Chapter 21—Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830-1850) Outline
By 1830, Europe was headed toward a path of an industrial giant.
The second quarter of the nineteenth-century was not the triumph of industrialism, however, but rather the final protests of those economic groups who opposed it.
Economics was uncertain as entrepreneurs knew that trade cycles could bankrupt them, and for the industrial workers and artisans, unemployment became a haunting and recurring problem.
These conflicts resulted in a continent-wide outbreak of revolution in 1848/
Section One: Toward An Industrial Society
British dominance in Europe’s Economy
Britain emerged from the industrial revolution of the 18th century as the world’s industrial leader.
French Revolution and Napoleonic wars destroyed the French-Atlantic trade and thus disrupted continental economic life for two decades.
Latin America Wars of Independence opened markets of South America to British goods.
Both the United States and Canada demanded British products.
Britain commanded the markets of southern Asia and India.
All though the continental nations lagged behind, Belgium, France, and Germany increased their industrial output significantly by 1830.
Ruhr and Saar basins rich in coke
Most manufacturing on the continent still took place in rural areas through the domestic system that started to integrate machinery.
Population and Migration
Number of people rose from 32.5 million in 1831 to 35.8 million in 1851
Increased from 26.5 million to 33.5 million
Increased from 16.3 to 20.8 million
Migration from rural areas to towns
By 1850, one-half the population of England and Wales had become town dwellers
Eastern Europe remained, by contrast, overwhelmingly rural
Liberals envisioned a progressive free peasantry of industrious farmers but freed peasants typically became conservative landholders.
Rural emancipation was granted to persons living in the countryside of England, France, and the Low Countries, but movement was difficult for serfs in Russia, Germany, and eastern Europe which were liberated much later.
Irish famine of 1845 to 1847 saw 500,000 people starve to death
First great age of railway building took place from the 1830s to 1840s.
Stockton and Darlington Line opened in England in 1825.
By 1830, another major line had been built between Manchester and Liverpool.
Belgium began constructing railways by 1835, France in 1832, and Germany in 1835.
Impact on migration
people were freer than ever before to leave their place of birth easily.
Railways and economic thinking
Represented investment in capital goods rather than consumer goods
Railways increased demand for steel and iron as well as a more skilled labor force.
Section Two: The Labor Force
Britain’s labor force was economically diverse.
“laboring poor” held jobs but made little more than enough for subsistence.
Poor working conditions
Mines in Wales treated women and children notoriously poorly.
Factories in the eighteenth century
Only the textile industry completely mechanized during the first half of the nineteenth-century.
Artisans fought to retain their worth.
The Emergence of a Wage-Labor Force
Process by which the labor of artisans and factory workers became a commodity in the marketplace.
Artisans gradually lost ownership of the means of production and control over their trades.
Political and economic elite were concerned about social order as larger masses of people began to gather in cities, experiencing unemployment and social frustration.
Crime rose steadily from 1800-1860 in the cities of Europe.
New Policies and Forces
Two major views of crime enforcement
Better systems of police
Creation of law-enforcement officers to keep order, protect property, investigate crime, and apprehend criminals.
Professional police forces did not exist until the early nineteenth-century.
Paris introduced a police force in 1828
British Parliament passed legislation in 1829, sponsored by Sir Robert Peel (1788-1805), that placed police on the streets on London.
Police were known as bobbies or Peelers
Berlin instituted a police force after the Revolution of 1848.
Prison system prior to the nineteenth-century
Local jails and state prisons like the Bastille
Governments sent some criminals to prison ships, called hulks
Mediterranean nations sentenced criminals to the galleys
Regardless of the crime, all criminals were housed together.
Reform in the British System
Criminals convicted of serious offences were transported to the colony of New South Wales in Australia which was an alternative to capital punishment.
The French government in 1885 started to send criminals to Devil’s Island off the coast of South America.
John Howard 91726-1790) and Elizabeth Fry (1780-1845) in England, and Charles Lucas (1803-1889) in France exposed horrendous conditions in prisons and demanded change.
Change in view of purpose of prison system
Crime was no longer seen as an assault on order and authority but as a mark of a character fault in the criminal and prison was then seen to rehabilitate criminals.
Prisoners were to be trained in a trade or skill so they could emerge from prison as a productive member of society.
Different prison models
Auburn Prison in New York
Prisoners were separated from each other during the night but could associate with one another while working in the day.
Prisoners were kept rigorously separate from each other at all times.
Pentonville Prison near London notoriously followed this model
Section Six: Classical Economics
Mid-nineteenth century economists who largely derived their ideas from Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations, dominated the discussions of industrial and commercial policy.
laissez-faire translates roughly to “let people do what they please”
economists believed in economic growth through competitive free enterprise
Role of government in the economy according to mainstream nineteenth century economists
Maintain a sound currency, enforce contracts, protect property, impose low tariffs and taxes, and leave the rest of economic life to private initiative.
Malthus on Population
Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
Population will exceed the food supply
Population must eventually outstrip the food supply.
Although the human population grows geometrically, the food supply can expand only arithmetically.
According to Malthus, the only way to avoid disaster was through late marriage, chastity, and contraception.
Plight of the working class
If wages increase, the workers would simply produce more children, who would, in turn, consume the extra food and wages.
Ricardo on Wages
Principles of Political Economy (1817)
Iron law of wages
If wages were raised, parents would have more babies.
These children would flood the workforce and lower wages.
As wages fell, working class people would have fewer children and the process would repeat itself.
Provided a basis for opposition of labor unions and convinced employers not to raise wages.
Government Policies Based on Classical Economics
Louis Philippe (1773-1850) in France and his minister Francois Guizot (1787-1874) told the French to go forth and enrich themselves through individual effort.
His reign (1830-1848) saw the construction of major capital-intensive projects such as roads, canals, and highways.
All the major German states, excluding Austria, formed the Zollverein, or free trade union.
German economist Friedrich List (1789-1846) supported this economic union.
Jeremy Bentham and Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism—the principle of utility; that is, the greatest happiness for the greatest number
Fragments on Government (1776) and The Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789)
Bentham argued that the application of utility would reform a society based on aristocratic privilege.
Poor Laws of 1843
Supporters of Bentham in the House of Commons proposed this measure that established a Poor Law Commission.
Government established workhouses for poverty-stricken people which were designed to be unpleasant in order to motivate people to seek steady employment.
Repeal of the Corn Laws
Repeal the tariff that protected the domestic price of grain
Sparked by the Irish famine
Section Seven: Early Socialism
During the twentieth century, the socialist movement constituted one of the major political forces in Europe but at the beginning of the nineteenth-century, advocates of socialism lacked any meaningful political following.
Early socialist supported the expansion of industrial production but they did not think the free market could function properly and that the community’s resources needed oversight and management.
Early socialists were considered utopian because they called for ideal communities and their views were thought of as visionary.
Some early socialists advocated free love and open family relationships which was off-putting to many.
Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)
Liberal French aristocrat
Fought in the American Revolution
Considered the earliest socialist pioneer
Modern society required rational management.
Private wealth, property, and enterprise should be subject to an administration other than that of its owners.
He did not advocate the redistribution of wealth, but its management by experts, would alleviate the poverty of the age.
Saint-Simonian societies were formed.
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
early British socialist
became a partner in the largest cotton factory in Britain at New Lanark, Scotland
If humans were placed in the correct surrounding, they and their character could be renewed.
He provided his workers with good living conditions
free thinker on religion and sex
Grand National Union
his attempt to draw all British trade unions into a single body
Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
French intellectual and counterpart to Owen
believed that industrial order ignored the passionate side of human nature
advocated the creation of communities called phalanxes, in which liberated living would replace the boredom and dullness of industrial existence
Louis Blanc (1811-1882)
The Organization of Labor (1839)
demanded an end to competition
suffrage for the working class
rejected both industry and the dominance of government
Auguste Blanqui (1805-1881)
Advocated the use of terror and the development of a professional revolutionary army to attack capitalist society
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
W hat Is Property?
attacked the banking industry which rarely extended credit to small property owners or the poor.
Mutualism—society organized in a system which amounted to a system of small businesses and other cooperative enterprises among which there will be peaceful cooperation and exchanges of goods based on mutual recognition of the labor each area of production required
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
born in Germany in the Prussian Rhineland
his family was Jewish but his father had converted to Lutheranism
middle-class family sent him to the University of Berlin where he was exposed to Hegelian philosophy and radical politics
Partnership with Engels
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
Wrote “The Condition of the Working Class in England, which presented a devastating picture of industrial life.
The Communist Manifesto
Communism implied the outright abolition of private property
It was not immediately influential and was just one of several radical political tracts circulating in intellectual circles
Sources of Marx’s Ideas
Hegel’s abstract philosophical concept that thought develops from the clash of a thesis and an antithesis into a new intellectual synthesis
Marx theorized that conflict between dominant and subordinate social groups led to the emergence of a new dominant social group
French utopian socialism
They initially raised and depicted the problems of capitalist society and had raised the issue of property redistribution.
Produced the analytical tools for an empirical, scientific examination of industrial capitalist society
Based on this, Marx fashioned a philosophy that gave a special role or function to the new industrial workforce as the single most important driving force to contemporary history which he called the proletariat
Marx’s view of the proletariat
he equated the fate of the proletariat with the fate of humanity
as the proletariat came to liberate itself from the bondage of capitalism, such liberation would led to the liberation of all humanity
Revolution Through Class Conflict
Historical causes and rationale
History is the record of humankind’s coming to grips with physical nature to produce the goods necessary for survival and that basic productive process determines the structures, values, and ideas of society.
Historically, the organization of the means of production has always involved conflict between the classes that owned the means of production and the classes that worked for them.
Struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
Bourgeoisie—middle class associated with industry and commerce
Marx believed the disparity between the wealthy and the poor would eventually foment revolution and a proletariat revolution was inevitable.
A new propertyless and classless society would emerge.
For the first time in human history, Marx believed, one group of people would not be oppressing another.
Economic environment in the 1840s
high unemployment and deprivation
Section Eight: 1848—Year of Revolutions
Series of liberal and nationalistic revolutions erupted across Europe
Severe food shortages had prevailed since 1846
Commercial and industrial economy was depressed
High unemployment rates
Political liberals—mostly from the middle class—led the charge.
demanded a more representative government, civil liberty, and unregulated economic life
appealed for the support of the urban working classes and this temporary alliance overthrew or severely shook the old order
liberal tactics were generally viewed as violent
Nationalism and nationhood
Germans, Hungarians, Italians, Czechs, and smaller national groups in eastern Europe sought to create national states that would reorganize or replace existing political entities.
France: The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon
Causes for Revolution in France in 1848
Unpopularity of Louis Philippe and his minister Guizot
Poor harvests of 1846 and 1847
Parisian liberal held a series of “political banquets” and used this forum to criticize the government and demand further participation in the political process.
On February 21, 1848, the government forbade any more banquets
On February 22, Parisian workers paraded through the streets and demanded reform and Guizot’s resignation
As the crowds grew, Guizot resigned and Louis Philippe abdicated.
The National Assembly and Paris Workers
Liberal opposition was led by a poet named Alphonse de Lamartine
They formed a provisional government
Other working-class groups did not agree with de Lamartine’s views
Led by Louis Blanc, this group demanded representation in the cabinet
Louis and two other radical leaders became ministers.
Government organized national workshops to provide work and relief for thousands of unemployed workers
Election based on universal male suffrage chose the new National Assembly
The result was a legislature dominated by moderates and conservatives
Many in the French provinces resented the Paris radicals.
Peasants feared the government would confiscate small farms.
Government troops and the unemployed workers and artisans of Paris clashed.
General Louis Cavaignac (1802-1857)
He and a contingent of conservative troops from the countryside destroyed the barricades erected by the crowds, killed four hundred people, and hunted down another 3,000 in a series of street fights.
Emergence of Louis Napoleon
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873)
nephew of Napoleon who used the inadequacies of the “July Monarchy” to enter politics in France.
he was named president of France in 1848 because his name was associated with stability and greatness
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte’s government
he claimed that he, not the National Assembly, represented the will of the people
in 1851, the assembly refused to amend the constitution to allow the president to run for reelection.
Louis Napoleon seized power.
Troops dispersed the National Assembly and crowd
200 people were killed
10,000 were transported to Algeria
In a plebiscite , more than 7.5 million voters supported the actions of Louis Napoleon and approved a new constitution that consolidated his power.
In 1852, an empire was proclaimed, and Louis Napoleon became Emperor Napoleon III.
Frenchwomen in 1848
Women speak out in France from 1848-1851
Joined political clubs
Some women tried, unsuccessfully, to vote in the election
Radical group of women named after a volcano in Italy because they believed it was time for the demands of women to erupt like pent-up lava.
Demanded full domestic household equality between men and women, the right of women to serve in the military, and similarity in dress for both sexes.
Voix des femmes (The Women’s Voice)
a daily newspaper that addressed the concerns of women
Jeanne Deroin and Pauline Roland (1805-1852)
Imprisoned for organizing rallies for improved conditions for working-class women
Women, like liberals, were defeated by conservative forces.
The events in Paris in February 1848 triggered revolution in the Habsburg empire as it was vulnerable to uprisings since its government rejected liberal institutions, its borders cut across national lines, and serfdom still existed.
Rebellions sparked in Vienna, Prague, Hungary, and Italy in 1848.
The Vienna Uprising
March 3, 1848, Louis Kossuth (1802-1894), a Magyar nationalist and member of the Hungarian diet, attacked Austrian domination and called for the independence of Hungary.
Students led a series of rallies in Vienna and the army failed to restore order
Metternich resigned and fled.
Emperor Ferdinand promised a moderately liberal constitution but this did not appease the liberals and Ferdinand was forced to flee.
Government was turned over to a committee of about 200 people concerned with advocating for the economic rights of urban workers
Habsburgs feared serf uprisings in the countryside and consequently abolished serfdom.
Hungarian March Revolution
Liberals supported by aristocrats who wanted their aristocratic liberties guaranteed against the central government in Vienna
Hungarian diet and the March Laws
granted equality of religion, jury trials, the election of the lower chamber of the diet, a relatively free press, and payment of taxes by the nobility
Goals of the Magyar nationalists
Establish a separate autonomous Hungarian state within Habsburg domains
Attempted to annex Transylvania, Croatia, and other eastern European territories belonging to the Habsburgs but the nationalists in these regions resisted Magyar domination
Habsburg government sent count Joseph Jellachich (1801-1859) to assist nationalists groups fighting against the rebellious Magyars
the count invaded Hungary with the support of national groups who were resisting Magyarization
Important: This event is a prime example of the clash between liberalism and nationalism.
Nationalist movements erupted in the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia that now demanded autonomous status comparable to that just enacted in Hungary.
Conflict between Germans and Czechs living in these regions
Pan-Slavic Congress in Prague
Included Poles, Ruthenians, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Slovenes, and Serbs
met in Prague
led by Francis Palacy (1798-1876)
called for the national equality of Slavs in the Habsburg Empire
established the vision of a massive, united Slavic state in eastern Europe
significance of Pan-Slavism
Russia became the protector of European Slavs and would use this national vision as justification to resist Habsburg, Ottoman, and German influence in Slavic regions
As the Congress approached a close, an uprising sparked in Prague
General Prince Alfred Windischgraetz (1787-1862), whose wife had been killed by a stray bullet, moved his troops against the uprising.
The radicals were suppressed much to the dismay of the middle class in Prague and the Germans in these regions approved of smothering Czech nationalism
Rebellion in Northern Italy
Milan revolts against Hubsburg domination and Austrian commander general Count Joseph Wenzel Radetzky (1766-1858) retreated from the city.
The Milanese rebels were aided by King Charles Albert of Piedmont who wanted to annex Lombardy.
Austrian commander Radetzky defeated Piedmont and the rebels and Austria retained firm control over northern Italy.
Emperor Ferdinand returned to the capital, Vienna, to find a newly elected assembly trying to write a constitution for Austria and the unpopular Ferdinand abdicated.
Ferdinand’s nephew, Francis Joseph (1848-1916) was named emperor but real power belonged to Prince Felix Schwarzenberg who controlled the army and used it to conquer Budapest, placing Hungary once again under Habsburg domination.
Tsar Nicholas I of Russia (1825-1855) sent troops to help the Austrians crush the Hungarian rebels.
Italy: Republicanism Defeated
Since King Charles Albert of Piedmont was unsuccessful in driving Austria from Italy, Italian nationalists turned to Pope Pius IX, who had a liberal reputation, for leadership of the movement.
A democratic radical in Rome assassinated Count Pelligrino Rossi (1787-1848), the liberal minister of the Papal States and Pope Pius was forced to flee to Naples.
Republican nationalists, led by Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) and Giuseppe Garibaldi, flocked to Rome to unite the rest of Italy under a republican government.
Nationalists called on the forces of King Charles Albert of Piedmont for support but his role was insignificant after his defeat to the Austrians in the naval Battle of Novara and Charles Albert abdicated in favor of his son, Victor Emmanuel II (1849-1878)
French troops crushed the rebellion and Pope Pius IX was restored to power over the Papal States.
Germany: Liberalism Frustrated
Revolutionary air spread through the German States
Revolution in Prussia
Popular disturbances broke out in Berlin in March of 1848 but Frederick William IV (1840-1861) refused to turn his troops on the crowd until later in March when troops killed several citizens as they cleared a crowd near the palace.
Frederick William IV commanded the Prussian constituent assembly to write a constitution and he addressed the Berlin crowds from his balcony vowing to help unite Germany.
Frederick William IV and his conservative followers ignored the assembly recommendation and he wrote his own constitution for Prussia that included the following important provisions:
Three-class voting which gave people with greater ability to pay taxes, more power in the voting process
Essentially, the wealthiest 5% of the population elected one-third of the Prussian Parliament
Prussian army and officer corps still swore loyalty directly to the monarch.
The Frankfurt Parliament
Representatives from all the German states gathered in Saint Paul’s Church in Franfurt to revise the organization of the German Confederation.
Goal was to write a moderately liberal constitution for a united Germany
Both conservatives and working class resisted this movement
Split between the German liberals and the working class enabled the conservatives in Germany to maintain power.
Frankfurt Parliament called for troops supplied by the German Confederation to suppress revolts and protests launched by the working class in Frankfurt.
Key question of the Frankfurt Parliament
Whether or not to include Austria in a united Germany
“large German [grossdeutsch] solution” favored Austria’s inclusion
“small German [kleindeutsch] solution” advocated Austria’s exclusion
Since Austria resisted the concept of German unification, the Frankfurt Parliament looked to Prussian leadership in the unification effort.
Frankfurt Parliament offered the throne of a united Germany to Frederick William IV of Prussia but he rejected it and claimed that power to rule comes from God, not man-made constitutions
Frankfurt Parliament dissolved and the liberals and nationalists failed to unify Germany.