Chapter 17 the autonomic nervous system suggested Lecture Outline
EFFECTS OF THE ANS
Most body structures
receive dual innervation
, that is, fibers from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Usually one division causes excitation and one causes inhibition.
The sympathetic responses prepare the body for emergency situations (the fight-or-flight responses).
The effects of sympathetic stimulation are longer-lasting and more widespread than those of the parasympathetic stimulation.
Raynaud’s disease is due to excessive sympathetic stimulation of arterioles within the fingers and toes resulting in diminished blood flow to the digits. (Clinical Application)
The parasympathetic division regulates activities that conserve and restore body energy (energy conservation-restorative system).
responses stimulate salivation
, lacrimation, urination,
, and defecation (“SLUDD”).
also decrease heart rate
, and pupil diameter.
Table 17.4 summarizes
the responses of glands
, and smooth muscle to stimulation by the ANS.
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