Chapter 23 Outline – The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914 V. The Dawn of the Industrial Age, 1750-1914

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Chapter 23 Outline – The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914
V. The Dawn of the Industrial Age, 1750-1914

  1. The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914

  1. Forces of Change

  1. Intellectual Challenge and Population Pressure

  • Enlightenment ideas, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau promoting democracy, began to spread through Europe in the mid-1700s, and posed a challenge to existing governments in Europe

  • Enlightenment thinking inspired revolutions in France and America

  • The economy of Europe continued to grow in the mid-1700s as commercialism was growing

  • Businessmen were gaining wealth and status, challenging traditional aristocratic power

  • Europe experienced huge population growth in 1700s that had major impact

  • Major reason for population growth was better nutrition from growing use of potato

  • More people meant more aristocrats, who got tighter grip on power

  • Businessmen having more children expanded their operations leading to economic growth

  • Population growth led to growth of middle/working class b/c less chance of inheriting land, needed to work

  • Population growth in 1700s led to increase in manufacturing in Europe and shortly after in U.S.

  • Proto-industrialization = shift away from agriculture, workers began making textiles and metal products at home (prelude to Industrial Revolution)

  • Growth of a property-less middle/working class had major impact on changes occurring in Europe

  • People dressed more urban, premarital sex rose, parental authority declined, and youthful independence rose as young adults went out on own to seek jobs

  1. The Tide of Revolution, 1789-1830

  • A series of revolutions in 1770s and 1780s shattered the relative peace in Europe in the mid-1700s

  1. The American Revolution

  • First major revolution occurred when American colonies rebelled against Britain in 1775

  • Colonists resented British taxes, especially the Stamp Act of 1765

  • Thanks largely to help from France, the Americans defeated the British and gained freedom

  • In 1789, the U.S. wrote a new constitution based on Enlightenment ideas (such as checks and balances, and guarantees of individual freedoms in the Bill of Rights)

  1. Crisis in France in 1789

  • The middle-class began having economic success and wanted a bigger role in government

  • Peasants, hurt by the population growth, wanted more freedom from landlord demands

  • The French government and the aristocrats in power, did not provide wanted reforms

  • Economic problems in 1787 and 1788, caused by bad harvests, set into motion the revolution

  • The French king tried unsuccessfully to fix the finances of the nation (France was in major debt)

  • Louis XVI (French king, 1754-1793) called meeting of parliament to discuss tax reform

  • First time the parliament was called into session in 150 years

  • The middle-class demanded the parliament be permanent and the middle-class have a majority, and as riots broke out, the king caved and allowed this, and the revolution was under way

  • The French Revolution began in full in the summer of 1789 (The first part of the Revolution)

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen = passed by French Parliament and similar to Declaration of Independence in the U.S., it stated the equality of all French citizens

  • On July 14, 1789, revolutionaries stormed the Bastille to free the many political prisoners jailed there (this event became the symbol of the French Revolution)

  • Manor system was ended and peasants were given land

  • Privilege of the church also attacked and much church land seized

  • A new constitution written which granted freedom of religion, press, and property

  • A strong parliament was set up to limit power of king, and voting rights expanded to most men

  1. The French Revolution: Radical and Authoritarian Phases

  • By 1792 the second phase of the French Revolution began, which was the radical phase

  • Early in French Revolution (1789), civil war broke out as aristocrats and the church opposed the early reforms (plus monarchies throughout Europe opposed French Revolution, and came closer to war w/France)

  • Radicals took over revolution – they abolished the monarchy, killed King Louis XVI (1793), and also killed thousands of opponents of the Revolution (called the Reign of Terror)

  • Guillotine = new method of execution by quick beheading (began during Reign of Terror)

  • Maximilien Robespierre = leader of the radical phase of the French Revolution, had thousands of opponents of the Revolution executed

  • Robespierre was guillotined when he called for another purge on moderate leaders in 1794

  • Nationalism = sense of national unity which began to emerge during radical phase of French Revolution; French people felt loyalty to new regime, which they felt they had hand in creating

  • After Robespierre the radicals toppled, France began next phase of Revolution, when moderates ruled France

  • In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, ushering in the final phase of the French Revolution

  • Napoleon turned France from a republic to an authoritarian empire, greatly reducing the power of parliament and limiting freedom of expression (though allowed freedom of religion)

  • Napoleon passed new code of law giving equality to all men (not women)

  • Napoleon created centralized system of secondary schools and universities to train bureaucrats

  • Napoleon focused most of his attention on expansion, fighting most of Europe’s major powers

  • At it’s height in 1812, France controlled almost all of western Europe

  • French empire began to crumble in 1812, beginning with failed invasion of Russia

  • Napoleon and France finally conquered in 1814 and 1815 by Britain and its allies

  • Napoleon was most responsible for spreading the ideas of the French Revolution abroad

  • French Revolution and Napoleon inspired nationalism to grow in France and other areas in Europe

  1. A Conservative Settlement and the Revolutionary Legacy

  • Congress of Vienna (1815) = Meeting held after Napoleon and France were defeated with goal of restoring political stability in Europe

  • Congress of Vienna dominated by conservatives - those who opposed revolutionary goals, and wanted to turn clock back and make Europe like it was before the French Revolution

  • The French monarchy was restored

  • But old map of Europe not totally restored as Prussia gained land, Britain gained colonies, and Russia was able to maintain its hold over Poland

  • Europe was fairly stable for the next 50 years which was success of Conference of Vienna

  • Political movements emerged to challenge conservatism

  • Liberals = political view stressing personal freedom and limit on government power

  • Radicals = political viewpoint advocating broader voting rights than liberals, in some cases full democracy, and reforms to help lower classes (basically extreme liberals)

  • Revolutions broke out in many places in 1820s and in 1830s

  • Greek Revolution = Greeks rebelled against Ottoman rule in 1820s (key to ending Ottoman dominance in the Balkans)

  • Another French Revolution in 1830 installed a different king and a more liberal monarchy

  • Uprisings also took place in Italy and Germany, though without durable result

  • Belgian Revolution in 1830 resulted in liberal regime and new, independent nation

  • Britain and U.S. also had political change, though without revolution

  • Key states in U.S. granted universal adult male suffrage (except for slaves)

  • Other political changes led to election of popular president, Andrew Jackson, in 1828

  • Reform Bill of 1832 = expanded voting rights in Britain to middle-class men; businessmen began controlling city governments, and aristocrats started helping commercial development

  • By 1830, regimes in France, Britain, Belgium, the U.S., and other counties had powerful parliaments, some guarantees of individual rights, religious freedom, and expanded voting rights

  1. The Industrial Revolution

  1. Origins of Industrialization, 1770-1840

  • Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1700s when goods began to be manufactured machines, often powered by coal

  • James Watt = developed a steam engine that could be used to power machinery

  • Within 10 years, most production was done in factories, no longer in peoples’ homes

  • A key feature of the Industrial Revolution was constant technological innovations (ex: interchangeable parts, telegraph, steamship, and railroad)

  • Industrial Revolution depended on agricultural improvements - cities growing, people needed food

  • Better equipment, better seeds, and growing use of fertilizer led to agricultural improvements

  • Manufacturers used greater specialization of labor

  • Environment hurt by depletion of resources like coal and iron, cutting down of forests, pollution from factories hurt air and water quality

  1. The Spread of Industry

  • Industrial Revolution began in Britain, but soon spread to France and Belgium by the 1820s, and shortly after to the U.S. and Germany

  1. The Disruptions of Industrial Life

  • The Industrial Revolution disrupted human life w/major changes that reshaped how people lived

  • Cities grew as people moved from the country to the city looking for jobs

  • Cities became overcrowded, health conditions worsened (often due to lack of sanitation), and crime rates rose in cities

  • Traditional patterns of family changed as young adults moved away from family to get jobs

  • New social divisions arose as middle-class citizens moved away from the cities to suburbs

  • Family life also changed

  • The prevailing view was that children and women should be sheltered

  • Women in the past were active partners to merchants, but now expected to be housewives

  • Middle class began to see importance of education, not work, for their children

  1. The Revolutions of 1848

  • Many European revolutions occurred in 1848-1849 that were directly influenced by the Industrial Revolution

  • Lower-class people turned to political protest as a means of compensating for industrial change

  • Chartist Movement = Movement in Britain by workers to gain the right to vote

  • Another revolution in France, in 1848, got rid of the monarchy, this time permanently, and a democratic republic was established briefly

  • Major revolts occurred in Germany, Austria, and Hungary

  • All of these revolts limited the power of conservative monarchies and extended liberal reforms

  • Revolutionaries demanded social reforms, and end to serfdom and the manorial system

  • These revolts showed the rise of nationalism

  • The revolutions were eventually stopped, and the revolutionary period in Europe, which had begun with the French Revolution in 1789, came to an end

  • Liberal and working-class leaders realized revolution was not the best way to get change

  • Better transportation meant less chance for food crisis, which was long a trigger for revolution

  • By 1850, an industrial class structure began to predominate

  • Old aristocracy no longer had as much power as business leaders emerged (as industrialization took place, having money was how to rise in social status)

  1. The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914

  1. Adjustments to Industrial Life

  • After 1850, cities continued to grow very large, but conditions began to improve

  • People could finally afford to buy items like newspapers, and go on family outings

  • Diets got better, housing improved, and life spans increased (previously, 33% of all children died by age 10, by late 1800s only 10% died by age 10)

  • Louis Pasteur = French scientist, discovered germs led to disease, health conditions improved

  • Huge labor movements took place by 1890s, with workers going on massive strikes

  • New trade (labor) unions formed, and workers bargained for better conditions and pay

  • Peasant protests in the countryside declined

  • Some farmers (especially in Holland and Denmark) formed cooperatives to work together to improve conditions, and many farmers specialized in new cash crops, such as dairy products

  • Peasants began sending kids to school where they learned improved farming techniques

  1. Political Trends and the Rise of New Nations

  • While revolutions of 1848 failed, governments still made changes to help people

  • Benjamin Disraeli = British conservative leader, got working class men right to vote (1867)

  • Count Camillo di Cavour = Got parliament more power in Italian state of Piedmont

  • Otto von Bismark = Conservative Prussian prime minister who made liberal reforms (right to vote to all men, freedom to Jews, and promoted mass education)

  • Liberals and conservatives were compromising, and gap between them shrinking

  • Conservatives leaders used nationalism to gain support, often using foreign affairs (colonies, wars) to distract people at home from demanding more liberal reforms

  • Nationalism had huge impact on Italy and Germany

  • Camillo di Cavour united Italian states as a country in 1861under the rule of the Piedmont king

  • Otto von Bismark united the German states under Prussian leadership, forming modern country of Germany in 1871

  • By late 1800s, almost all Western nations had parliaments and some forms of democracy

  1. The Social Questions and New Government Functions

  • Governments began taking on more responsibilities to help citizens by the late 1800s

  • Civil service exams used to get government jobs (Chinese had long done this)

  • Governments began inspecting factories and working to improve living conditions

  • Schooling became compulsory (mandatory) and by 1900, 90% of adults in West could read

  • Schools promoted nationalism, teaching superiority of the nation

  • Governments began introducing wider welfare measures (helping poor)

  • Socialism began to rise and some governments adopted socialist reforms

  • Socialism = political movement desiring an end to private property, with the government controlling the means of production (businesses) so everyone could be equal and workers would no longer be paid low wages and be exploited (against capitalism)

  • Karl Marx (1818-1883) = German socialist, wrote Communist Manifesto, preached working class (called proletariat) would rise up and to control the means of production

  • Many in Western society were terrified by the rise of socialism, and thought there would be huge class warfare fights, especially since workers were striking often, and they often got violent

  • Another major social change occurring was the feminist movement, as women sought legal and economic equality, including the right to vote

  • Emmeline Pankhurst =Women’s rights leader in England, often used violence to protest for right to vote

  1. Cultural Transformations

  1. Emphasis on Consumption and Leisure

  • After 1850, popular culture developed that made society much different than it was at the beginning of the industrial period

  • Better wages and less hours gave people chance for leisure activities (comedies, sports, musical revues, motion pictures, vacationing)

  • Consumerism increased as people desired certain products (ex: bicycle fad of 1880s)

  1. Advances in Scientific Knowledge

  • Arts and sciences continued to advance

  • Churches no longer were the center for artistic and intellectual activity

  • Universities promoted scientific research in science and technology

  • Charles Darwin = created theory of evolution (1859) which conflicted with the church and further lessened the role of church in society

  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) = Austrian physician who developed theories about the workings of the human subconscience, and problems can be solved through rational discussion

  1. New Directions in Artistic Expression

  • The main artistic style of the time was romanticism

  • Romanticism = artistic and literary movement of the 1800s, artists portrayed passions, not calm reflection (ex: novelists wanted to move readers to tears, not philosophical debate), and artists defied traditional artistic standards (ex: poetry didn’t have to rhyme)

  1. Western Settler Societies

  • Industrial Revolution led to an expansion of the power of the West throughout the world

  • The West desired new markets for their production, and also needed more raw materials

  • New ships and communication techniques led to the West as leaders of the world economy

  • Industrialization also led to the West having a huge military advantage over the rest of the world

  • Steamships allowed Europeans to navigate river they could not before, which allowed them to reach inland areas around the globe

  • Repeating rifle and machine gun gave small Western forces edge over bigger local troops

  • Europeans competed for colonies for nationalism, economic gains, and missionary activity

  • Especially after 1860, Europeans quickly colonized Africa, SE Asia, China, and Middle East

  • Europeans moved to the colonies as indigenous people died from disease (called settler societies)

  1. Emerging Power of the United States

  • Through most of the 1800s, the U.S. kept to itself and did not get involved much in world affairs

  • The U.S. experienced an industrial revolution beginning in the 1860s, and its growth rivaled that of Germany, which had become a major industrial power by the late 1800s

  • The U.S. began to export many products and became major player in the world economy

  • Despite expansion into the Pacific and Asia in the 1890s, the U.S. had little influence outside the Western Hemisphere in the 1800s

  • American art and culture not viewed as very refined by the rest of the world

  1. European Settlements in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

  • During the 1800s, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand had many immigrants come from Europe, and each area began to develop with a similar culture to that of Europe

  • Like the U.S., these societies looked to Europe for cultural styles and intellectual leadership

  • Unlike the U.S., these nations remained part of the British Empire

  • Britain won Canada from France in 1700s, and, starting in 1839, began granting self-rule to Canada

  • Britain got Australia in 1778, and used it as a penal colony (sent prisoners there)

  • Aborigines (hunters and gatherers) were living in Australia and could not fight off British

  • By 1840, 140,000 Europeans moved to Australia, most as sheep-herders (wool sent to Europe)

  • Gold rush in 1851 led to further population growth

  • On January 1, 1900, an independent nation was declare, though still part of the British Empire

  • British began colonizing New Zealand in 1814

  • The Maoris (Polynesian hunters and gatherers) had well organized political system at the time

  • Missionaries converted many Maoris to Christianity between 1814 and 1840

  • British took control of New Zealand in 1840, having to defeat the Maoris

  • Eventually, settlers and Maoris got along, and Maoris even got representation in Parliament

  • New Zealand given self-rule without British interference, though still part of British Empire

  1. Diplomatic Tensions and World War I

  • The unification of Germany and its rapid industrial growth led to a major shift in power in Europe

  • Otto Von Bismark (German Prime Minister) had built an alliance system to protect Germany

  • By 1900, there were almost no places in the world available for Europeans to colonize

  • The limited places remaining, such as Morocco, caused great tensions b/t countries

  • Imperialist expansion had created rivalries b/t key nations

  • Britain was fearful of Germany’s overseas expansion and built a larger navy (Germany’s economy was soaring, and Britain’s was sagging, leading to further tension)

  • France also upset with Germany so started to get along with its long-time rival Britain, as well as with Russia, after Germany and Russia had a falling out

  1. The New Alliance System

  • Two major alliances developed in Europe by the early 1900s

  • Triple Alliance = Alliance b/t Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

  • Triple Entente = Alliance b/t Britain, Russia, and France

  • Nations across Europe were building up their militaries (militarism)

  • Balkan Nationalism = movements to create independent nations in the Balkans (SE Europe), as different groups sought to break away from Ottoman Empire, which many such as Serbia had done

  • Russia supported these people, known as Slavs, who were fighting for independence

  • Many of these Slavs lived in southern Austria, and they wanted to break away from Austria (Russia supported these people, leading to great tension b/t Russia and Austria)

  • A Serbian nationalist (Gavrilo Princip) assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in 1914, and Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

  • Alliance system kicked in, and by end of summer of 1914, World War I had begun

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