Chapter 2 Cross-Cultural Variations in Consumer Behavior Multiple Choice Questions



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Chapter 2 Cross-Cultural Variations in Consumer Behavior



Multiple Choice Questions
1. What was the challenge facing FedEx in the Chapter 2 opener?

A) to influence Asian governments to allow FedEx to operate in their countries

B) to increase awareness in Africa of the benefits of FedEx

C) to increase awareness in Eastern Europe with a commercial that would work across this region with its differing cultures and languages

D) to increase awareness in Latin America and the Caribbean with a commercial that would work across this region with its differing cultures and languages

E) to influence Brazilian regulators to allow it to operate its service after normal working hours


Answer: D Page: 39 Difficulty: hard
2. Which of the following is a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy?

A) demographics

B) values

C) language

D) nonverbal communications

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 40 Difficulty: easy
3. Which of the following is NOT a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy?

A) demographics

B) language

C) exchange rates

D) values

E) nonverbal communications


Answer: C Page: 40 Difficulty: moderate
4. Howard Industries is a computer manufacturer located in Laurel, MS. This company is interested in expanding internationally. Which of the following is a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy that Howard Industries needs to be aware of?

A) nonverbal communications

B) natural resources

C) economic conditions

D) exchange rates

E) all of the above


Answer: A Page: 40 Difficulty: moderate
5. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding cross-cultural marketing?

A) Marketing across cultural boundaries is a difficult and challenging task.

B) Most categories of American products are generally prized throughout the world.

C) There are both subtle and direct ethical issues involved in international marketing.

D) While marketing strategy is heavily influenced by cultural factors, it does not influence aspects of cultures.

E) Cultures may differ in demographics, languages, nonverbal communications, and values.


Answer: D Page: 40-41 Difficulty: hard
6. _____ is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society.

A) Reference group

B) Government

C) Culture

D) Authority

E) Gestalt


Answer: C Page: 42 Difficulty: easy
7. Sarah's job at a major manufacturer of consumer package goods is to learn as much as possible about the knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans in a given country in which her company intends to expand. Her job, then, is to understand a country's _____.

A) culture

B) society

C) government

D) way of doing things

E) economic environment


Answer: A Page: 42 Difficulty: moderate
8. Which of the following statements is true regarding culture?

A) Culture is a relatively simple concept.

B) Culture is acquired.

C) Culture often provides detailed prescriptions for appropriate behavior.

D) The nature of cultural influences is such that we are consciously aware of them.

E) all of the above


Answer: B Page: 42 Difficulty: hard
9. In the United States, promptness is considered a virtue. Americas are expected to be on time to an event, and they expect others to do so as well. Which aspect of culture best explains this behavior?

A) Culture is a simple concept.

B) Culture is something one is born with.

C) Culture is unique to each individual in a society.

D) Culture is time-bound.

E) Culture is acquired, that is, it is learned.


Answer: E Page: 42 Difficulty: hard
10. The boundaries that culture sets on behavior are called _____.

A) rules

B) norms

C) prescriptions

D) precepts

E) sanctions


Answer: B Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
11. _____ are rules that specify or prohibit certain behaviors in specific situations.

A) Norms

B) Precepts

C) Sanctions

D) Prescriptions

E) Values


Answer: A Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
12. Karen's father is an executive for a major international corporation and has been transferred to various countries over the years. With each move, Karen is enrolled in a new school. Even though English is spoken in the schools she attends, there are students from all over the world whose parents have jobs similar to Karen's father. With each new school, Karen spends the first few weeks merely observing the other students to learn which behaviors are appropriate in specific situations because she's learned that at each school the kids behave differently. Karen is attempting to learn that student body's specific _____ regarding behavior.

A) rules

B) guidelines

C) precepts

D) norms

E) prescriptions


Answer: D Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
13. Norms are derived from _____.

A) cultural values

B) laws

C) education

D) international protocol

E) law enforcement officials


Answer: A Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
14. _____ are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.

A) Laws


B) Religion

C) Edicts

D) Cultural values

E) Sanctions


Answer: D Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
15. Marketers that wish to expand internationally need to understand a culture's widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. To do this, marketers should study _____.

A) laws


B) religions

C) cultural values

D) sanctions

E) edicts


Answer: C Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
16. Violation of cultural norms results in _____, or penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banishment from the group.

A) norms

B) sanctions

C) proclamations

D) ostracization

E) sentencing


Answer: B Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
17. Robert is fifteen years old and has recently moved to a new town, and therefore, a new high school. He was trying to get accepted by a group of kids that he wanted to be friends with. When they asked him to attend a party over the weekend, he said he'd have to ask his parents for permission. This group of students laughed at him and called him a “momma's boy” and told him he can't be one of them because they don't ask parents for permission, they just do what they want. This social disapproval of Robert's behavior is an example of a(n) _____.

A) norm


B) violation

C) sanction

D) precept

E) edict


Answer: C Page: 43 Difficulty: moderate
18. Which of the following is NOT a broad form of cultural values?

A) other-oriented

B) environment-oriented

C) self-oriented

D) object-oriented

E) all of the above are broad forms of cultural values


Answer: D Page: 44 Difficulty: hard
19. _____ values reflect a society's view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society.

A) Other-oriented

B) Environment-oriented

C) Self-oriented

D) Externally-oriented

E) Internally-oriented


Answer: A Page: 44 Difficulty: moderate
20. Asian societies (i.e., Japan) value collective activity. That is, consumers look toward others for guidance in purchase decisions and do not respond favorably to promotional appeals focusing on individualism. Which category of cultural values does this represent?

A) internally-oriented

B) environment-oriented

C) other-oriented

D) self-oriented

E) group-oriented


Answer: C Page: 44 Difficulty: moderate
21. _____ values prescribe a society's relationship to its economic and technological as well as its physical environment.

A) Other-oriented

B) Self-oriented

C) Externally-oriented

D) Internally-oriented

E) Environment-oriented


Answer: E Page: 45 Difficulty: easy
22. Sam has learned that a country to which his company desires to expand places a high value on cleanliness and admires nature immensely. Which category of cultural values does this represent?

A) other-oriented

B) self-oriented

C) environment-oriented

D) externally-oriented

E) internally-oriented


Answer: C Page: 45 Difficulty: moderate
23. _____ values reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable.

A) Other-oriented

B) Self-oriented

C) Environment-oriented

D) Externally-oriented

E) Internally-oriented


Answer: B Page: 45 Difficulty: moderate
24. Which of the following is an example of an other-oriented value?

A) problem solving/fatalistic

B) postponed gratification/immediate gratification

C) religious/secular

D) individual/collective

E) risk taking/security


Answer: D Page: 45 Difficulty: hard
25. Which of the following is NOT an example of an other-oriented value?

A) youth/age

B) extended/limited family

C) tradition/change

D) masculine/feminine

E) diversity/uniformity


Answer: C Page: 45 Difficulty: hard
26. Which of the following is an example of an environment-oriented value?

A) active/passive

B) tradition/change

C) extended/limited family

D) masculine/feminine

E) material/nonmaterial


Answer: B Page: 45 Difficulty: hard
27. Which of the following is NOT an example of an environment-oriented value?

A) cleanliness

B) tradition/change

C) nature

D) competitive/cooperative

E) problem solving/fatalistic


Answer: D Page: 45 Difficulty: hard
28. Which of the following is an example of a self-oriented value?

A) religious/secular

B) individual/collective

C) risk taking/security

D) tradition/change

E) diversity/uniformity


Answer: A Page: 45 Difficulty: hard
29. Which of the following country tends to value individualism over collectivism?

A) Mexico

B) India

C) United States

D) Korea

E) Japan


Answer: C Page: 46 Difficulty: moderate
30. Jake is in the market for a new car. He's looking at brands such as Mercedes, Lexus, and BMW because he feels they tell other people that he's successful in life. This is an illustration of which value?

A) collectivism

B) youth

C) masculine

D) individualism

E) active


Answer: D Page: 46 Difficulty: moderate
31. Which culture has traditionally valued the wisdom that comes with age?

A) American

B) Australian

C) British

D) European

E) Asian


Answer: E Page: 47 Difficulty: moderate
32. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding youth and age?

A) Mature spokespersons would tend to be more successful in Asian cultures because they have traditionally valued the wisdom that comes with age.

B) Arab countries are becoming increasingly youth oriented.

C) American society is youth oriented.

D) Children in all countries have a significant influence on purchases.

E) China's policy of limiting families to one child has produced a strong focus on the child.


Answer: D Page: 47-48 Difficulty: moderate
33. What is the basis for virtually all societies?

A) family unit

B) government

C) schools

D) religion

E) workplace


Answer: A Page: 48 Difficulty: moderate
34. Which of the following statements regarding the masculine/feminine value is FALSE?

A) Basically, we live in a masculine-oriented world.

B) The roles of women are changing and expanding throughout much of the world.

C) Women in Japan frequently participate in sports and exercise.

D) Many Japanese women feel guilty preparing frozen vegetables in a microwave rather than preparing fresh vegetables.

E) Traditional and modern segments with regard to this value exist simultaneously in many cultures, so marketers must adapt not only across but within cultures.


Answer: C Page: 49 Difficulty: moderate
35. The United States is comprised of a culture that accepts a wide array of personal behaviors and attitudes, foods, dress, and other products and services. Thus, the United States values _____.

A) uniformity

B) collectivism

C) power

D) diversity

E) cooperation


Answer: D Page: 51 Difficulty: moderate
36. _____ refers to the degree to which people accept inequality in power, authority, status, and wealth as natural or inherent in society.

A) Cooperation

B) Power distance

C) Collectivism

D) Individualism

E) Status


Answer: B Page: 51 Difficulty: moderate
37. Which value relates to tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty avoidance?

A) youth/age

B) risk taking/security

C) individual/collective

D) masculine/feminine

E) diversity/uniformity


Answer: B Page: 52 Difficulty: hard
38. Which value has a strong influence on entrepreneurship and economic development as well as new-product acceptance?

A) individual/collective

B) competitive/cooperative

C) tradition/change

D) risk taking/security

E) masculine/feminine


Answer: D Page: 52 Difficulty: hard
39. _____ tend to feel they don't have control over the outcome of events.

A) Fatalists

B) Individualists

C) Collectivists

D) Females

E) Males


Answer: A Page: 53 Difficulty: moderate
40. Marie has purchased a brand that she has purchased before. However, the first time she used this brand, the product failed and she was dissatisfied. Unfortunately, the second time she purchased this brand, the same thing happened. She's frustrated and wants her money back, but she doesn't feel as though she has any control over this situation. She's decided that she just needs to accept this poor quality and not expect so much from the next product she purchases. Marie can be described as a(n) ______.

A) individualist

B) fatalist

C) collectivist

D) cooperativist

E) other-oriented consumer


Answer: B Page: 53 Difficulty: hard
41. The fact that Americans are prone to engage in physical activities and to take an action-oriented approach to problems can be explained through which self-oriented value dichotomy?

A) sensual gratification/abstinence

B) competitive/cooperative

C) diversity/uniformity

D) active/passive

E) age/youth


Answer: D Page: 53 Difficulty: moderate
42. What are the two types of materialism?

A) primary and secondary

B) internal and external

C) instrumental and terminal

D) masculine and feminine

E) individual and collective


Answer: C Page: 55 Difficulty: moderate
43. Which type of materialism is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something?

A) primary

B) secondary

C) terminal

D) means-end

E) instrumental


Answer: E Page: 55 Difficulty: moderate
44. James used his birthday money to buy a skateboard so that he can be out with his friends at the park skateboarding. Which type of materialism does this represent?

A) primary

B) secondary

C) terminal

D) instrumental

E) means-end


Answer: D Page: 55 Difficulty: moderate
45. Which type of materialism is the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself?

A) primary

B) secondary

C) terminal

D) instrumental

E) end state


Answer: C Page: 55 Difficulty: moderate
46. John and his wife love art and travel the world to purchase artwork that is representative of a country's culture. Which type of materialism does this represent?

A) terminal

B) instrumental

C) cultural

D) primary

E) secondary


Answer: A Page: 55 Difficulty: moderate
47. In Germany, one concern retailers have is ensuring that cash drawers have enough money to make change when consumers make purchases. One company went so far as to use a computerized model that monitored the weight of the cash drawer and signaled a need for replenishment. This is such a concern because consumers typically use cash to make purchases, which differs from other countries, such as the U.S., where credit card use is more common. Which cultural value does this illustrate?

A) hard work/leisure

B) competitive/cooperative

C) material/nonmaterial

D) postponed gratification/immediate gratification

E) sensual gratification/abstinence


Answer: D Page: 55 Difficulty: hard
48. Which of the following is most closely related to verbal communications?

A) time


B) space

C) language

D) colors

E) shapes


Answer: C Page: 56 Difficulty: easy
49. Which of the following is NOT a factor that creates problems in literal translations and slang expressions?

A) differences in the direction in which written words are read

B) symbolic meanings associated with words

C) absence of some words from various languages

D) difficulty of pronouncing certain words

E) all of the above are factors that create problems in literal translations and slang expressions


Answer: A Page: 56 Difficulty: hard
50. Which of the following is a factor influencing nonverbal communications?

A) things

B) relationships

C) space

D) symbols

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 57 Difficulty: easy
51. Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing nonverbal communications?

A) etiquette

B) time

C) relationships

D) values

E) things


Answer: D Page: 57 Difficulty: moderate
52. Nicholas is examining how people in India perceive time, space, symbols, relationships, agreements, things, and etiquette. He is interested in these factors because they influence _____.

A) language

B) demographics

C) nonverbal communications

D) values

E) laws
Answer: C Page: 57 Difficulty: moderate


53. _____ are the arbitrary meanings a culture assigns actions, events, and things other than words.

A) Nonverbal communication systems

B) Values

C) Sub-cultures

D) Semiotics

E) Perspectives


Answer: A Page: 57 Difficulty: moderate
54. What are the two major ways time varies between cultures?

A) primary and secondary

B) work and leisure

C) family and personal

D) monochronic and polychronic

E) perspective and interpretation


Answer: E Page: 57 Difficulty: hard
55. A culture's overall orientation toward time is known as its _____.

A) time perspective

B) time meaning

C) uses and gratifications

D) time symbolism

E) time relationship


Answer: A Page: 57 Difficulty: moderate
56. Before a marketer can successfully launch a brand in a foreign country, several nonverbal communication factors need to be understood. One of these factors is time, and international marketers must understand a culture's overall orientation toward time. This is known as a culture's _____.

A) time meaning

B) time interpretation

C) time perspective

D) time relationship

E) time symbolism


Answer: C Page: 57 Difficulty: moderate
57. Which time perspective views time almost as a physical object believing that a person does one thing at a time?

A) linear time perspective

B) parallel time perspective

C) sequential time perspective

D) monochronic time perspective

E) polychronic time perspective


Answer: D Page: 57 Difficulty: moderate
58. Ralph is very prompt. If he says he will be there at 10:00 a.m., he will be there exactly at that time. Furthermore, he will not begin another task until he is completely done with the one he is currently working on. Which time perspective does Ralph have?

A) polychronic

B) monochronic

C) linear

D) parallel

E) priority


Answer: B Page: 57-58 Difficulty: moderate
59. A culture that tends to view time as being less discrete and less subject to scheduling, views simultaneous involvement in many activities as natural, allows activities to occur at their own pace rather than according to a predetermined timetable is adhering to a _____ time perspective.

A) polychronic

B) monochronic

C) linear

D) parallel

E) simultaneous


Answer: A Page: 58 Difficulty: moderate
60. Jose is from Brazil and is currently enrolled in an MBA program at a U.S. university. He routinely comes to class 30-60 minutes late and does not turn in assignments by the deadline. One of his professors pulled him aside and asked him why he's always late for class and turns his work in late. Jose was surprised that his professor was bothered by this as this behavior is entirely acceptable in Brazil. In fact, it's expected. Which of the following best describes Jose's time perspective?

A) spontaneous

B) parallel

C) monochronic

D) polychronic

E) variable


Answer: D Page: 58 Difficulty: moderate
61. The nearness that others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable is known as _____.

A) intimate space

B) personal space

C) sphere of influence

D) range of interaction

E) interaction space


Answer: B Page: 59 Difficulty: easy
62. Which of the following is considered a symbol that has varying meaning across cultures?

A) colors

B) animals

C) numbers

D) music

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 59 Difficulty: easy
63. In which country is the concept of guanxi, which involves personal relationships, an important consideration?

A) United States

B) Canada

C) China

D) India

E) Saudi Arabia


Answer: C Page: 61 Difficulty: moderate
64. _____ represents generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations.

A) Guanxi

B) Etiquette

C) Demographics

D) Culture

E) Monochronism


Answer: B Page: 62 Difficulty: easy
65. Charmaine is a member of a junior miss organization that teaches young women how to behave in various social situations. She is learning manners, how to carry herself, and appropriate attire for specific situations. Charmaine is learning _____.

A) culture

B) time symbolism

C) symbolism

D) etiquette

E) verbal language


Answer: D Page: 62
66. In Japan, the exchange of meishi is the most basic of social rituals in a nation where social ritual matters very much. The act of exchanging meishi is weighted with meaning. Once the social minuet is completed, the two know where they stand in relation to each other and their respective statures within the hierarchy of corporate or government bureaucracy. What is “meishi”?

A) shaking hands

B) exchange of business cards

C) introductions by a third party

D) formal invitation

E) bows
Answer: B Page: 63 Difficulty: moderate


67. Which of the following is enabling the growth of a global culture?

A) mass media

B) work

C) education

D) travel

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 63 Difficulty: easy
68. Which age group is the closest thing to a global culture today?

A) babies

B) young children

C) teenagers

D) middle-aged adults

E) senior citizens


Answer: C Page: 64 Difficulty: moderate
69. What is the largest single influence on the movement toward uniformity in the teenage market?

A) mass media

B) education

C) work


D) travel

E) religion


Answer: A Page: 64 Difficulty: moderate
70. Which country is the leading movie producer and consumer in the world?

A) United States

B) Japan

C) China

D) India

E) England


Answer: D Page: 66 Difficulty: hard
71. _____ describe a population in terms of its size, structure, and distribution.

A) Economics

B) Demographics

C) Psychographics

D) Geographics

E) Lifestyles


Answer: B Page: 66 Difficulty: easy
72. Dale has to write a research report about Poland in his International Marketing class. One aspect he must learn about the country is its size, structure, and distribution. What does this represent?

A) psychographics

B) geography

C) demographics

D) economics

E) lifestyles


Answer: C Page: 66 Difficulty: moderate
73. With respect to demographics, which of the following refers to the number of individuals in a society?

A) distribution

B) size

C) structure

D) dispersion

E) concentration


Answer: B Page: 66 Difficulty: moderate
74. The population of the United States is almost 300 million people. With respect to demographics, this number represents _____.

A) size


B) structure

C) dispersion

D) density

E) concentration


Answer: A Page: 66 Difficulty: moderate
75. With respect to demographics, which of the following describes the society in terms of age, income, education, and occupation?

A) size


B) distribution

C) concentration

D) structure

E) composition


Answer: D Page: 66 Difficulty: moderate
76. _____ refers to the physical location of individuals in terms of geographic region and rural, suburban, and urban location.

A) Size


B) Structure

C) Distribution

D) Dispersion

E) Concentration


Answer: C Page: 66 Difficulty: moderate
77. _____ is based on the cost of a standard market basket of products bought in each country.

A) Adjusted gross income (AGI)

B) Gross domestic product (GDP)

C) Per capita income (PCI)

D) Purchasing power parity (PPP)

E) Cross-cultural purchasing power (CPP)


Answer: D Page: 68 Difficulty: moderate
78. Which country has the largest percentage of its citizens older than 60 years of age?

A) Philippines

B) Canada

C) United States

D) Japan

E) Saudi Arabia


Answer: D Page: 68 Difficulty: hard
79. Using one marketing strategy across various cultures is referred to as _____.

A) standardization

B) optimization

C) cross-culturalization

D) marketing imperialism

E) cross-fertilization


Answer: A Page: 68 Difficulty: moderate
80. Which of the following is a key consideration for each geographic market that a firm is contemplating?

A) Is the geographic area homogenous or heterogeneous with respect to culture?

B) What needs can this product or a version of it fill in this culture?

C) What are the distribution, political, and legal structures for the product?

D) In what ways can we communicate about the product?

E) all of the above


Answer: E Page: 69-71 Difficulty: easy

True/False Questions
81. FedEx was able to use a completely standardized approach in advertising to their Latin American customers given the common culture.
Answer: False Page: 39 Difficulty: moderate
82. Marketing across cultural boundaries is a difficult and challenging task.
Answer: True Page: 40 Difficulty: easy
83. While culture heavily influences marketing strategy, culture is not influenced by marketing strategy.
Answer: False Page: 40 Difficulty: moderate
84. Culture is genetically-based.
Answer: False Page: 42 Difficulty: moderate
85. Cultures are static and rarely change.
Answer: False Page: 43 Difficulty: hard
86. Other-oriented values reflect a society's view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society.
Answer: True Page: 44 Difficulty: moderate
87. Collectivism is a defining characteristic of American culture.
Answer: False Page: 46 Difficulty: moderate
88. The family unit is the basis for virtually all societies.
Answer: True Page: 48 Difficulty: moderate
89. The changing and expanding roles of women throughout much of the world is creating new opportunities as well as challenges for marketers.
Answer: True Page: 49 Difficulty: easy
90. Power gap refers to the degree to which people accept inequality in power, authority, status, and wealth as natural or inherent in society.
Answer: False Page: 51 Difficulty: moderate
91. Terminal materialism is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something.
Answer: False Page: 55 Difficulty: moderate
92. The meaning of time varies between cultures in two major ways: time perspective and interpretations assigned to specific uses of time.
Answer: True Page: 57 Difficulty: moderate
93. Personal space refers to the nearest that others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable.
Answer: True Page: 59 Difficulty: easy
94. The color blue connotes femininity in Holland but masculinity in Sweden and the United States.
Answer: True Page: 60 Difficulty: moderate
95. The largest single influence toward uniformity among teenagers worldwide is education.
Answer: False Page: 64 Difficulty: moderate
96. Psychographics describe a population in terms of its size, structure, and distribution.
Answer: False Page: 66 Difficulty: moderate

Essay Questions
97. List the cultural factors that influence consumer behavior and marketing strategy.
Page: 40 Difficulty: easy

Answer:


Language, demographics, values, and nonverbal communications.
98. Explain the concept of culture and discuss why is it important to study for understanding consumer behavior.
Page: 42 Difficulty: moderate

Answer:


Culture is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society. It is important to study culture for several reasons. First, culture is a comprehensive concept and includes almost everything that influences an individual's thought processes and behaviors. Second, culture is acquired. It does not include inherited responses and predispositions, and since much of human behavior is learned rather than innate, culture does affect a wide array of behaviors. Third, the complexity of modern societies is such that culture seldom provides detailed prescriptions for appropriate behavior. Instead, in most industrial societies, culture supplies boundaries within which most individuals think and act. Finally, the nature of cultural influences is such that we are seldom aware of them. One behaves, thinks, and feels in a manner consistent with other members of the same culture because it seems “natural” or “right” to do so. Thus, it is important to study culture for understanding consumer behavior because it is pervasive and influences consumers' behavior, often in ways they are unaware of. Marketers must understand this influence to effective serve customers' needs and desires.
99. Compare and contrast (a) other-oriented values, (b) environment-oriented values, and (c) self-oriented values.
Page: 44-45 Difficulty: moderate

Answer:


  1. Other-oriented values reflect a society's view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society.

  2. Environment-oriented values prescribe a society's relationship to its economic and technological as well as its physical environment.

  3. Self-oriented values reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable.

Of the 18 values discussed in this chapter (see Table 2-1 for a summary), some are more important in societies than others based on their value orientation.


100. Jason is planning a business trip to Japan, and it is his first time doing business in that country. Discuss some value differences between Japanese culture and American culture that are most relevant to him in a business meeting situation.
Page: 46-53 Difficulty: hard

Answer:


One key area where there are substantial differences between the Japanese and American cultures is the area of “other-oriented” values. Individualism is a defining characteristic of American culture, whereas the Japanese are more collective in their orientation. While American society is clearly youth oriented, many Asian cultures have traditionally valued the wisdom that comes with age. Cultures with more masculine and individualistic orientations such as the U.S. tend to value competitiveness and demonstrate it openly, but collectivists cultures, even highly masculine ones such as Japan, tend to find openly competitive gestures offensive as they cause others to “lose face.” Finally, Japan and other collectivist cultures tend to place a strong value on uniformity and conformity, whereas other cultures, such as the U.S., value diversity more.
Another area where there are differences between the Japanese and American cultures is the area of “self-oriented” values. Americans are much more prone than the Japanese to take an action-oriented approach to problems.
101. Name the seven factors influencing nonverbal communications and describe four of them.
Page: 56-63 Difficulty: hard

Answer:


Nonverbal factors influencing nonverbal communications include: time, space, symbols, relationships, agreements, things, and etiquette. Students can discuss any four of the following:

  1. Time--The meaning of time varies between cultures in two major ways: time perspective, which is a culture's overall orientation toward time, and the interpretations assigned to specific uses of time. Time perspectives can be monochronic (i.e., one thing at a time, promptness, adhering to plans, etc.) or polychronic (i.e., doing many things at once, committed to relationships, change plans often, etc.).

  2. Space--Personal space is the nearest that others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable, and this space varies among cultures.

  3. Symbols--Colors, animals, shapes, numbers, and music have varying meaning across cultures.



  1. Relationships--While Americans form relationships and make friends quickly and easily and drop them easily also, in many other parts of the world, relationships and friendships are formed slowly and carefully because they imply deep and lasting obligations. Chinese relationships are complex and described under the concept of guanxi.

  2. Agreements--Americans rely on an extensive and, generally, highly efficient legal system for ensuring that business obligations are honored or for resolving disagreements. Many other cultures have not developed such a system and rely instead on relationships, friendship, and kinship, local moral principles, or informal customs.

  3. Things--The different meanings that cultures attach to things, including products, make gift-giving a particularly difficult task.

  4. Etiquette--represents generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations. Behaviors considered rude and obnoxious in one culture may be quite acceptable in another. Meishi in Japan (i.e., the exchange of business cards) is an important part of Japanese business etiquette.





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