investment in Cuba predated the war, and following it there was direct
involvement in the Caribbean. Cuba became an American economic dependent, and Puerto Rico
was annexed. When Colombia was reluctant to meet American proposals for building the
Panama Canal, the United States backed a revolution in Panama and gained exclusive rights over