Chapter 20—Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865 short answer



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Chapter 20—Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865
SHORT ANSWER
Identify and state the historical significance of the following:
1. Napoleon III

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Student answers will vary.

2. Maximilian

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3. Charles Francis Adams

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Student answers will vary.

4. Clara Barton

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Student answers will vary.



5. William H. Seward

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Student answers will vary.

6. Jefferson Davis

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7. Abraham Lincoln

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Student answers will vary.

Describe and state the historical significance of the following:
8. Morrill Tariff Act

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Student answers will vary.

9. National Banking Act

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Student answers will vary.



10. Trent affair

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Student answers will vary.

11. Alabama

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Student answers will vary.



12. Laird rams

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Student answers will vary.

13. King Cotton

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Student answers will vary.



14. Draft Riots

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Student answers will vary.

15. Butternut Region

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16. martial law

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17. Border States

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18. Fort Sumter

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19. "Johnny Reb"

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20. "Billy Yank"

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21. Union

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22. Confederacy

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Student answers will vary.

MULTIPLE CHOICE
23. The European great powers welcomed a civil war in the United States for all of the following reasons except

a.

war would weaken the power of the United States in the western hemisphere.

b.

a divided America would likely put a halt to European immigration.

c.

they could play the two nations off against one another in a game of balance of power.

d.

their existing colonies would be safe against further American expansion.

e.

they might more readily seize new colonial territory in the Americas.

ANS: B REF: p. 419


24. President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as

a.

ill thought out.

b.

rash and hotheaded.

c.

the only possible option.

d.

a strategic blunder.

e.

a middle of the road solution.

ANS: E REF: p. 419


25. Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter when it was learned that

a.

Lincoln had ordered the fort reinforced with federal troops.

b.

Lincoln had ordered supplies sent to the fort.

c.

the fort's commander was planning to evacuate his troops secretly from the fort.

d.

Lincoln had called for seventy-five thousand militia troops to form a voluntary Union army.

e.

southern support for secession was weakening.

ANS: B REF: p. 419


26. In 1861, many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until

a.

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry.

b.

the South attacked Fort Sumter.

c.

Robert E. Lee was named to head the potential new nation's army.

d.

South Carolina seceded from the United States.

e.

Virginia and Tennessee joined the seceding states.

ANS: B REF: p. 419


27. In order to persuade the Border States to remain in the Union, President Lincoln

a.

relied solely on moral appeal.

b.

used only totally legal methods.

c.

guaranteed that they could keep slavery permanently.

d.

never had to use troops.

e.

used legally dubious methods.

ANS: E REF: p. 420


28. The Border States offered all of the following advantages except

a.

a large population.

b.

a good supply of horses and mules.

c.

valuable manufacturing capacity.

d.

shipbuilding facilities.

e.

large navigable rivers.

ANS: D REF: p. 420


29. Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery

a.

came as a disappointment to most Northerners and demoralized the Union.

b.

revealed the influence of the Border States on his policies.

c.

caused some seceded states to rejoin the Union.

d.

contradicted the campaign promises of the Republican party.

e.

cost him support in the Butternut region of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.

ANS: B REF: p. 420


30. Lincoln declared from the outset of the Civil War that

a.

he was not fighting to free the blacks.

b.

he wanted to see an end to slavery.

c.

slaves in all the Confederate states were now legally emancipated.

d.

he believed blacks and whites were equal.

e.

None of these

ANS: A REF: p. 420


31. During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of present-day Oklahoma

a.

supported the Confederacy.

b.

supported the Union.

c.

remained neutral.

d.

gave up their slaves.

e.

sought admission as a Confederate state.

ANS: A REF: p. 421


32. The Cherokees' decision on whether to side with the North or South during the Civil War was based on

a.

Northern reservation policies.

b.

the fact that the tribe also owned slaves.

c.

promises by the Lincoln administration to continue making payments to the tribe.

d.

the invitation by Union leaders to send tribal delegates to Congress.

e.

the offer of a large cash payment in return for military support.

ANS: B REF: p. 421


33. In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War, the Union

a.

gave them land in California.

b.

increased their federal payments.

c.

allowed them to send delegates to Congress.

d.

made them scouts for the U.S. Army.

e.

waged war on them and herded them onto reservations.

ANS: E REF: p. 421


34. To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to

a.

invade the Union.

b.

win a decisive military victory on its own soil.

c.

fight the invading Union army to a draw.

d.

attract more talented military commanders.

e.

capture Washington, D.C.

ANS: C REF: p. 424


35. As the Civil War began, the South seemed to have the advantage of

a.

greater ability to wage offensive warfare.

b.

more talented military leaders.

c.

superior industrial capabilities.

d.

superior transportation facilities.

e.

a more united public opinion.

ANS: B REF: p. 424


36. All of the following were similar characteristics that both Union and Confederate soldiers shared except

a.

most soldiers had been farmers or farm laborers.

b.

poor unskilled workers were well represented among both armies.

c.

most troops were native born.

d.

almost half were under the age of 22.

e.

both shared a common commitment to patriotism.

ANS: B REF: p. 423


37. Johnny Reb tended to be all of the following except

a.

jocular.

b.

emotional.

c.

religious.

d.

detached personally from the war.

e.

bred to fight.

ANS: D REF: p. 423


38. Billy Yank tended to be all of the following except

a.

religious.

b.

literate.

c.

intellectual.

d.

practical.

e.

efficient.

ANS: A REF: p. 423


39. Of all the hardships faced by the soldiers during the Civil War, the greatest was

a.

starvation.

b.

disease.

c.

decline of moral standards.

d.

lack of proper clothing.

e.

constant fighting.

ANS: B REF: p. 423


40. The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was its

a.

military leadership.

b.

navy.

c.

slave population.

d.

economy.

e.

political system.

ANS: D REF: p. 424


41. The North's greatest strength in the Civil War was its

a.

ethnic unity.

b.

military leadership.

c.

navy.

d.

high morale.

e.

economy.

ANS: E REF: p. 424

42. Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to

a.

poor agricultural production.

b.

the Union's naval blockade.

c.

the South's rickety transportation system.

d.

the fact that slaves abandoned the plantations.

e.

profiteering by military suppliers.

ANS: C REF: p. 424


43. Northern soldiers eventually became known for their

a.

discipline and determination.

b.

cowardice in battle.

c.

lack of proper training.

d.

high-pitched battle yell.

e.

love of military pomp and hierarchy.

ANS: A REF: p. 425


44. To find effective high-level commanders, the Union

a.

took only top graduates of West Point.

b.

drew on its reserve officer training program.

c.

relied on the advice of foreign experts.

d.

did not let politics enter the decision-making process.

e.

used trial and error.

ANS: E REF: p. 425


45. A supposed asset for the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was

a.

effective military leadership.

b.

intervention from Britain and France.

c.

the fighting skill of Southern males.

d.

its ability to fight on its own soil.

e.

its belief that it was defending its way of life.

ANS: B REF: p. 425


46. Most working people in Britain sided with the North because

a.

they relied on the Northern economy for their own jobs.

b.

the North shared their feelings about whether Britain should enter the war.

c.

they had been moved by Uncle Tom's Cabin to want the end of slavery

d.

they hoped to one day have the opportunity to relocate to and profit in the U.S.

e.

France had sided with the South and they hated the French.

ANS: C REF: p. 425


47. One reason that the British did not try to break the Union blockade of the South during the Civil War was that

a.

they feared losing Northern grain shipments.

b.

they did not want to fight against the superior American navy.

c.

the British upper class had supported the North from the onset of hostilities.

d.

the war caused no economic problems for Britain.

e.

the South resented British interference.

ANS: A REF: p. 426


48. The South believed that the British would come to its aid because

a.

the people in Britain would demand such action.

b.

British Canada was strongly hostile to the Union.

c.

Britain still had slavery in its empire.

d.

the government had refused to allow Uncle Tom's Cabin to be sold in the empire.

e.

Britain was dependent on Southern cotton.

ANS: E REF: p. 426


49. During the Civil War, Britain and the United States were nearly provoked into war by

a.

the incompetence of Charles Francis Adams, the United States ambassador to London.

b.

Britain's refusal to observe the Union's blockade of Southern ports.

c.

the Trent affair, involving the removal of Southern diplomats from a British ship.

d.

Napoleon III's effort to place Maximilian on the Mexican throne.

e.

British working-class support for the South.

ANS: C REF: p. 427


50. During the Civil War, diplomacy for the Union and the Confederacy

a.

played only a small role.

b.

was important for the Union but not for the Confederacy.

c.

was critical for both.

d.

was important for the Confederacy but not for the Union.

e.

relied on international organizations.

ANS: C REF: p. 427


51. Confederate commerce-raiders such as the Alabama

a.

were of little value.

b.

proved effective against Union shipping.

c.

were supplied by the French.

d.

lasted less than a year.

e.

operated mostly off the Atlantic coast.

ANS: B REF: p. 427


52. The Confederacy's most effective commerce-raider was the

a.

Monitor.

b.

Merrimack.

c.

Trent.

d.

Virginia.

e.

Alabama.

ANS: E REF: p. 427


53. Napoleon III's attempt to install Maximilian on the Mexican throne was a clear violation of

a.

French neutrality.

b.

the Rush-Bagot agreement.

c.

Spanish sovereignty.

d.

the Monroe Doctrine.

e.

Pan-American treaties.

ANS: D REF: p. 428


54. America's minister to Britain, during the Civil War, under President Lincoln was



a.

Charles Francis Adams.

b.

William H. Seward.

c.

Jefferson Davis.

d.

Edwin M. Stanton.

e.

Clara Barton.

ANS: A REF: p. 427


55. France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico

a.

because the effort proved to be unprofitable.

b.

when the British pressured them to leave.

c.

when the American Civil War began.

d.

because the Mexicans declared independence.

e.

when the United States threatened to force France to leave.

ANS: E REF: p. 428


56. During the Civil War

a.

relations between the Union and Canada were at times very poor.

b.

Southerners were unable to use Canada as a base from which to attack the Union.

c.

the Union and Canada became very close allies.

d.

France made an effort to regain control of Canada.

e.

the British army in Canada mobilized for intervention.

ANS: A REF: p. 428


57. The Southern cause was weakened by

a.

the concept of states' rights that the Confederacy professed.

b.

a president, Jefferson Davis, who catered to public opinion and did not work hard at his job.

c.

the failure of the Southern people to commit to the ideal of Southern independence.

d.

a lack of sound military leadership.

e.

the constant threat of slave rebellion.

ANS: A REF: p. 428


58. As leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis

a.

enjoyed real personal popularity despite the South's loss.

b.

was a poor administrator.

c.

developed a good relationship with his congress.

d.

effectively articulated southern ideals.

e.

defied rather than was led by public opinion.

ANS: E REF: p. 429


59. The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were less prostrating than those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North

a.

had a long-established and fully recognized government.

b.

had strong political support from Britain and France.

c.

held firm to states' rights principles.

d.

was united in the cause of abolitionism.

e.

had fewer internal political divisions.

ANS: A REF: p. 429


60. As president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because

a.

of the South's emphasis on states' rights.

b.

there was such strong agreement on policy in the South.

c.

he did not believe in strong executive action.

d.

Lee's insistence on keeping his army out of politics.

e.

the Confederate Constitution gave him all the power he needed.

ANS: A REF: p. 429


61. To fill the army's demand for troops, prior to 1863, the North relied mainly on

a.

the draft.

b.

bounty brokers.

c.

substitute brokers.

d.

volunteers.

e.

foreign mercenaries.

ANS: D REF: p. 429


62. In Lincoln's attempts to preserve the Union, he did all of the following questionable actions as president except

a.

proclaimed a blockade of the Southern ports.

b.

increased the size of the federal army.

c.

suspended the writ of habeas corpus.

d.

advanced federal funds to private citizens without authorization.

e.

refused to implement a draft, or conscription law, during the war.

ANS: E REF: p. 429


63. The Union's establishment of the National Banking System

a.

led to the issuance of depreciated paper money.

b.

established the gold standard in the United States.

c.

resulted in the reestablishment of the Bank of the United States.

d.

lasted only during the Civil War.

e.

was the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.

ANS: E REF: p. 431


64. All of the following are true statements about the federal conscription (draft) law except

a.

it allowed draftees to hire substitutes

b.

its provisions were unfair to the poor.

c.

it was passed despite a healthy rate of volunteers.

d.

men could pay $300 to purchase an exemption.

e.

it inspired resentment and riots.

ANS: C REF: p. 429


65. As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy

a.

became more dependent on international trade.

b.

saw industrial profits improve but agricultural profits fall.

c.

was notable for its honest and fair business practices.

d.

experienced considerable unemployment despite military manpower demands.

e.

greatly expanded its industrial and technological productivity.

ANS: E REF: p. 432


66. Possessing ____ percent of the national wealth in 1860, the South claimed only ____ percent in 1870.

a.

45, 25

b.

35, 20

c.

32, 5

d.

30, 12

e.

25, 5

ANS: D REF: p. 433


67. The Civil War was a women's war in all of the following ways except

a.

as men left for war, women gained new job opportunities in government.

b.

military demand for shoes and clothing drew women into industrial employment.

c.

women were encouraged to run for office to fill political posts abandoned by men.

d.

women aided men on the battlefront as spies or by posing as male soldiers

e.

women were able to professionalize nursing.

ANS: C REF: p. 433


68. Despite the war, 300,000 people migrated to the West, lured mainly by

a.

the prospect of free land under the Homestead Act.

b.

the ability to push Indians off their land without government interference.

c.

the opportunity to flee from federal draft laws.

d.

the hope of fleeing slavery.

e.

None of these

ANS: A REF: p. 433


MULTIPLE RESPONSE
69. States that joined the Confederacy after the firing on Fort Sumter included

a.

Virginia.

b.

North Carolina.

c.

Missouri.

d.

Tennessee.

e.

Arkansas.

ANS: A, B, D, E REF: p. 420


70. Border slave states that remained loyal to the Union included

a.

Kentucky.

b.

Missouri.

c.

Tennessee.

d.

Maryland.

e.

Delaware.

ANS: A, B, D, E REF: p. 420


71. Northern advantages at the outset of the Civil War included

a.

control of the seas.

b.

more banks, factories, railroads, and people.

c.

interior lines of military operation.

d.

the ability to wage offensive warfare.

e.

better military leadership.

ANS: A, B REF: p. 424


72. King Cotton failed the South as a tool of wartime diplomacy because

a.

Britain held surpluses of cotton when the war began.

b.

textile workers in Britain favored the North.

c.

the North sent captured cotton to Britain.

d.

Britain developed alternative supplies of cotton in Egypt and India.

e.

the cotton crop was devastated by the boll weevil.

ANS: A, B, C, D REF: p. 425-426


73. Confederate commerce-raiders

a.

operated near New York and Boston.

b.

dealt a devastating blow to the Union's merchant marine.

c.

severely crippled the Union war effort.

d.

established an effective blockade of Union ports.

e.

were almost all built in Britain.

ANS: B, E REF: p. 427


74. President Lincoln's loose interpretation of civil liberties during the Civil War

a.

was overridden by a protesting Congress.

b.

resulted in the suspension of habeas corpus.

c.

led to the arrest of several critical newspaper editors.

d.

was allowed to continue after the war.

e.

was defended by him as necessary to save the Union.

ANS: B, C, E REF: p. 429


75. Like the North during the Civil War, the South

a.

exempted the wealthy from military service.

b.

experienced a high rate of desertion.

c.

relied mainly on volunteer enlistments.

d.

drafted men into military service.

e.

used black soldiers.

ANS: A, B, C, D REF: p. 429-430


76. To help pay for the Civil War, both the North and the South

a.

raised taxes.

b.

printed paper currency.

c.

sold bonds.

d.

imposed high protective tariffs.

e.

borrowed from foreign governments.

ANS: A, B, C REF: p. 431


ESSAY
77. Explain why Britain finally decided against intervention on behalf of the Confederacy. In what ways was Britain helpful to the South anyway?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

78. Write your definition of revolution. Then use this definition to argue that the Civil War did or did not produce a revolution in the political, economic, and social life of the United States.

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Student answers will vary.



79. To what extent was President Lincoln justified in his violations of ordinary civil liberties during the Civil War? Why or why not?

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Student answers will vary.

80. Assess the validity of the following statement, "The South's devotion to states' rights was a major reason for its failure to win the Civil War."

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Student answers will vary.



81. During the Civil War, many poor Southerners complained that it was a rich man's war but a poor man's fight. On what basis did they make this complaint? Could Northerners have made the same accusation for the same reason? Explain.

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

82. When confronted with Southern secession in 1861, why didn't Lincoln simply allow the South to separate in peace?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



83. The Civil War began in 1861. Why was it 1863 before Lincoln committed the Union to the emancipation of slaves?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

84. At the outset of the Civil War, the South confidently anticipated that King Cotton would guarantee it European intervention. Why didn't this intervention materialize?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



85. Identify the significance of the Border States to both the North and the South. How did they influence the shaping of Union strategy?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.


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