Later, a huge chain was strung across the one harbor for greater protection.
The city of Constantinople, like Rome, stood on seven hills.
Government buildings and palaces were designed in the Roman style.
Streets were narrow and apartment houses crowded.
Constantinople had an oval arena like the Circus Maximus where races and other events were held.
G. How was Constantinople political and social life like Rome?
The emperor operated under Roman laws and ruled with the help of highly trained officials, who took charge of building roads, bridges, wells, and caravan shelters.
The army followed Roman military customs.
The poor people of Constantinople received free bread and enjoyed circuses and chariot races put on by the government.
The wealthy people lived in town or on large farming estates.
Constantine convinced many of the wealthy Romans to move to Constantinople by offering to build them palaces.
What was a difference between Constantinople and Rome? From its beginning, Constantinople was a Christian city. It was dedicated to God by Constantine, who viewed it as a center of a great Christian empire.
What are some examples of Constantinople being a Christian city?
Constantinople had many Christian churches.
Government and church leaders gather relics, or valued holy objects from the past, from throughout the Christian world.
Lesson Essential Question 2 – How did Justinian’s rule contribute to laws and expansion of the Byzantine Empire.
Why was Justinian I considered the greatest Byzantine emperor?
He had served in the army and was a good general.
Justinian was well trained in law, music, architecture, and theology, or the study of religion.
The people who served him were chosen for their abilities rather than for their wealth or social positions.
Theodora (p. 320, 322)
How did Theodora help women within the Byzantine Empire?
Because of Theodora, for the first time, a Byzantine wife could own land equal in value to her dowry, or the wealth she brought with her when she married.
A widow could raise her young children without government interference.
Law and Public Works (p. 322-323)
How did Justinian feel about the old system of Roman laws? What did he do about it? Justinian felt the laws were too complicated and disorganized. Justinian chose ten men to work out a simpler and better system.
What was the Justinian Code? The Justinian Code was the code of law designed by Justinian. It provided a summary of Roman legal thinking. It gave later generations insight into Roman legal thinking and has had great influence over almost every western country.
Describe the church called Hagia Sophia.
The church had a gold altar and walls of polished marble.
Gold and silver ornaments, woven cloth, and colorful mosaics were everywhere.
Figures of Justinian and Theodora were among the angels and saints that lined the walls.
There was a huge dome that rose high over the central part of the church.
During the day, sunlight poured through he many windows in the dome.
Hagia Sophia was later called St. Sophia.
Conquests (p. 323-324)
What areas did Justinian hope to conquer? Justinian hoped to conquer the German kingdoms in western Europe and North Africa. He wanted to reunite the eastern and western parts of the empire.
What was Greek fire?
Greek fire was a chemical mixture that ignited when it came into contact with water.
Greek fire burned a person’s skin and was hard to put out.
The Byzantines guarded their secret so carefully that its exact formula is still unknown.
Section 3: The Church (p. 324-326)
Lesson Essential Question 3 – What effects did Orthodox Christianity have on Byzantine culture and eastern European culture?
What role did Christianity play in the Byzantine Empire?
Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantines believed the emperor represented Christ on Earth.
The emperor was not only the head of the government but also the Church.
Who was the head of the Church in Constantinople? The leader of the Church in Constantinople was called the Patriarch.
What was the role of monasteries in the Byzantine Church?
The monasteries helped the poor and ran hospitals and schools for needy children.
They sent missionaries to neighboring lands to help keep the peace.
These missionaries translated part of the Bible and some religious services into several Eastern European languages.
What were icons? Icons were religious images.
What led to the split of Western and Eastern Christianity? The using of icons in worship led to the split between Western and Eastern Christianity. Also the Patriarch of Constantinople refused to recognize the Pope as the head of the Church.
Section 4: Decline of the Empire (p. 326-328)
Lesson Essential Question 4 – Why did the Byzantine Empire decline?
What were some accomplishments of the Byzantine Empire?
The Byzantine Empire lasted for about 1,100 years.
Its capital was the largest, richest, and most beautiful city in Europe.
Its people were among the most educated and creative of that time.
They preserved Greek culture and Roman law for other civilizations.
The Byzantine Empire spread Christianity to peoples in the East.
The empire did much to help the growth of trade.
It also gave new techniques in the fine arts.
What led to the Byzantine Empire’s downfall?
Early Byzantine emperors had counted on farmers to make up the army.
In return for their services, these farmers were given land.
By the 1100s, the empire’s borders were safe and not as many soldiers were needed.
The emperor decided to cut costs by changing the policy toward the farmers.
The Byzantines no longer had enough soldiers to fight them.
The Byzantines turned to help from the Italian city-state of Venice.
The Venetians defeated the Vikings.
In return, the Byzantine emperor gave them the right to business tax-free in all of the empire’s cities.
Venetian merchants soon controlled most of the empire’s trade.
This meant a loss of income for the Byzantines.
Christians from the West and Muslims from the East attacked the empire.
Asia Minor was lost to these invaders.
This greatly weakened the empire, which depended on Asia Minor for food and materials as well as soldiers.
What happened by 1453? The population had dropped to less than 100,000 people. Docks and marketplaces were empty. In 1453, Turkish armies with guns and gunpowder attacked Constantinople and easily conquered the Byzantines.