Chapter 24: Imperialism: 1840 – 1914 I



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Chapter 24: Imperialism: 1840 – 1914
In this chapter you will learn about imperialism, when European powers took control of Asia and Africa. There were several reasons for this. Manufacturers in Europe needed new natural resources. Some missionaries and doctors were concerned for the well being of people in these countries. Another reason was that many Europeans thought they were superior to everyone else. They thought it was up to them to “improve?? life for the people in these countries. The results were often violent.

Goals for Learning

To explain imperialism

To describe the effects of imperialism on Asia

To describe the effects of imperialism on Africa
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Imperialism


Map Skills: Between 1850 and 1900, the world went through great change. By 1900, a few powerful nations dominated the map. Many countries in Europe had huge empires in Africa and Asia. The European powers divided nearly all of Africa among themselves. Outsiders also controlled much of Asia. This map shows European and American imperialism in Africa, Europe, and Asia.

Study the map, then answer the following questions:



1. Which European power controlled the largest empire?

2. What country controlled the island of Madagascar, off the east African coast??

3. What are the names of three African colonies that Portugal controlled?

4. What were the major Dutch colonies in Asia?

5. What country controlled Australia?

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Reading Strategy: Predicting
Previewing a text helps prepare readers look for new information—to predict what will come next. A prediction is your best guess about what might happen next.:

As you read the text, notice details that could help you make predictions.

While you read, check your predictions.

You may have to change your predictions as you learn more information.



Key Vocabulary Words
Lesson 1

Imperialism: Control or influence a powerful nation has over a weaker nation

Colonialism: The controlling of colonies; another name for imperialism

Market: A place to sell goods

Mother country: A nation that controls a colony
Lesson 2

Sphere of influence: An area in which only one foreign country can trade


Lesson 3

Protectorate: An independent country whose foreign policy is controlled by a major power


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Lesson 1: Imperialism
Objectives

To explain how industrialization and nationalism helped spread imperialism

To describe how people’s attitudes and the quest for military power helped imperialism

Reading Strategy: Predicting

Preview the lesson title. Predict what you will learn in this lesson.



Imperialism

Control or influence a powerful nation has over a weaker nation



Colonialism

The controlling of colonies; another name for imperialism



Market

A place to sell goods



Mother country

A nation that controls a colony



Imperialism occurs when a powerful nation controls a weaker nation. During the 1500s, many European countries set up colonies in the Americas. Spain controlled most of Latin America and England controlled most of North America. Colonialism, or the controlling of colonies, is another name for imperialism.

By the beginning of the 1800s, however, wars like the American Revolutionary War had changed Europe’s opinion about colonialism. Colonies seemed to cause more trouble than they were worth. However, by 1900, the industrialized countries of Europe, Japan, and the United States controlled nearly the whole world. How did this happen? There are many reasons.



How Did Industrialism Help Imperialism?
The Industrial Revolution was one reason why imperialism spread. Factory owners in industrialized nations needed the natural resources and raw materials of other countries. To keep their factories running, they needed coal, iron ore, gold, silver, tin, and copper. They could get these from colonies.

These same nations needed places to sell their manufactured goods. That is, they needed markets. By taking over colonies, they could control markets. Each major nation let its colonies buy only those goods manufactured in the mother country—the nation that controls a colony.



How Did Nationalism Help Imperialism?
Some countries thought that an empire would make them look important in the eyes of the world. Italy, Germany, Japan, and the United States thought colonies would make them as powerful as England and France. Many countries agreed with the statement that “there has never been a great power without great colonies.??

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Reading Strategy: Predicting

This about what you predicted earlier. Was your prediction correct, or do you need to change your prediction?


How Did Militarism Help Imperialism?
In the late 1800s, many countries built up their military power. Sea power was especially important, because it helped nations control trade routes. Mother countries could use their colonies as military bases. Ships from these mother countries could stop at colonial ports to get supplies for the military.

What Attitudes Helped Promote Imperialism?
Many people in Europe and the United States thought that they were better than people from the East. They thought that these people—especially Africans and Asians—were ignorant and uncivilized. Westerners believed that they should bring Christianity and western civilization to these countries.

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Lesson 1 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.

1. What is imperialism?

2. Why did many countries lose interest in imperialism at the beginning of the 1800s?

3. What is the connection between the Industrial Revolution and imperialism?

4. What is the connection between nationalism and imperialism?

5. Why do you think Europeans and Americans thought of themselves as better than people from Africa and Asia?

What do you think?

Was imperialism a good thing? Explain your answer.

Then and Now



The Color Khaki

During the American Revolution, British soldiers wore white pants, a shiny black hat, and a bright red coat. Because of these bright coats, people called them “redcoats?? or “lobster backs.?? Their uniforms looked great in a parade, but an enemy could easily see these red coats.

Years later, while fighting in India, the British soldiers decided to make the enemy’s job harder. They covered their uniforms with brown dirt in the dry season and with mud in the wet season. In time, the British adopted the dull yellowish-brown color of Indian dirt for their battle uniforms. Today, we call this “khaki.?? It comes from the Indian word for dust.

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Lesson 2: The Effect of Imperialism on Asia
Objectives

To explain why India was important to Britain

To explain why Southeast Asia was important to Europe

To describe how Japan became imperialistic

By the 1600s, Britain was the greatest sea power in the world. It was also the most industrialized country and the country that did the most trading. Because of all this, Britain wanted colonies in Asia. Soon, the British would brag that “the sun never sets on the British empire.??

Why Was India Important to Britain?
The Mogul Empire ruled most of India in the 1500s and 1600s, but it collapsed in 1707. India was then divided into many weak, independent states. By the mid-1700s, France and Britain were fighting each other for control of India. Britain won. At first, the British ruled India through a privately owned company—the British East India Company. However, in 1858, the British government took over direct rule of India.

India won its independence in 1947. But for nearly 100 years, India was very important to Britain. It provided Britain with natural resources and raw materials for industry. Its large population also provided an important market for British goods.

Because India was important to Britain, the British did everything they could to protect India from other imperialistic countries. In the late 1800s, Russia threatened India on its northwest boundaries. To protect India, Britain took over neighboring Afghanistan.
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Map Study: Spheres of Influence in China to 1911


This map shows the spheres of influences, or trading areas, in China that existed until 1911. Which European power had a sphere of influence along the Yangtze River? Which country had a sphere of influence in Korea? In what lands did the French have a sphere of influence?

Reading Strategy: Predicting

Based on what you have just read, predict what will happen to Southeast Asia as imperialism spreads.



Why Was Southeast Asia Important to Europe?
France also threatened British interests in India. France took over much of Southeast Asia, an area that became known as French Indochina. (Today, this area includes the countries of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.) The British took over Burma to keep the French from expanding westward. (India lies to the west of Burma, now called Myanmar.) Soon Ceylon, Malaya, and Singapore also fell under British control.

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Sphere of influence

An area in which only one foreign country can trade



When Did Europe Insist on More Trade with China?
China lies east of India. For years Chinese rulers had allowed only limited trade with other countries. By the late 1800s, however, this limited trade no longer satisfied the Europeans. They forced China to give them special trade rights. After 1842, Great Britain, France, Germany, and Russia took over Chinese land and important sea ports. These nations divided China up into four different trading areas. Each European power controlled the trade in one of these areas. Historians call this a sphere of influence. The Europeans said that China was still an independent country. However, its rulers had no say in the European-controlled trade.

What Happened in Japan in 1867?
For a while, people thought that Japan, too, might fall to Europe’s imperialism. However, a revolution in 1867 ended the rule of the shogun and returned political power to Emperor Meiji. This revolution brought great change to Japan.

After 1867, new leaders governed Japan in the emperor’s name. They introduced many reforms, and Japan set out to become a modern, industrialized nation. It adopted western ideas in transportation and education. It abolished feudalism. Then the Japanese leaders wrote a constitution based on the German system Bismarck had developed.



How Did Japan Become Imperialistic?
Next, Japan began to develop a western-style army. In 1876, its leaders passed a law that ordered all young men to serve in the army. Soon Japan had a modern army and navy. Japan used its new military power to become imperialistic. From 1894 to 1895, it went to war with China. China lost and had to give Japan some of its territory.

In 1904, Japan went to war with Russia and won again. It took over Korea and gained important trading rights in Russian controlled lands in China. Like many European countries, Japan was now an imperialistic world power.

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Lesson 2 Review
On a sheet of paper, use the words from the Word Bank to complete each sentence correctly.

1. In 1858, _____ took over direct rule of India.

2. In the late 1800s, Great Britain took over _____.

3. In the late 1800s, _____ took over much of Southeast Asia.

4. _____ became a military power after its revolution in 1867.

5. Japan became a world power after it defeated China in 1895 and _____ in 1904.

What do you think?

China was once the most powerful and richest country in the world. But in the 1800s, Europeans began to control its trade. Why did that happen?

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Lesson 3: The Effect of Imperialism on Africa
Objectives

To identify colonies that Britain controlled in Africa

To Identify other countries that controlled colonies in Africa

To describe how Europeans treated native people



Reading Strategy: Predicting

Based on the first two lessons in this chapter, how do you think the Africans will be treated by other countries?



Protectorate

An independent country whose foreign policy is controlled by a major power

As you know, Europeans wanted colonies in Asia. They wanted them in Africa, too. In the 1870s, Europeans raced one another for colonies there.

What Colonies Did Britain Control in Africa?
By the end of the 1800s, Great Britain controlled what are now the nations of Sudan, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda. In 1900, it took over Nigeria. South Africa became a British colony in 1909.

In 1859, workers began to build the Suez Canal. When it was finished over 10 years later, it connected the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The canal made the trip from Europe to India and the Far East much shorter. In 1875, Britain took control of the canal.


A few years later, Egypt became a British protectorate. As a protectorate, Egypt stayed independent, but Britain controlled its foreign policy. In return, Britain protected Egypt from attacks by other countries.

How Big Was the French Empire in Africa?
By 1847, France had gained control of Algeria. Soon, France established the largest European empire in Africa. This empire stretched 2,500 miles from the Atlantic Ocean eastward to Sudan. France’s holdings in Africa were large, but not rich. Still, other countries respected France for having such a large empire.

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Writing About History

Imagine you are attending the meeting in Berlin in 1900 as a representative from Africa. Write a short speech telling the European countries how you feel about having them decide boundaries in your country.



Reading Strategy: Predicting

Think about your prediction. Was it accurate? Why or why not?



How Big Was the German Empire in Africa?
Germany united as a nation in 1871. It entered the race for African colonies late. Even so, by 1900, only France and Britain had larger empires in Africa. Germany’s colonies were far apart and not rich. However, its military strength worried other European countries. When Germany asked these countries to come to a meeting in Berlin, they came. There they talked about African boundaries. However, no one asked any Africans to come to the meeting.

What Other European Countries Controlled Africa?
Many other nations had colonies in Africa. Spain and Portugal had the oldest colonies. Belgium had a large empire in central Africa. Italy, which came late to Africa, had little success there. It tried to take over Ethiopia, but was defeated. In 1912, Italy did take control of Tripoli in what is now the nation of Libya. Tripoli was large, but poor.

Many European nations scrambled for empires, but some nations got little or nothing of value. They felt angry at those who got wealth from their colonies. This led to fighting.



Was Imperialism Good or Bad?
Europeans said that imperialism was good. It brought great improvements in health, transportation, and education to Africa and Asia. It introduced the ideas of constitutional government. It also brought jobs and industry to the colonies.

However, many of the colonial people thought that imperialism was bad. They felt that Europeans got more out of imperialism than they did. Factories in Africa and Asia supplied cheap goods to Europe. But these factories—owned by Europeans—destroyed native industry and many people lost their jobs.

Also, the colonial people had no control over their government or their country’s natural resources. Europeans took the best land and the richest sources of gold, iron, silver, copper, or other valuable natural resources found in the ground.

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How Did Europeans Treat Native People?
Europeans thought they were better than the native people of Africa and Asia. They tried to change the religion, the language, and the way of life of these colonized people. This showed that they had little respect for native culture and customs. In time, this led to a wave of nationalism among the people of Africa and Asia.

Lesson 3 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence.

1. The Suez Canal connected and Mediterranean Sea and the _____ Sea.

A Algerian

B Asian

C Black

D Red

2. By 1847, France had gained control of _____.

A Algeria

B Sudan

C Germany

D Britain

3. In 1875, _____ took control of the Suez Canal.

A Britain

B Germany

C Italy

D Nigeria

3. In 1912, Italy took control of _____.

A Portugal

B Spain

C Tripoli

D Sudan

4. Italy tried to take over _____, but was defeated.

A Belgium

B Britain

C Ethiopia

D Spain

5. By 1900, only France and Britain had African empires larger than _____.

A Belgium

B Germany

C Spain

D Egypt

What do you think?

Why would Europeans want Africans to give up their language, religion, and customs?

Biography



Leopold II of Belgium: 1835–1909
Leopold II was born in the Belgian capital of Brussels. At age 20, he entered the Belgian senate. As a senator, he urged the Belgian government to acquire colonies in Africa. When the government did not cooperate, Leopold used his own money to pay for an expedition to central Africa. In 1865, Leopold became king of Belgium, and in 1885, he founded the Congo Free State. Leopold used a private army to force Africans in the area to work. They helped Leopold gather a huge personal fortune. About a year before his death, Leopold turned over the Congo Free State to the Belgian government. It was renamed the Belgian Congo.

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Document-Based Reading
That Was No Brother??

The first meeting between white explorers and Africans must have been terrifying to both groups. The Africans had never seen white-skinned people before. The whites were far from home and few in number compared to the Africans. Misunderstandings were likely to occur. This excerpt describes such a meeting from an African’s viewpoint.

When we heard that the man with the white flesh was journeying down the [river] we were open-mouthed with astonishment. We stood still. All night long the drums announced the strange news—a man with white flesh! That man, we said to ourselves, has a white skin. He will be one of our brothers who were drowned in the river. All life comes from the water, and in the water he has found life. Now he is coming… home…

We will prepare a feast, I ordered. We will go to meet our brother and escort him into the village with rejoicing! We donned our ceremonial garb. We assembled the great canoes. We listened for the gong which would announce our brother’s presence… Presently the cry was heard: He is approaching.… Now he enters the river! Halloh! We swept forward, my canoe leading,… to meet the first white man our eyes had beheld, and to do him honor.

But as we drew near his canoes there were loud reports, bang! bang! and fire staves spat bits of iron at us. We were paralyzed with fright; our mouths hung wide open and we could not shut them. Things such as we had never seen, never heard of, never dreamed of—they were the work of evil spirits! Several of my men plunged into the water… Some screamed dreadfully, others… were dead, and blood flowed from little holes in their bodies. “War! That is war!?? I yelled. “Go back!?? The canoes sped back to our village with all the strength our spirits could impart to our arms.

That was no brother! That was the worst enemy our country had ever seen…

Now tell me: has the white man dealt fairly by us? Oh, do not speak to me of him! You call us wicked men, but you white men are much more wicked! You think because you have guns you can take away our land and our possessions. You have sickness in your heads, for that is not justice.



Document-Based Questions
1. Who did the Africans think the white man was?

2. How did the Africans prepare to greet the white man?

3. How did the white man greet the Africans?

4. Why does the writer call white men wicked?

5. After reading the excerpt, what is your opinion of the white man did?

Source: From The Quest for Africa. © 1957 by Dr. Heinrich Schiffers, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York.

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Spotlight Story: “Dr. Livingstone, I Presume???
For many years, Africa was called the unexplored continent. The African desert made it hard to travel there by land. Africa’s rivers had many waterfalls and rapids that made travel difficult.

In the 19th century, religious explorers set out for Africa. They wanted to bring Christianity and education to the Africans. One of the most famous was David Livingstone. Livingstone went to Africa to spread Christianity. He also hated slavery and wanted to end the slave trade. In time, he became well known and was loved by many Africans.

Between 1841 and 1873, Livingstone made three long trips to Africa. In 1849, he crossed the vast Kalahari Desert. On this trip he explored the Zambezi River. Six years later, he followed that river eastward to the coast. On that trip, he explored a giant waterfall. He named it Victoria Falls after the English queen, Queen Victoria.

In 1865, he set out to find the source of the Nile River. He began at Cape Town on the southern tip of Africa and went north. For many years nothing was heard from him. Many people thought he had died or become lost.

An American newspaper, the New York Herald, sent a reporter to find Livingstone. The reporter, Henry Stanley, traveled for 126 days in search of Livingstone. He sent back daily accounts of what he was seeing and learning in Africa. Some African guides took him to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika. In his newspaper account, Stanley described what happened next. “The expedition at last comes to a halt… I alone have a few more steps to make… As I come nearer I see the white face of an old man…

We raise our hats and I say, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume???

The two men became friends and explored together. By the end of the trip, Africa fascinated Stanley. In 1873, Dr. Livingstone died. Stanley continued to explore.

Explorers like Livingstone and Stanley were very important in the scramble for African territory. Their writings and speeches made people more interested in Africa. They also convinced some people that slavery was evil and should be stopped.


Wrap-Up
1. Why did African geography discourage its exploration?

2. Why did the missionary explorers go to Africa?

3. What river and waterfall did Livingstone explore on his expeditions?

4. On his first trip to Africa, for whom did Henry Stanley work? What did he do?

5. How did Livingstone and Stanley contribute to the scramble for Africa?

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Chapter 24 SUMMARY
In imperialism or colonialism, a stronger nation controls weaker ones for its own benefit. The Industrial Revolution contributed to this policy. Factory owners needed raw materials from colonies and used them as markets for their goods.

Countries believed that having colonies made them important world powers. Since sea power was especially important, colonies were used as naval bases.

In Asia, Britain took control of India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, and Singapore. France took Indochina.

The Industrial Revolution made colonies into sources of raw materials and markets. Imperialism made large parts of Asia and Africa into European colonies.

After 1842, Britain, France, Germany, and Russia divided China into trading areas. They were called spheres of influence.

After 1867, Japan modernized and went to war against China and then Russia. It took over Korea and won trading rights in China.

European powers divided Africa into colonies. Britain controlled Egypt and the Suez Canal, South Africa, and several other colonies. French colonies were mainly in West Africa. Germany, Portugal, Spain, and Belgium also had colonies.

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Chapter 24 REVIEW
On a sheet of paper, use the words from the Word Bank to complete each sentence correctly.

Word Bank

Algeria


Bismarck

British East Indian Company

China

Great Britain



India

Japan


Meiji

Mogul Empire

Suez Canal

1. _____ won its independence in 1947.

2. After 1842, Great Britain, France, Germany, and Russia divided _____ up into four different trading areas.

3. Emperor _____ began to make Japan a modern and powerful nation.

4. _____ rules most of Indian in the 1500s and 1600s.

5. _____ defeated Russia in 1904 and won control of Korea.

6. The _____ connected the Mediterranean and Red Seas.

7. After 1867, new leaders in Japan wrote a constitution based on the German system _____ had developed.

8. The British rules India through their _____.

9. By the end of the 1800s, _____ controlled what are now the nations of Sudan, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda.

10. By 1847, France had gained control of _____.

On a sheet of paper, write the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence.



11. A nation’s warlike policy or practice is called _____.

A imperialism

B colonialism

C nationalism

D militarism

12. The control by a powerful nation of a weaker one is _____.

A militarism

B imperialism

C nationalism

D Kaiser

13. Europeans said that imperialism brought _____ to Africa and Asia.

A improvements in health

B jobs and industry

C better education

D all of the above

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14. By the 1600s, _____ was the greatest sea power in the world.

A Korea

B India

C Britain

D China

15. In 1904, Japan went to war with _____ and won.

A Russia

B China

C Germany

D France

16. By 1900, only Great Britain had a larger empire in Africa than _____.

A France

B Germany

C China

D Russia

On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.



17. What is imperialism?

18. Which countries became imperial powers during the 19th century?

Critical Thinking
On a sheet of paper, write your response to each question. Use complete sentences.

19. Do you believe imperialism was more a force for good or a force for evil? Explain your answer.

20. Why do you think Europeans gained control over Africa so easily?

Test-Taking Tip: Restate the test directions in your own words. Tell yourself what you are expected to do.

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Unit 5: Skill Builder
Compare and Contrast
Comparing and contrasting reveals how things are alike and how they are different. People, ideas, and events are sometimes compared and contrasted in writing. Look for words that signal comparing and contrasting when you read.

To compare, ask: “How are these things alike???

To contrast, ask: “How are these things different???

To decide if things are being compared, look for words, such as:

also both like similar

Cavour, like Garibaldi, was a leader in the unification of Italy.

To decide if things are being contrasted, look for words, such as:

but however instead

not only while

Cavour was called the “brain?? of the revolution while Garibaldi was called the “sword.??

Decide whether each of these sentences compares or contrasts.

1. Mazzini’s revolt was unsuccessful; however, Cavour’s gained Sardinia’s freedom.

2. Cavour worked to unite the northern Italian states while Garibaldi fought in the south.

3. Both Cavour and Garibaldi were Italian heroes.

4. Germany, like Italy, had many independent states.

5. Ironically, it was not a German, but Napoleon, who began German unification.

Compare and contrast the effects of imperialism. Focus on what happened between imperialistic European nations and the named areas. In your notebook, write one sentence about each item. Be sure to use words that compare and contrast.



6. India

7. Southeast Asia

8. China

9. Japan

10. Egypt

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Unit 5 SUMMARY
Nationalism means that a group of people have one language, one culture, one government, and a common history.

Giuseppe Mazzini was called the soul of Italian independence because he stood for its spirit of freedom.

Count Camillo di Cavour was known as the brain of Italian unity. He got French support for Sardinia’s war against Austria.

Giuseppe Garibaldi was called the sword of Italian independence because of his military accomplishments. He and his Red Shirts freed Sicily.

The German Revolution of 1848 failed. The Prussian ruler refused to become king of all the German states. German nationalists believed only Prussia could unite Germany.

Prussia was the largest German state. In 1862, Otto von Bismarck became Prussia’s prime minister. Bismarck did not believe in democratic rule.

Bismarck used militarism to conquer the German states. He defeated Austria in seven weeks. A new empire, Austria-Hungary, was formed.

In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Prussia defeated France and won French territory. The remaining independent German states joined Prussia to become Germany.

In imperialism, a stronger nation controls weaker ones. The Industrial Revolution contributed to this because Europeans needed the raw materials and markets in Asia and Africa.

Countries believed that having colonies made them important world powers. Since sea power was important, colonies were used as naval bases.

In Asia, Britain took control of India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, and Singapore. France took Indochina.

Many Europeans thought that imperialism was good because it improved health, transportation, and education. Also, it brought jobs and industry to the colonies.

Many of the colonial people thought imperialism was bad. European factories in Africa and Asia destroyed native industry. The colonial people had no control over their government or natural resources.

After 1842, Britain, France, Germany, and Russia divided China into trading areas, or spheres of influence.



After 1867, Japan modernized and went to war against China and then Russia. It won Korea and trading rights in China.


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