Chapter 22, 23, 24 Test do not write on the test!



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Chapter 22, 23, 24 Test

DO NOT WRITE ON THE TEST!


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)



The Crimean War was rooted in the:


A)



long-standing desire of Russia to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire.

B)



desire for unification of all German-speaking people.

C)



British desire to dominate all eastern trade.

D)



hopes of the Italian people for unification on the peninsula.

E)



French desire to force the Russians out of Poland.


2)



Issued in a degree from the sultan, the Hatt-i Sharif of Gülhane, attempted to:


A)



Islamicize the Ottoman Empire.

B)



reorganize the empire's administration and military along European lines.

C)



formally annex Serbia and all Slavic peoples to the Ottoman Empire.

D)



democratize the Ottoman Empire.

E)



pressure bureaucrats to only recognize Christianity as a legitimate religion.


3)



Count Camillo Cavour's methods to achieve Italian unification would best coincide with which philosopher's ideology?


A)



Machiavelli

B)



Rousseau

C)



Robespierre

D)



Descartes

E)



Locke


4)



A formal treaty in December 1858 confirmed an agreement between Cavour and Napoleon III which would:


A)



provoke a war in Italy that would permit them (Italy and France) to defeat Austria.

B)



overthrow Mazzini and allow direct Italian unification, with French assistance.

C)



spark revolution in Serbia.

D)



defeat the Russians at Sebastopol with Italian and French forces.

E)



spark revolution in Austria.


5)



This was the most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914:



A)



Russian defeat in the Crimean War.

B)



the leadership of Bismarck.

C)



the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

D)



Italy's alliance with Prussia against Austria.

E)



German unification.


6)



Bismarck is best described as a/an:



A)



reactionary.

B)



conservative.

C)



socialist.

D)



idealist.

E)



liberal.


7)



The two strongest states in the German Confederation were:



A)



Schleswig and Holstein.

B)



Austria and Alsace.

C)



Hesse and Bavaria.

D)



Austria and Prussia.

E)



Bremen and Brandenberg.


8)



Who declared "Germany is not looking to Prussia's liberalism but to her power.…The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and majority decisionsthat was the mistake of 1848-1849but by iron and blood"?



A)



Otto von Bismarck

B)



Richard Wagner

C)



Frederick William IV

D)



William I

E)



Helmut Kohl


9)



The two houses of the North German Confederation were the:



A)



Bundesrat and Reichstag.

B)



Reichstag and Parliament.

C)



Dem Deutschen Volke and Bundestag.

D)



Senate and Commisat.

E)



Parliament and Bundestag.


10)



Prussia excluded Austria from German affairs by:


A)



defeating Austria in the Austro-Prussian or Seven Weeks' War.

B)



gaining European-wide support for its policies.

C)



encouraging and succeeding in an Italian defeat of Austria.

D)



denying Austrian claims at the Convention of Gastein.

E)



offering Austria a share of its colonies in Africa.


11)



German unification was completed as a result of the:


A)



Seven Weeks' War.

B)



Franco-Prussian War.

C)



Napoleonic Wars.

D)



Russo-Japanese War.

E)



Crimean War.


12)



Captain Dreyfus was accused of:


A)



cowardice in the face of the enemy.

B)



embezzling state funds.

C)



consorting with the English.

D)



passing secrets to the Germans.

E)



corrupting a minor.


13)



Austria-Hungary's formation of a dual monarchy in 1867:



A)



enabled Austria-Hungary to become a major imperial power in Africa.

B)



meant that Austria and Hungary became virtually separate states.

C)



meant that a Magyar occupied the Hungarian throne.

D)



meant greater Austrian control of Hungary.

E)



ended the threat of nationalist divisions within the empire.


14)



Which of the following groups supported the Compromise of 1867?


A)



Hungarians

B)



Serbians

C)



Croatians

D)



Czechs

E)



Romanians


15)



He instituted the most extensive restructuring of Russian society and administration since Peter the Great:


A)



Michael I.

B)



Alexander II.

C)



Alexander III.

D)



Nicholas II.

E)



Nicholas I.


16)



This institution was a profound cultural gap that separated Russia from the rest of Europe and was ended in February 1861:


A)



legalism.

B)



serfdom.

C)



tributism.

D)



bourgeoisie.

E)



conscription.


17)



Until the close of World War I, this nation was treated as merely another Russian province:



A)



Lithuania.

B)


Romania.

C)


Poland.

D)


Latvia.

E)


Finland.


18)



Gladstone's ministry of 1868 to 1874 witnessed the culmination of:



A)



classical British liberalism.

B)



radical socialism.

C)



staunch conservatism.

D)



reactionary nationalism.

E)



renowned republicanism.


19)



The Second Industrial Revolution was characterized by:


A)



the development of new industries.

B)



the steady deterioration of working-class standards of living.

C)



the spread of industries similar to those in Great Britain.

D)



the expansion of railway systems.

E)



massive unemployment.


20)



The Second Industrial Revolution was associated with:



A)



textiles, plastics, and railroads.

B)



textiles, steam, and iron.

C)



steel, chemicals, and electricity.

D)



iron, chemicals, and electricity.

E)



steam, iron, and electricity.


21)



Which of the following is NOT a reason for a slowing economy in Europe in the last quarter of the 19th century:


A)



migration of peasants to other parts of the world.

B)



foreign competition.

C)



the inability to import agricultural goods from overseas.

D)



the development of new farming regions.

E)



bad weather.


22)



What labor-related term was coined in the latter half of the 19th century?



A)



the deserving poor

B)



contract workers

C)



service sector

D)



binding arbitration

E)



unemployment


23)



The petite bourgeoisie was made up of:


A)



professional people.

B)



entrepreneurs.

C)



large business owners.

D)



former gentry.

E)



white-collar workers.


24)



During the second half of the 19th century, the middle class:


A)



lost political power.

B)



grew increasingly homogenous.

C)



made political alliances with the working classes.

D)



grew increasingly diverse.

E)



grew increasingly hostile to imperialism.


25)



Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the petite bourgeoisie?


A)



origins in the working class

B)



conspicuous spending on consumer goods

C)



membership in unions

D)



pursuit of educational opportunities

E)



rejection of middle-class values


26)



In the 19th century, cholera struck:


A)



the lower and middle classes.

B)



mainly the middle and upper classes.

C)



children and the elderly only.

D)



the lower class only.

E)



all classes.


27)



Progress in Europe that enabled married women to own property came first in:


A)



Great Britain.

B)



Germany.

C)



Switzerland.

D)



France.

E)



Italy.


28)



In late 19th-century family life, which of the following is NOT true?



A)



Adultery by both men and women was tolerated.

B)



The middle-class ideal was for women to stay in the home.

C)



Contraception was illegal.

D)



Divorce was legal for the most part by the 1890s.

E)



Control of children resided with the father.


29)



Name one of the two major developments affecting the economic lives of women during the Second Industrial Revolution.


A)



a large expansion in the variety of available jobs

B)



a glut of women who were qualified to be school teachers

C)



the inclusion of women in the military

D)



a reduction in wages paid to men

E)



the influx of many women to the work force


30)



The obstacles to equality for women included all of the following EXCEPT:


A)



divisions among women by social class.

B)



the tactics of feminist organizations were seen as offensive by some.

C)



women of the highest social class were dead set against sufferage

D)



some women didn't want to jeopardize their economic interests by taking feminist views.

E)



some women held feminist views as less important than patriotism.


31)



Following the revolutions of 1848, the experience of and opportunities for Jews in Europe:


A)



improved dramatically.

B)



worsened significantly.

C)



underwent no change.

D)



worsened slightly.

E)



generally improved.


32)



The name given to the practice by Russian police and right-wing groups of conducting riots against the Jews was:


A)



diaspora.

B)


talmud.

C)


pogrom.

D)


selektion.

E)


purim.


33)



During the last two decades of the 19th century, many Jews in Germany began experiencing the effects of:



A)



new laws outlawing Jewish-Christian marriages.

B)



pogrom.

C)



organized anti-Semitism.

D)



purim.

E)



talmud.


34)



During the late 19th century, the primary issue that confronted socialist parties throughout Europe was:


A)



how to manage the flood of new members.

B)



what to do in the face of new-found mainstream acceptance.

C)



whether nationalism was superior to socialism.

D)



whether socialism should be achieved through revolution or through democratic reform.

E)



whether Marx's legacy was worth maintaining through revolution.


35)



Which of the following is considered a strong trigger for the Russian revolution of 1905?



A)



the Bloody Sunday shootings

B)



the appearance at court by the monk Grigory Efimovich Rasputin

C)



Russia's victory in the Russo-Japanese War

D)



the division between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks

E)



the creation of the Duma



  1. The period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1839 to 1876 is known as the:

    1. Tanzimat

    2. Era of Self-Strengthening

    3. New Birth

    4. Hatt-i Sharif

    5. New Caliphate



  1. During the 1830s and 1840s, romantic republican nationalism in Italy was led by:

    1. Giuseppe Garibaldi

    2. Camillo Cavour

    3. Giuseppe Mazzini

    4. Christo Carbonari

    5. Sebastian de Napoli



  1. Camillo Cavour played an instrumental role in:

    1. ending the Crimean War

    2. settling the Irish question

    3. the leadership of the Paris Commune

    4. passage of the Second Reform Act

    5. the unification of Italy



  1. In the 1850s, the two most powerful German-speaking states were:

    1. Austria and Saxony

    2. Bavaria and Saxony

    3. Prussia and Bavaria

    4. Austria and Prussia

    5. Saxony and Galicia



  1. What German-speaking country did Bismarck intend to exclude from a united Germany?

    1. Alsace

    2. Schleswig Holstein

    3. Bavaria

    4. Saxony

    5. Austria



  1. The newly-elected French National Assembly of 1871 was dominated by:

    1. socialists

    2. radicals

    3. monarchists

    4. liberals

    5. anarchists



  1. The Paris Commune was dominated by:

    1. petty bourgeoisie

    2. communists

    3. the urban poor

    4. ultra-royalists

    5. anarchists



  1. What country did Austria compete with for influence in the Balkans?

    1. Germany

    2. Italy

    3. Britain

    4. Greece

    5. Russia



  1. In 1894 Captain Alfred Dreyfus was found guilty of:

    1. passing secrets to the Germans

    2. embezzling funds from the French army

    3. conducting unauthorized secret talks with Russia

    4. crimes against humanity

    5. lying about his religious affiliation



  1. The new Russian provincial and county councils organized in 1864 were known as:

    1. zasus

    2. dumas

    3. zemstvos

    4. soviets

    5. tsarovs



  1. Alexander III sought to:

    1. introduce democracy to Russia

    2. roll back his father’s reforms

    3. continue his father’s reforms

    4. establish closer relations between Russia and China

    5. establish closer relations between Russia and Prussia



  1. Gladstone’s ministry of 1868 to 1874 witnessed the:

    1. culmination of classical British liberalism

    2. introduction of socialism into British national policy

    3. complete collapse of liberalism

    4. high point of British conservatism

    5. high point of British-Irish relations



  1. Disraeli’s efforts at social reform focused on:

    1. individualism

    2. free trade

    3. family life

    4. paternalistic legislation

    5. environmental issues



  1. The “Irish Question” centered on the issue of:

    1. economic equality

    2. religious toleration

    3. home rule

    4. the rights of Irish residents of England

    5. immigration



  1. Which is the most accurate statement concerning the Crimean War?

    1. Both sides had well-equipped armies.

    2. After the war, stability prevailed in Europe for several decades.

    3. The Concert of Europe was shattered.

    4. There was no formal peace treaty to end the war.

    5. The Ottomans kept out of the war.




  1. The correct chronological order of Bismarck’s moves leading to the unification of
    Germany was in victories against:

    1. Denmark, Austria, and France

    2. Austria, Denmark, and France

    3. France, Denmark, and Austria

    4. France, Austria, and Denmark

    5. Austria, France, and Denmark



  1. The Hatti-i Hümayun:

    1. declared Islam the sole religion of the Ottoman Empire

    2. were a series of modernization efforts

    3. were a series of military reforms

    4. were opposed by most European powers

    5. spelled out the rights of non-Muslim subjects of the Ottoman Empire



  1. The cause of Italian unification was strengthened by the help of the:

    1. British

    2. French

    3. Austrians

    4. Russians

    5. Prussians



  1. Garibaldi led the campaign for control of:

    1. northern Italy

    2. Rome

    3. Corsica

    4. Sicily and southern Italy

    5. Trieste



  1. In the 1860s, Napoleon III did all of the following EXCEPT:

    1. sign a free trade treaty with Britain

    2. permit labor unions

    3. relax press laws

    4. permit freer debate in the legislature

    5. form an alliance with Prussia



  1. Most of the women filling service positions in the second half of the nineteenth century were:

    1. young and unmarried

    2. young and married

    3. widows

    4. from the working classes

    5. from the upper middle classes



  1. The cult of domesticity most shaped the lives of ______ women.

    1. working-class

    2. middle-class

    3. upper-class

    4. French

    5. German



  1. Europe’s most advanced women’s movement was in:

    1. France

    2. Germany

    3. Italy

    4. Belgium

    5. Britain



  1. Which of the following did NOT adopt a broad-based electoral system in the nineteenth century?

    1. France

    2. Germany

    3. Russia

    4. Spain

    5. Britain



  1. French labor unions:

    1. directed their political efforts toward the establishment of universal male suffrage

    2. were often directly connected to socialist parties

    3. were active in national politics

    4. avoided active political participation

    5. only admitted unskilled workers



  1. The leading advocate of Russia’s industrialization was:

    1. Gregory Plekhanov

    2. Alexander II

    3. Nicholas I

    4. Nicholas II

    5. Count Sergei Witte



  1. Which of the following was NOT associated with the Second Industrial Revolution?

    1. electricity

    2. steel

    3. chemicals

    4. oil

    5. textiles



  1. Overall, the standard of living in the industrialized nations ________________ of the nineteenth century.

    1. declined in the second half

    2. improved in the second half

    3. improved dramatically in the second half

    4. went into a steep decline in the second half

    5. remained stable over the course



  1. Secretaries, retail clerks, and lower-level bureaucrats made up the:

    1. solid middle class

    2. petite bourgeoisie

    3. new working class

    4. gran bourgeoisie

    5. working-class elite



  1. Commercial development, railway construction, and slum clearance contributed to the:

    1. emergence of ethnic unrest

    2. entrenchment of the middle class in cities

    3. influx of new residents to city centers

    4. entrenchment of the poor in cities

    5. development of suburbs



  1. Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister are associated with:

    1. the bacterial theory of disease

    2. the theory of evolution

    3. the international socialist movement

    4. the resurgence of anti-Semitism

    5. trade unionism



  1. Nineteenth-century prostitution was closely tied to:

    1. widespread legal reforms

    2. the emergence of liberalism as a political force

    3. less restrictive public mores

    4. overcrowding in the female labor force

    5. All of these answers are correct.



  1. Which of the following is NOT true of the development of European cities in the second half of the nineteenth century?

    1. The central portions of many major cities were redesigned.

    2. The middle classes began to look for housing outside of city centers.

    3. Commercialization of city centers took place.

    4. New modes of transportation shaped their evolution.

    5. City centers became havens of the middle class.




  1. Which of the following is the most correct statement about trades unions by 1900?

    1. They were completely suppressed in Germany.

    2. Most members were unskilled laborers.

    3. They were legalized in Germany, England, and France.

    4. Only Great Britain permitted their existence

    5. They had ceased to have political importance.




  1. Bismarck’s response to the efforts of the German socialists included all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. repression of the socialist parties

  2. creation of national health insurance

  3. passage of old-age and disability pensions

  4. creation of national accident insurance

  5. an alliance with mainstream socialist parties




  1. French workers usually voted:

    1. socialist

    2. liberal democrat

    3. Christian democrat

    4. conservative

    5. independent




  1. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the arbiter of consumer taste was the:

    1. working class

    2. middle class

    3. aristocracy

    4. white-collar working class

    5. urban elite




  1. Middle-class reformers saw a cure for all the problems of slums in:

    1. democracy

    2. women’s rights

    3. housing reform

    4. socialism

    5. science




  1. Joseph Lister is responsible for the

A) development of the germ theory.

B) popularization of the miasmatic theory.

C) practice of antiseptic sterilization.

D) theory of genetics.

E) theory of the separation of powers.


  1. Improved economic conditions in the nineteenth century led to

A) more job opportunities for women outside the home.

B) more women remaining single.

C) the expectation that married women would not work outside the home.

D) a mass exodus of women from domestic service.

E) extension of the vote to women in much of Europe.


  1. According to Herbert Spencer the human race

A) was driven forward to specialization and economic struggle

B) would transform from peasants into progressive, industrious farmers

C) would seek out cheaper transportation of raw materials and finished products and hence their wider availability and cheaper cost to the consumer

D) were attempting to maintain a traditional mode of life

E) should hold elections every five years in every nation.


  1. Bismarck's Kulturkampf refers to

A) his drive to make German workers more cultured.

B) his attack on the Catholic Church in the German Empire.

C) his attempt to stamp out anti-German attitudes in France following the Franco-Prussian War.

D) his 1864 war against Denmark.

E) his promotion of the German Empire's new National Theater.


  1. In the growing movement for women’s rights, Emmeline Pankhurst was considered militant because she would heckle politicians and

A) lead sit-ins

B) lead boycotts

C) lead walk-outs of factories

D) propose legislation

E) hold public demonstrations


  1. Modernism was NOT:

A) critical of middle-class society

B)a major influence on literature

C) deeply concerned with social issues

D) deeply concerned with aesthetics

E) concerned with the creation of new forms



  1. The Post-Impressionists are best understood as:

A) a reaction against the Impressionist movement

B) realists

C) anti-modernists

D) a continuation of the Impressionist movement

E) primativists


  1. In Nietzsche’s view, morality was:

A) the foundation of a well-ordered society

B) the foundation of a good life

C) an expression of the divine

D) an expression of the eternal human soul

E) a human convention


  1. Freud believed that dreams were expressions of:

A) general physical health

B) the unknowable inner life of humans

C) the chaos that permeated the universe

D) the divine will

E) unconscious wishes and desires


  1. Jung and Freud split over the issue of:

A) Jung’s anti-Semitism

B) the existence of the unconscious

C) the role of sexual drives in forming personality

D) Jung’s rejection of religion

E) money


  1. In Weber’s view, the basic feature of modern social life was:

A) the emergence of rational Christianity

B) bureaucratization

C) increasing violence

D) increasing irrationality

D) globalization


  1. Racial thinking was transformed in the late nineteenth century by its association with:

A) the biological sciences

B) modernism

C) evangelical Christians

D) slavery

E) consumerism


  1. Theodor Herzl called for:

A) the creation of a Jewish state outside of Europe

B) renewed efforts at Jewish assimilation

C) renewed efforts to achieve legal equality for Jews in Europe

D) government support for popular anti-Semitism



E) the expulsion of Jews from Europe



1)



A

2)



B

3)



A

4)



A

5)



E

6)



B

7)



D

8)



A

9)



A

10)



A

11)



B

12)



D

13)



B

14)



A

15)



B

16)



B

17)



C

18)



A

19)



A

20)



C

21)



C

22)



E

23)



E

24)



D

25)



E

26)



E

27)



A

28)



A

29)



A

30)



C

31)



E

32)



C

33)



C

34)



D

35)



A
22 Multiple Choice: 1-A, 2-C, 3-E, 4-D, 5-E, 6-C, 7-A, 8-E, 9-A, 10-B,

11-B, 12-A, 13-D, 14-C, 15-C, 16-A, 17-E, 18-B, 19-D, 20-E.



23 Multiple Choice: 1-B, 2-A, 3-B, 4-E, 5-C, 6-D, 7-A, 8-E, 9-E, 10-B,

11-B, 12-E, 13-A, 14-D, 15-E, 16-C, 17-E, 18-A, 19-B, 20-C.


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