Chapter 19: Chapter Outline



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Chapter 19: Chapter Outline

II.

The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire

A.

The nineteenth century was Europe’s greatest age of global expansion.

 

 

1. 




 

 

2. 




 

 

3. 




 

 

4. 




B. 

New Motives, New Means

 

 

1. 

the Industrial Revolution fueled much of Europe’s expansion

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

2. 

growth of mass nationalism in Europe made imperialism broadly popular

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

3. 

industrial-age developments made overseas expansion possible

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c.




 

 

 

 

d. 




C. 

New Perceptions of the “Other”

 

 

1. 

in the past, Europeans had largely defined others in religious terms

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

2. 

the industrial age promoted a secular arrogance among Europeans

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

3. 

sense of responsibility to the “weaker races”

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

4. 

social Darwinism: an effort to apply Darwin’s evolutionary theory to human history




III.

Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis

A.

In 1793, the Chinese emperor Qianlong rebuffed Britain’s request that China rescind or loosen restrictions on trade.

 

 

1. 




 

 

2. 




B. 

The Crisis Within

 

 

1. 

China was, to a large degree, the victim of its own success

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b.




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

2. 

Chinese bureaucracy did not keep pace with growing population

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

3. 

bandit gangs and peasant rebellions became common

 

 

4. 

culmination of China’s internal crisis: the Taiping Uprising

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

 

 

e.




 

 

 

 

f. 




 

 

5. 

resolution of the Taiping rebellion consolidated the power of the provincial gentry landowners even more

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




C.

Western Pressures

 

 

1. 

the Opium Wars show the transformation of China’s relationship with Europe

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

 

 

e. 




 

 

 

 

f. 




 

 

2. 

the British responded with the first Opium War (1839–1842), which they won decisively

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

3. 

second Opium War (1856–1858)

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

 

 

e. 




 

 

4. 

China was also defeated by the French (1885) and the Japanese (1895) and lost control of Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwan

 

 

5. 

Qing dynasty was deeply weakened at a time when China needed a strong government to deal with modernization

 

 

6. 

“unequal treaties” inhibited China’s industrialization

D. 

The Failure of Conservative Modernization

 

 

1. 

the Chinese government tried to act against problems

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

 

 

e. 




 

 

 

 

f. 




 

 

2. 

conservative leaders feared that development would harm the landlord class

 

 

3. 

Boxer uprising (1900): militia organizations killed many Europeans and Chinese Christians, besieged foreign embassies in Beijing

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

4. 

growing number of educated Chinese became disillusioned with the Qing dynasty

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

5.

 the government agreed to some reforms in the early twentieth century, but not enough—the imperial order collapsed in 1911

IV.

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century

A. 

Both China and the Ottoman Empire:

 

 

1. 




 

 

2. 




 

 

3. 




 

 

4. 




B. 

“The Sick Man of Europe”

 

 

1. 

1750: the Ottoman Empire was still strong, at center of the Islamic world; by 1900, was known as “the sick man of Europe”

 

 

2. 

region by region, Islamic world fell under Christian rule, and the Ottomans couldn’t prevent it

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

3. 

central Ottoman state had weakened

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

4. 

the economy was hit hard by Western developments

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c.




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

5. 

had reached a state of dependency on Europe

C. 

Reform and Its Opponents

 

 

1. 

Ottomans attempted ambitious reforms, going considerably further than the Chinese

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

2.

late eighteenth century: Selim III tried to establish new military and administrative structures

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

3. 

Selim III’s modest reforms stirred up so much hostility among the ulama and the Janissaries that he was deposed in 1807

 

 

4. 

after 1839: more far-reaching reformist measures (Tanzimat, or “reorganization”) emerged

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b.




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

5. 

supporters of reform saw the Ottoman Empire as a secular state

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

6. 

Sultan Abd al-Hamid (r. 1876–1909) accepted a new constitution in 1876 that limited the sultan’s authority

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

7. 

opposition coalesced around the “Young Turks” (military and civilian elites)

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

8. 

after 1900, growing efforts to define a Turkish national character

 

 

9. 

military coup (1908) gave the Young Turks real power

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




D. 

Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

 

 

1. 

by 1900, both China and the Ottoman Empire were “semicolonies”

 

 

2. 

both gave rise to a new nationalist conception of society

 

 

3. 

China: the imperial system collapsed in 1911

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

4. 

Ottoman Empire: the empire collapsed following World War I

 

 

5. 

Chinese revolutionaries rejected Confucian culture much more than Turkish leaders rejected Islam




V.

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power

A. 

Japan was forced to open up to more “normal” relations with the world by U.S. commodore Matthew Perry in 1853.

 

 

1. 




 

 

2. 




 

 

3. 




B. 

The Tokugawa Background

 

 

1. 

Tokugawa shoguns had ruled since about 1600

 

 

 

 

a.




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

 

 

e. 




 

 

2. 

considerable change in Japan in the Tokugawa period

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

 

 

e. 




 

 

3. 

corruption was widespread

C. 

American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration

 

 

1. 

U.S. sent Commodore Perry in 1853 to demand better treatment for castaways, right to refuel and buy provisions, and the opening of trade ports

 

 

2. 

the shogunate gave into Perry’s demands, triggering a civil war

 

 

3. 

in 1868, a group of young samurai from the south took over

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

4. 

the West wasn’t as interested in Japan as it was in China

D. 

Modernization Japanese Style

 

 

1. 

first task was creating national unity

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

2. 

widespread interest in many aspects of the West, from science to hairstyles

 

 

 

 

a.




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

3. 

eventually settled down to more selective borrowing from the West

 

 

4. 

feminism and Christianity made little progress

 

 

5. 

Shinto was raised to the level of a state cult

 

 

6. 

state-guided industrialization program

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




 

 

7. 

society paid a heavy price

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

 

 

c. 




 

 

 

 

d. 




E.

Japan and the World

 

 

1. 

by the early twentieth century, Western powers readjusted treaties in Japan’s favor

 

 

2. 

Japanese empire building

 

 

 

 

a. 




 

 

 

 

b. 




 

 

3. 

Japan’s rise was widely admired

 

 

4. 

Japan’s colonial policies were at least as brutal as European ones



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