37. Answers should include three of the following: enclosure, the use of fertilizer and other methods to renew the soil, new methods of crop rotation, and new mechanical devices.
38. The agricultural revolution lowered the death rate by reducing famine and allowing people to eat better, which improved their health and made them more resistant to disease.
39. steam, coal, and water
40. an abundance of coal (natural resources), an abundance of workers (human resources), technological know-how, capital and a market for goods (good economic conditions), a stable government and an entrepreneurial outlook (good political and social conditions)
41. It made it rigid and took it out of the context of nature and away from the family. Also, workers in factories were no longer toiling for their own consumption, but working for someone else’s profit.
42. They thought women could adapt more easily to machines. They thought women were easier to manage than men. They were able to pay women less than men.
43. Thomas Malthus—tried to explain the relationship of population growth and family size to widespread poverty during the Industrial Revolution. Jeremy Bentham—tried to justify some government intervention on behalf of the poor during the Industrial Revolution with his theory of utilitarianism. Karl Marx—tried to show that capitalism, the foundation of the Industrial Revolution, was evil because it exploited the workers.
44. Kembel’s reaction was one of wonder and delight.
45. Most students will probably answer that they would be amazed, excited, and a little overwhelmed. Some might react with skepticism.
46. Most students will probably think that the British were excited about the railroad and welcomed it.