Chapter 25 – The New Imperialism Section 1-a western-Dominated World

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Chapter 25 – The New Imperialism

Section 1-A Western-Dominated World.
In late 1800s Western industrial nations become imperialists and dominate much of world
The New Imperialism and Its Causes.
Imperialism–the domination of one country of political, economic, culture of another region
1800s-Europeans embark on aggressive expansion today called the “new imperialism
There are a combination of causes for their “new imperialism.”


Industrial Revolutionneed access to raw materials & new markets for the factory goods

-rubber-petroleum-manganese for steel-palm oil for machinery

Political and Military

-Europeans have steam-driven ships that need naval bases to take on coal & supplies

-need to keep up with rivals


Europeans seek the prestige of a global empire


-some see it as their duty to share/spread western civilization

*medicine*law*missionaries spread Christian religion

-Social Darwinism-the West applied Darwin’s ideas of survival of the fittest to society

*idea that European races are seen as superior to all others

Success of Western Imperialism

In just a few decades (1870-1914) imperialist nations gain control over most of world


-Comparative Strength-West grows strong while older civilizations decline

-West has strong economy, government, and military

-new medicines: quinine (malaria)

-new/superior technology

*Maxim machine guns*warships

Forms of Imperial Rule

1. Colonies

-Direct rule-used by France-officials & soldiers sent to rule & impose culture

-Indirect rule-used by Britain-local rulers are kept in place to administer the colony

2. Protectorates

-Local rulers are left in place but expected to obey European advisers

3. Spheres of Influence

-country claims exclusive rights/privileges in a rgion

Section 2-The Partition of Africa.
1787-Britain organizes Sierra Leone in West Africa as colony for former slaves

1847-Liberia-former U.S. slaves-becomes independent republic

European Contacts Increase

-early on Europeans trade on African coast

-later explorers push into the interior

-David Livingston

-Henry Stanley-sets out to find Livingstone

*1871-finally tracks Livingstone down in Tanzania

*greets him with the now legendary line: “Dr. Livingstone, I presume.”
A Scramble for Colonies

-King Leopold II (1835-1909) later hires Stanley to explore Congo and arrange treaties

*1885- Leopold II-king of Belgium-becomes king of independent state of Congo

-Belgium government takes over in 1908 due to Belgian exploitation

King Leopold’s activities in Congo sets off “scramble” of other European nations
Berlin Conference

-Europeans want to avoid bloodshed in the rush to colonize Africa

hold an international conference

*No Africans are invited to the meeting

-Europeans come to agreement regarding:

* Leopold’s private claims to Congo Free State

* Free trade on the Congo and Niger rivers

* European nation needs office in any claimed territory

Section 3-European Challenges to Muslim World
1798-Napoleon Bonaparte invades Egypt

opens new era for Europeans

Empires in Decline

-1700s-all three Muslim empires are in decline because:

* Central governments lost control over powerful groups like landowning nobles, military

elites, and urban craft guilds

* Corruption in government

* Muslim scholars stir discontent against existing government

Problems for Ottoman Empire

-1800s-ambitious provincial rulers increase their powerssignal Ottoman decay

Nationalist Revolts

-Internal revolts due to nationalism weaken the multi-ethnic Ottoman empire

*different ethnic groups threaten to break away

*revolts erupt throughout the empire

Efforts to Westernize

1908-Young Turks-liberal group overthrow sultan

-but reforms stall due to start of WWI in 1914
Massacre of Armenians

-Muslim Turks (majority) vs Christian Armenians (minority)

*Genocide-the deliberate destruction of an ethnic or religious group
Egypt Seeks to Modernize

-Muhammad Ali-successful reformer-known as “father of modern Egypt”

-1869-Suez Canal opens

*100 mile waterway that links Mediterranean and Red seas

*1875-Britain gains control of Suez Canal by buying shares from ruler of Egypt

*1982-Britain makes Egypt its protectorate


-discovery of oilboth Russia & Britain set up spheres of influence in Iran

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