Chapter 1—Sociology and the Real World true/false



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Chapter 1—Sociology and the Real World
TRUE/FALSE
1. Humans are essentially social beings.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Factual
2. According to C. Wright Mills, most people think about their problems as issues of social structure, rather than as matters of character, psychology, or chance.

ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Page 13

OBJ: The Sociological Imagination (III.C) MSC: Factual
3. C. Wright Mills described a process by which biography (individual lives) and history (larger social forces) are related. He argued that this process works in two ways: individual lives influence society while society also influences individuals.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 13

OBJ: The Sociological Imagination (III.C) MSC: Factual
PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

4. It is the responsibility of a sociologist to question everything that the everyday person would take for granted.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 13

OBJ: The Sociological Perspective (III) MSC: Factual


5. Taking the sociological perspective means thinking sociologically about a problem.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 13

OBJ: The Sociological Perspective (III) MSC: Factual
6. We cannot necessarily see society as a whole; we have to look at its component parts.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 13

OBJ: The Sociological Perspective (III) MSC: Factual

PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/


7. We tend to think of ourselves as experts regarding life in our own society, but at best this is only true on a small scale.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 7

OBJ: The Sociological Perspective (III) MSC: Factual
8. The most widely accepted definitions of sociology as a discipline are those that are narrow and focused.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Factual
9. The “beginner’s mind,” a concept borrowed from the Zen Buddhist tradition, is the opposite of the sociological perspective.

ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Page 16 OBJ: Beginner’s Mind (III.A)

MSC: Factual
10. There is only one correct theoretical explanation for any particular social phenomenon.

ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Page 33

OBJ: Macrosociological Theory (VI) MSC: Factual
11. Social theory is Eurocentric and privileges Western thought.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 28 OBJ: Eurocentrism (V.D)

MSC: Factual
PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

12. When the earliest social theorists established that society was an appropriate object of scientific scrutiny, it was thought of as revolutionary.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 17 OBJ: Sociology’s Roots (V)

MSC: Factual


13. The writings of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber were deeply influenced by their life experiences.

ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: Pages 19–25 OBJ: Sociology’s Roots (V)

MSC: Factual
14. Emile Durkheim believed that even the most individualistic actions had social origins.

ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: Page 20

OBJ: Founder and Key Contributions: Emile Durkheim (VI.A.i)

MSC: Factual


15. Emile Durkheims’s pioneering work, Suicide, used data gleaned from government records to help look for correlations between demographic variables and suicide. This made his work compatible with Auguste Comte’s ideas about how society should be studied.

ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: Page 20

OBJ: Founder and Key Contributions: Emile Durkheim (VI.A.i)

MSC: Applied


16. According to Emile Durkheim, traditional religious beliefs are the only source of social stability.

ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Page 20

OBJ: Founder and Key Contributions: Emile Durkheim (VI.A.i)

MSC: Factual


17. Functionalism argues that only dysfunction can create social change.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 21

OBJ: Structural Functionalism (VI.A) MSC: Factual
18. Conflict theory uses a dynamic model of historical change that presents change as constant, ongoing, and inevitable.

ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: Pages 22–23 OBJ: Conflict Theory (VI.B)

MSC: Factual
19. According to conflict theory, most major social institutions are separate from the economy and therefore do not reinforce the class structure.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Page 22 OBJ: Conflict Theory (VI.B)

MSC: Factual
PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

20. According to Erving Goffman, a person’s sense of self is constant and stable over time.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Page 30

OBJ: Symbolic Interactionism (VII.A) MSC: Factual


21. The National Organization for Men Against Sexism (NOMAS) believes that, aside from dealing with issues related to gender, it must also address sexism, homophobia, class prejudice, and other oppressions. This means that it will never really be a feminist group, since feminist theory focuses on gender alone.

ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: Page 24 OBJ: Conflict Theory (VI.B)

MSC: Applied
22. Queer theory argues that no category of sexual identity is fundamentally deviant or normal.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 24 OBJ: Conflict Theory (VI.B)

MSC: Factual
23. Hip-hop music is an example of postmodernism in popular culture.

ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Page 34 OBJ: Postmodern Theory (VIII.A)

MSC: Applied
24. Postmodern social theorists attempt to construct “grand narratives,” overarching theories that give a sense of order and coherence to the world.

ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Page 34 OBJ: Postmodern Theory (VIII.A)

MSC: Factual
PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Sociologists observe society:

a.

by studying the various parts of a society and the ways they interact and influence each other.

b.

by studying the shape and boundaries of society as a whole.

c.

by studying society as if it were a concrete object, in the same way that a geologist studies rocks.

d.

by utilizing the preconceptions, assumptions, and beliefs that come from living in a society.

e.

through the use of special scientific tools that allow unmediated access to the very heart of society.

ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Applied
2. Even though a small number of people have been academically trained as sociologists, we all can be described as “natural sociologists” because:

a.

we are born with certain skills that naturally allow us to think sociologically.

b.

society is a part of nature, so everyone has to be a natural sociologist.

c.

our parents taught us to be sociologists even before they sent us to school.

d.

we are all members of society and so have a great deal of background knowledge about how society works.

e.

sociologists are really just observers of conventional wisdom.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Factual
3. Unlike sociologists, most people base their knowledge of the world on:

a.

expert knowledge based on surveys and interviews.

b.

journals and other publications that summarize the conclusions of professional researchers.

c.

conventional wisdom, background knowledge, and personal experience.

d.

the opinions of their parents and other family members.

e.

the opinions of political leaders and other influential public figures.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Factual
PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

4. Why can doing sociology be described as a radical undertaking?



a.

All sociologists are political radicals and activists.

b.

Sociology comes with a built-in political bias toward radical political causes.

c.

There is a large amount of material that must be mastered in order to be a sociologist.

d.

Sociology requires people to suspend their preconceptions, assumptions, and beliefs about the world.

e.

Sociology is about change and creating new social structures.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Conceptual
5. Sociology can be defined as the systematic and scientific study of human society and social behavior. Given this definition, what level of social structure might sociologists examine?

a.

only small groups

b.

almost any level—from interactions between two people to large-scale institutions

c.

mass culture and large institutions

d.

relations between individuals

e.

large-scale social structures that involve significant numbers of people

ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Factual
6. Howard Becker said that sociology can be best understood as the study of people “doing things together.” This definition reminds us that:

a.

neither society nor the individual exists in isolation; each is dependent on the other.

b.

sociology is only interested in the way people act, not in the way they think.

c.

only large-scale interactions that involve many people can be understood by sociologists.

d.

people must have some knowledge of each other before they can really do anything together.

e.

individuals exist independently of society and can be understood without considering social influence.

ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: Page 7 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Applied

PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

7. The social sciences are all those disciplines that study:

a.

the human, or social, world.

b.

the natural world.

c.

the physical universe.

d.

communication.

e.

the relationship of people to places.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 8 OBJ: What is Sociology? (II)

MSC: Factual
8. Sociology can be approached from either a microsociological or a macrosociological perspective. Which is more useful?

a.

Macrosociological—it explains how large-scale social institutions influence individuals.

b.

Microsociological—it explains how individuals shape and create large-scale social institutions.

c.

Macrosociological—it helps to understand how face-to-face interactions shape society.

d.

Both are useful in different ways, because any study that uses only one or the other will be unable to explain anything useful about society.

e.

Both are useful in different ways, because they each provide different types of information about the same object of study.

ANS: E DIF: Hard REF: Pages 14–15 OBJ: Levels of Analysis (IV)

MSC: Conceptual
9. Which of the following best characterizes microsociology?

a.

It is an approach that examines large-scale social structures in order to see how they affect individual lives.

b.

It is an approach that examines interactions between individuals and the ways those interactions reflect larger patterns within a society.

c.

It is an approach that examines interactions that occur over time.

d.

It is an approach that quantifies data on the social world so that it can be analyzed statistically.

e.

It is an approach that exclusively focuses on gender and power as they are enacted socially.

ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: Page 14 OBJ: Microsociology (IV.A)

MSC: Factual
10. Pam Fishman studied conversations between heterosexual couples to determine how power is created and maintained through face-to-face interactions on an everyday basis. Given this information, how would you describe her approach?

a.

macrosociological

b.

historical

c.

microsociological

d.

comparative

e.

global

ANS: C DIF: Hard REF: Page 14 OBJ: Microsociology (IV.A)

MSC: Applied

PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

11. Sociologists assert that there is a close relationship between the individual and society. How does Pam Fishman’s research on gender and power in heterosexual couples characterize this relationship?

a.

Fishman’s data shows how macro-level phenomena like gender and power manifest themselves in everyday interactions.

b.

It doesn’t—Fishman’s data only shows how individuals act.

c.

It doesn’t—this research only shows macro-level phenomena.

d.

Fishman’s data shows that micro-level phenomena have almost no relationship to macro-level phenomena, and seem to be largely independent.

e.

Fishman’s research shows that there is no relationship between the individual and society.

ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: Page 14 OBJ: Microsociology (IV.A)

MSC: Applied
12. Which of the following statements best describes the approach taken by macrosociologists?

a.

Macrosociology concentrates on the way that large social institutions are created through individual interactions.

b.

Macrosociology directly examines large-scale social structures in order to see how they affect individual lives.

c.

Macrosociology focuses on non-numerical data like texts, images, and recordings.

d.

Macrosociology focuses on creating a “beginner’s mind,” in contrast to microsociology, which uses an “expert’s mind.”

e.

Unlike microsociology, macrosociology focuses on creating scientific knowledge of the world rather than practical knowledge.

ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: Page 15 OBJ: Macrosociology (IV.B)

MSC: Factual
13. Christine Williams looked at patterns of occupational sex segregation, examining the ways that large-scale social structures created the constraints within which individuals lived their lives. Based on this information, her work would be characterized as what kind of sociology?

a.

microsociology

b.

transnational sociology

c.

comparative-historical sociology

d.

macrosociology

e.

the sociology of popular culture

ANS: D DIF: Hard REF: Page 15 OBJ: Macrosociology (IV.B)

MSC: Applied

PURCHASE FULL TESTBANK : http://testbank.eu/the-real-world-an-introduction-to-sociology-third-edition-kerry-ferris-jill-stein-testbank/

14. Macrosociology and microsociology seem to make very different assumptions about how society works. How does sociology, as a discipline, deal with these two very different perspectives?

a.

Most sociologists are macrosociologists, making microsociologists a small minority.

b.

Most sociologists think of these two perspectives as being on a continuum with each other, adopting whatever perspective seems most useful for a particular problem.

c.

Most sociologists are microsociologists, and only a small minority still find macrosociology a satisfying approach.

d.

Although the field is fairly evenly split between perspectives, almost all sociologists feel strongly that their perspective is the correct one.

e.

Microsociology used to dominate the field, but more recently macrosociology has become the dominant perspective.

ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: Page 15 OBJ: Levels of Analysis (IV)

MSC: Conceptual
15. Regardless of which methodology they use, what are all sociologists trying to do?

a.

explain why social change happens

b.

illuminate the connection between the individual and society

c.

explain why poverty and inequality still exist

d.

compare the present with the past

e.

understand how our society is different from other cultures and other times




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