Melbourne Streamer he rode to leave Europe via Marseilles, France on October 18, 1891.November 20, 1891Day he arrived in Hong Kong.Jose Ma. BasaWelcomed Rizal when he arrived in Hong Kong.No. 5 D’Aguilar Street, No. 2 Rednaxola TerranceWhere Rizal opened a medical clinic in order to earn a living.Dr. Lorenzo P. MarquezA Portuguese ophthalmologist in Hong Kong who referrals brought Rizal numerous clients.December 1, 1891Day he wrote to his parents asking permission to go return home.
He received news from his brother-in-law that Don Francisco, Neneng, Sisa and Paciano and other Calambenos were rusticated.Father
TrinidadVisited Rizal before Christmas 1891.
His father expressed to Rizal his desire to stay to stay permanently in Hong Kong.
Lorenzo MiclatCongratulated Rizal for starting anew and pledged support in all his undertaking.AlejandrinoInformed him of his plan to establish an organization to counter-act Del Pilar’s lamentable policy, with Rizal as leader.Linares RivasPromised Rizal that he would seek an audience with the Minister of Colonies in Madrid on the agrarian problem of Calamba.Govantes and Boustead familiesRizal received letters of sympathy from them.How the letters from fellow expatriates affected RizalRestored his self-confidence.
Reawakened his interest in politics.
Led him to re-examine his whole political strategy.Re-examining his political strategyCould have been due to the radical ideas propounded by Luna and Evangelista of the need for a separatist propaganda and a policy of separation and independence.EvangelistaAccording to him, the old corrupt generation of principles had to be rejected.LunaAccording to him, a separatist movement under the guise of assimilation has to be started.BlumentrittRizal to him in his letter that he had lost his hope in Spain and La Solidaridad, and that he came to the realization that nothing can be expected from peaceful advocacy of reforms.
Said that “whoever begins a revolution should have at least the probability of success”.
Four Condition necessary for a revelation to succeed:
A part of the army and the navy should rebel
The metropolis should be at war with another country.
There were money and munitions
Some foreign country were to lend official or secret support to the insurrectionGovernor-General Valeriano WeylerThe butcher of Cuba
North Borneo or SabahWhere Rizal planned to make a Filipino colony
He visited the place in March 7, 1892 and negotiated with the British authorities in charge of the North Borneo Company
His mission was a success as the British authorities offered him 10,000 acres of land free of charges for 999 years.
Jaena, Luna, Bautista, Blumentritt and his other friends in Europe were delighted upon hearing the plan and expressed their support to the endeavor.Manuel Hidalgo Rizal’s brother-in-law who was not in favor of the project.
Said there was no need to leave the Philippines considering the sacrifices they had given for the country.
Settling in Borneo should be their last course only when all efforts at securing the welfare of the country had been consummated but proved futile. Governor Eulogio DespujolReplaced Weyler
Rizal wrote him a congratulatory letter with an offer of cooperation with his leadership in the country on December 23, 1891.
No response to his letter, Rizal wrote another one on March 21, 1892.
Did not accept Rizal’s request because:
The colony lacked workers
That leaving the country and cultivating a foreign soil would mean becoming unpatriotic to Spain.Frazier SmithEdited Rizal’s article in the Hong Kong Telegraph.Ang Mga Karapatan Nang TaoRizal’s version of the Rights of Man, a historic document proclaimed by the French Revolution of 1789.A la Nacion Espanola
(To The Spanish Nation )Rizal’s appeal to Spain to rectify the wrongs done to the landless peasants of Calamba.Sa Mga Kababayan (To My Country)Rizal’s exposition on the Calamba agrarian problem.La Liga FilipinaAlso known as the Philippine League
He laid down the basis in Hong Kong and said he would establish it when he returns to the Philippines.
Jose Ma. Basa assisted in drafting its constitution.
The Unification of the whole archipelago into vigorous, compact body.
Stimulation of instruction, agriculture and commerce.
Undertaking of study and application of reforms Unus Instar OmniumMotto of La Liga Filipina
Means “One Like All”Three Levels of Organizational Councils in La Liga FilipinaPopular
Each will consist of a chief, fiscal, treasurer, secretary and members.Supreme CouncilComposed of the chiefs of the provincial councils
Control the La Liga.Membership of La LigaDepends on passing certain tests and unanimous endorsement by the popular council of the town where the applicant hails from.
Pay a monthly due of ten centavos which would be used in:
Supporting a member or his son who had no financial means but studious and with remarkable aptitude for study.
Helping members who were in dire poverty
Lending funds to a member who needs financial support for his farm or industrial venture.
Supporting a member in defense of his rights
Opening stores to cater to the needs of the members at reduced prices.
Financial material and moral assistance from his council and the organization
An assurance that fellow members shall support him in his business or profession as long as the same to others.
Full support from La Liga in case of trouble or injustice.
Financial assistance in any business undertaking when funds are available.DespujolHis decision to reject the North Borneo Project led Rizal to choose between Borneo (Peaceful emigration) and Cuba (eventual revolution).
“Had cast the dice for Rizal”Hong KongWhere he celebrated his 31st birthday
Wrote two letters that should be opened only after his death.
First was addressed to his family
Second to his fellow countrymen
Taken from Epistolario Rizalino Volume 3Reason for his second homecomingTo obtain justice and peace for the country
To shoulder the burden of all persecutions against his family
To do what his conscience tells him to do
To prove that reviled Filipinos could die for their conviction.The Third LetterWas sent to Despujol informing him that he is returning to the country and that he is placing himself under protection of the Spanish colonial government. Despujol and Spanish consul-generalUnknown to Rizal, they were setting a trap for him.
Rizal delivered himself to his enemies.June 21, 1892Day he and his sister Lucia left Hong Kong with a special passport issued by the Spanish consulate.June 26,1892Day he and Lucia arrived in ManilaHotel Oriente in BinondoWhere he stayed while Lucia stayed with their sisters.RizalSought Despujol’s audience in Malacanang
The interviews he had with Despujol, resulted to the securing of permission for the return of his parents and sisters to Manila.
Despujol reiterated his disapproval of Rizal’s North Borneo Colonization Project.Jose Bautista
Vincente GatmaitanFriends he visited in Bulacan
Informed them of the details of La Liga FilipinaTiburcio and Cecillio HilarioFriends he visited in San Fernando, Pampanga
Became very active members of the revolutionary movement of the province. Villafuertes
TanedosMet them in Tarlac
Were convinced that the La Liga Filipina should be organized.Doroteo Ongjuco (Ongjungco?)Organized a dinner for Rizal to secure the agreement of:
Arcadio del Rosario
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
Pablo Reinzares Bautista on the urgency of establishing the La Liga.
La Liga was founded in his homeJuly 3, 1892Day Rizal founded the La Liga Filipina.Calle IlayaWhere La Liga Filipina was founded.Ambrosio SalvadorElected president of La LigaAgustin de la RosaElected FiscalBonifacio ArevaloElected Treasurer Deodato ArellanoElected SecretaryMabini
DizonNoted members of La Liga FilipinaDespujolQuestioned Rizal about the owner of the pillows and the mats in his luggage, as they were questionable handbills in them and Rizal answered that they belong to her sister Lucia.
Ordered his aide-de-camp to arrest Rizal and incarcerate him in Fort Santiago.
Released his gubernatorial decree ordering the deportation of Rizal to Dapitan on July 7, 1892Charges against RizalPublication and introduction of various anti-monastic books and handbills.
Traveling through different provinces without the permit from the Governor-General.
Finding his luggage the pamphlet Pobres Frailes or Poor Friars. Which mocked the religious orders
Dedication of the El Filibusterismo to the memory of Gomburza
Without due process, Despujol rendered the verdict on Rizal.RizalWas detained in Fort Santiago for 9 days.
Left Manila for Dapitan on July 15, 1892, where he would be spending the next four years of his life.
With his deportation, the Liga died its natural death.La Liga split into two branchesRightist: Cuerpos de Compromisarios
Leftist: Katipunan or KKK
Chapter 19: Practical Nationalism in Dapitan
CebuSteamer that arrived on Dapitan in July 17, 1892DapitanThe place had long been a politico-military outpost of the Spaniards in the Philippines.
One of the forefronts of Spanish culture, religion and civilization in Muslim Mindanao.
Headed by a politico-military commander and with a parish priest, tasked with the conversion of the island into Catholicism.
Swampy with unplanned streets, but found the land its land fertile.
Town looked desolated because it had no potable water and lighting system.
People dying of disease with no provided medical help services.
Economy was ties to primitive agriculture with an undeveloped fishing industry.
Trade was conducted but was controlled by the Chinese.Jesuit Mission HouseWhere Rizal was suppose to reside, but opted not to stay because of the conditions made by Fr. PastellsFather ObachThe parish priest of Dapitan
He was supposed to watch over Rizal in the Jesuit Mission House.Father Pablo PastellsSuperior of the Society of Jesus in the PhilippinesConiditions of Father Pablo PastellsTo make public retraction of his religious errors
To issue public statements unmistakably pro-Spanish
To undergo the spiritual excerises of St. Ignatius
To make a general confession of his past life
To lead a model religious and pro-Spanish life.Captain Ricardo CarniceroThe politico-military commander of the town.
Received Rizal as a prisoner
Stayed with him temporarily.
Rizal was able to get along with him because he was a free thinker
Found Rizal as a man of commendable qualities and good personality
Gave Rizal all the liberties except to leave and gave him free rein to help improve Dapitan.
Became good friends with Rizal and frequently exchanged views.Philippines would be the happiest place in the world if they were granted the following reformsRepresentation in the Spanish Cortes
Securization of the parishes
Reformation of the administration in all its branches.
Encouragement of primary instruction and elimination of friar intervention
Granting teachers of both sexes better salaries.
Division of government jobs equally between Spanish and Filipinos.
Making the administration moral
Creation of schools of arts and trades in provincial capitals
Freedom of speech and the press
Freedom if religion.A Don Ricardo CarniceroPoem Rizal wrote in appreciation of Carnicero’s kindness and generosity.TalisayWhere he was able to build a home after two months in Dapitan.
Won the Spanish lottery with P6,200 as prize.
He was fond of buying lottery tickets when he was in Universidad Central de Madrid and finally won for the first time.
Bought 70 hectares and constructed a house made of nipa and bamboo with a veranda at the front and to one side of the side.
Build four or five additional houses for pupils and patients
He built his home, a school and a clinic
Where he mostly won the admiration, respect and recognition of the people of Dapitan and the Captain.Improvements Rizal wanted to make in DapitanConceptualized and implemented plans for beautifying the town.
Drew a sketch of the public plaza with suggested improvements and had it approved by Governor Carnicero
He facilitated the putting up of lampposts at every corner of town with the help of the people
Supply water for drinking and irrigation, he directed the construction of a water system.
Opened a school for boys with the Atenean system of education with Rizal as the teacher and thought them that a sound body makes a sound mind.Father SanchezArrived in Dapitan and helped Rizal construct a huge relief map of Mindanao out of stones, earth and grass.
Rizal’s former teacher at Ateneo Municipal.Rizal’s teaching methodLearning was related to the actual situations in Dapitan particularly in Talisay.
Included involvement in community development as part o the curriculum of the school he established in the area.As a Doctor…Rizal practiced his profession in his new home and had numerous patients.
Offered his services free for those who were financially incapable of paying a doctor, many sick people started consulting him.Dona TeodoraCame on August 1893, she traveled to Dapitan with Trining to have her eyes operated by Rizal.Trade and CommerceRizal organized an association of farmers to improve farm production and generate higher income.
Encouraged the residents of the town to engage in the buying and selling of goods and products particularly copra and hemp.
Thought fishermen to use fishnets in fishing and even invited fishermen from Calamba to teach the townsmen of Dapitan new methods of fishing.Sarda’s BookTriggered the debate between Rizal and Fr. Pastells about religion
Sent by Fr. Pastells with the advice that Rizal had to abstain from his foolishness of viewing religion from the prism of individual judgment and self-esteem.Fr. PastellsWas 41 when Rizal was 31.
Superior or the highest ranking Jesuit in the Philippines
His purpose was to bring back Rizal to the fold of Catholic faith, but Rizal wanted to know if he could go back to his old faith without violence to his conscience and convictions.
His exchange of correspondence with Rizal was marked by mutual cordiality and respect.Main arguments of Rizal and Fr. PastellsRizal
Rejects faith and upholds reason as the sole norm of knowledge.
Believes in God by reason, not by faith and rejects the Christian revelation running counter to reason:
The Bible as a mere classical writing
Miracles are impossible
Christ is merely a great man
Church is the best religious bodies but not divine
Believes in God’s living revelation of nature.
Counters reason, damaged by its original sin, must be supported by faith; that revelation is verified by prophecies and miracle
His argument is from authority: the church, which prophesies dogmas, is worthy of belief as it is a divine institution founded by Jesus Christ who proved himself as God’s son by miracles and rising from the dead.Elements of Rizal’s rationalist rhetoric on religionThe primacy of conscience
An openness to dialogueEnding of the debateWas a stalemate.Josephine Leopoldine BrackenTraveled from Hong Kong with her uncle, Mr. Tauffer , who was suffering from an eye ailment.
She and her uncle had an invitation card from Julio Llorenta
Was 19 year old and was so beautiful and possessing all the enticement of womanhood
Rizal saw in her the qualities which made him attracted to Nelly Boustead and fell in love with her.
Rumors spread that she was not the adopted daughter of Mr. Tauffer but a café singer in a Hong Kong restaurant.
Fifth and youngest child of an Irish schoolmaster in the Pembroke Detachment at the Victoria Barracks in Hong Kong.
When her mother died giving birth to her, she was given to Tauffers
The third wife of Mr. Tauffer hated her so much, she decided to live in a convent, but later Mr. Tauffer begged her to return because his current wife was starving him.
Rizal’s family did not trust her especially her sisters, who thought that she was an emissary of the friars with evil plans and asked Rizal not to eat any food that she might have prepared without having Josephine taste it first.
Rizal accepted her despite her sisters’ warning and asked her to be his life partner.
When she took refuge in the house of Rizal’s mother, she was a total stranger to his family, but they accepted her because Rizal loved her and welcomed her as Rizal’s fiancée, but a month after, Josephine was back in Dapitan with Rizal.
She made Rizal’s life bearable in Dapitan.Mr. TaufferTreated Josephine like she was his own daughter.
Rizal asked his permission to marry Josephine but instead of being happy he raged in fury.
Lose hope of regaining his eyesight despite the fact that Rizal was able to regain a little eyesight.
Did not want Josephine to marry because she was the only one he had left to him in this world.
Seized a razor to slash his throat either because he was doomed to blindness or parental selfishness.
Rizal was able to prevent him from killing himself.
Left Dapitan and insisted that Josephine accompany him, but she later took refuge in Rizal’s mother’s house with a letter of introduction from Rizal.Father ObachRizal experienced difficulties with him, who insisted that a retraction was necessary before any marriage between Rizal and Josephine.
Referred the matter of Rizal’s marriage to the Bishop of CebuAfter MarriageJosephine delivered prematurely a baby boy who died a few hours after birth, which was a consequence of a quarrel with Rizal.
Josephine decided to leave for Hong Kong via Manila
When she came back Rizal was irritated by her return but because he loved her so much he welcomed her back with open arms.Hymn to TalisayA poem which he intended to be a collage song for the pupils he was teaching in Talisay.
Was used as evidence against him at his trailMi Retiro or My RetreatPortrays his serene life in his place of rustication
Wrote the poem in response to his mother’s request that he should revive his interest in poetry writing.
Expressed his acceptance of his fate for he believed that justice would prevail in the endAs a ExileDid not forget his high sense of honor
Evidenced by his constant reminders to his pupils of the importance of good conduct and behavior.Juan SitgesMilitary commander that replaced Carnicero
Restricted his exercise of freedom he enjoyed during Carnicero’s time.
Under him we can see Rizal demonstrating the values of obedience, self-control and discipline.Rizal in Dapitan has become the first (to)…Introduce social and environmental engineering
Professional to engage in business
Practitioner of the town planning and beautification
Introduce the principles of livelihood and self-reliance programs
Show the way to community development
Ophthalmic surgeon sought by patients from foreign land
Set up a precursor of the modern community school with him as the first community teacher.
Systematic collector of Philippine shells, butterflies, reptiles and other fauna and flora in Mindanao
Sanitary engineering and public heath work
Filipino doctor with a social conscience who charged fees according to the patient’s ability to pay.
Chapter 20: Rizal and the Revolution of 1896
CarniceroThe politico-military commander of Dapitan sympathized with Rizal and assured him of possible support from his friends in Madrid.DespujolAware that Rizal came to love Dapitan and that Rizal and Carnicero became good friends.
Directed Carnicero to convince Rizal to put down into writing his intention of staying in Dapitan.
On October 25, 1892, Rizal sent a letter to him that stated his intention of staying in Dapitan to devote himself in agriculture provided he would be given full freedom with assurance that he would not abuse the same.
Turned down Rizal’s appeal for lifting his banishment order.
Rizal threatened him that he would be writing his friends in Madrid of the banishment order should not be lifted.
He responded by ordering Carnicero to ensure no letters from Rizal will reach their destination.Federico OchandoReplaced Despujol on May 24, 1893Juan StigesReplaced Carnicero as the politico-military commander of Dapitan.
Rumors spread that he was ordered by Ochando to shoot Rizal the moment he attempts to escape.
Required Rizal to report to his office thrice a day
Prohibited Rizal to leave the town or walk beyond the streets of Dapitan without his permission.Ramon BlancoReplaced the short-lived term of Ochando and took over as governor general.
Reiterated his appeal for the lifting of his deportation order because there was no evidence to support the charges imputed on him.
Rizal sent a letter of reconsideration of his situation to him on February 13, 1894, but could not reply to Rizal because of his involvement in the Muslim campaign.
Visited Dapitan and called for Rizal on board his vessel.
Promised Rizal that he would be relocated either at Vigan or La Union and even suggested that he should go to Spain owing to his poor health, which made Rizal quite happy.February 1895When Rizal sought the permission of Blanco in opening an agricultural settlement at Sindangan Bay, but did not receive a reply. JesuitsTried to win Rizal back to the fold of the Church.Fr. ObachThe parish priest of Dapitan (Failed)Fr. VillaclaraThe Parish priest of Dipolog (Failed)Fr. SanchezFormer teacher at Ateneo (Failed)Fr. Pablo PastellsSuperior of the Jesuit Order
Sent Rizal a serried of letters convincing Rizal of the flaws of his religious views which led to his debate with Rizal.
Their debated ended in a stalemate.Fr. Juan RicartAttributed to the failure of the Jesuits could be attributed to Carnicero, who entertained Rizal’s political and religious views.Arrival of Josephine BrackenRizal request Fr. Obach to officiate a church wedding to legalize his union with her.
Fr. Obach told Rizal that he would perform the church wedding under two conditions:
Rizal didn’t follow the conditions so no church wedding took place.FriarsClosely monitored the attempts of the Jesuits.
Knowing that the Jesuits were failing, they tried to win back Rizal to Catholicism.
1st Strategy: Bribery
Offered Rizal a professional chair in a university, a landed estate and P100,000 on the condition that Rizal would repudiate his Noli and El Fili
Maria, his sister tried to urge him to accept but Rizal responded by saying “what my right hand did, my left hand will not undo”.
2nd Strategy: Use of a spy to trap Rizal
Real name was Florencio Namanan of Cagayan de Misamis
Agreed to work for the friars due to the promise of the Recollects that he shall conferred the title, Friar curator of the Recollects
Was sent by the friars to Dapitan to spy on the activities of Rizal.
His mission was to secure letters and other articles that would have showed that Rizal was a separatist.
The plan was that he go to Dapitan and offered himself as a courier of Rizal’s letters and writings for the patriots in Manila.
Rizal being an intelligent man and he could not recall any relative having the surname Mercado, he detected that he was an imposter and had him arrested by Commander Sitges.Grand Regional Council of the Philippine MasonryReacted to the suggestion of Governor Blanco’s suggestion for Rizal to leave the country by generating funds for Rizal’s trip to Spain.
They were eager to see Rizal leave because his presence was a threat to the existence of masonry, that the friars would always blame the masons for all agitation for change in the Philippines.Friends in EuropeMade plans to rescue RizalPaez
Was commissioned by the propagandist to find a suitable vessel in Hong Kong or Singapore to rescue Rizal but failed in chartering one.BasaHis plan was he would be working for Rizal’s release through his friends among the ministers in Madrid.RegidorSaid that it would be wise to work out for Rizal’s freedom in Manila.
Arrived at the solution: ESCAPE FROM DAPITAN.
If Rizal could not escape, the alternative was to work for his election as a deputy in Spanish Cortes
Another alternative was to ensure the election of Marcelo del Pilar to the Spanish Cortes and let him work for Rizal’s liberation.KatipunanMade the last attempt to rescue Rizal.
Plan was Rizal had to be kept in the Philippines for him to freely lead the revolution. BonifacioThe Supremo of the Katipunan Pio ValenzuelaCommissioned by Bonifacio to be his emissary to Rizal.
Arrived at Dapitan in July 21, 1986.
Posed as a companion of Raymundo Mata, a blind man who shall be seeking Rizal’s medical assistance.
Informed Rizal of the plan of the Katipunan and the need for his support to the revelution. RizalClearly expressed his rejection of the plan for a bloody revolution of the Katipunan.
Further stressed the point that pursing the revolution would tantamount to national suicide.
He also expressed his gratitude for the concern of the Katipunan to his welfare, but he was not persuaded to escape Dapitan as he had given his word to the Spanish authorities.Sindangan BayBlanco approved Rizal’s letter requesting, but Rizal had already dropped the idea because he was already leaving for Spain. BlumentrittRegidor requested him to persuade Rizal to volunteer as a doctor for the Spanish army in Cuba and because it came from him Rizal acceded the scheme.Dona Teodora and Don FranciscoDid not favor Rizal’s decision as the latter will be risking his life since the revolution is raging on in Cuba that time.December 17, 1895Day Rizal applied as a volunteer doctor for the Spanish army in Cuba through Blanco.July 30, 1896Day the correspondence from Blanco about the being a volunteer doctor reached Rizal.EspanaSteamer Rizal rode to leave Dapitan on July 31, 1896.CastillaArrived in Manila in August 6, 1896 and the transferred to this cruiser pending the availability of the vessel bound for Spain.Teodoro PatiñoThe traitor that led to the discovery of the Katipunan.Fr. Mariano GilPatino told him all the organization’s secrets on August 19, 1896 which led in the mass arrest of the Katipuneros and non-Katipuneros in Manila.BonifacioSummoned all the leaders for a meeting to work out the steps the society will take to cope with crisisHistoric Cry of PugadlawinTook place wherein Bonifacio asked the Katipuneros if they were ready to fight the Spaniards whatever be the cost.
All those who attended expressed their willingness to fight to the last
Bonifacio ordered them to take out their cedulas and tore them to pieces shouting “Mabuhay ang Philipinas” which marked the beginning of the Philippine Revolution against Spain.August 30, 1896Blanco issued a gubernatorial decree declaring a state of war in Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Tarlac and placing them under martial rule.
Rizal received the letters of recommendation to Azcaraga and the colonial minister, which absolved him from the insurrection that was then raging on.Isla de PanaySteamer Rizal boarded on September 3, 1896 that ferry him to BarcelonaBlancoSent coded telegram and confidential messages with the Ministers of War and Colonies about Rizal’s arrest.
Rizal was shocked when the captain of Isla de Panay told him he was to be arrested and detained in the captain’s cabin.October 3, 1896Day Rizal reached Barcelona and was heavily guarded at the Isla de Panay.Fort MonjuichThe prison citadel of Barcelona where Rizal was taken.DespujolThe governor general who decreed his deportation to Dapitan
Told Rizal that he would be shipped back to the Philippines on board the ship Colon.Don Pedro RoxasA fellow passenger at the Isla de Panay
Advised him to take advantage of the protection of the British law, while their ship was temporarily docked at Singapore.
Rizal regretted not following his advise because Rizal thought Blanco was a friend.Regidor and LopezTransmitted telegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore to help Rizal.Hugh FortEnglish lawyer that was to rescue Rizal by means of writ of habeas corpus.Chief Justice Lionel CoxDid not grant the writ of habeas corpus because it was not within the jurisdiction of Singaporean authorities based on the existing international law.ColonStreamer that carried Rizal and the Spanish troops
A war vesselNovember 3, 1896Day he arrived in ManilaFort SantiagoWhere Rizal was brought and incarcerated.