Chapter 17 the autonomic nervous system suggested Lecture Outline



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PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE ANS

  • Most body structures receive dual innervation, that is, fibers from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Usually one division causes excitation and one causes inhibition.

  • The sympathetic responses prepare the body for emergency situations (the fight-or-flight responses).

  • The effects of sympathetic stimulation are longer-lasting and more widespread than those of the parasympathetic stimulation.

  • Raynaud’s disease is due to excessive sympathetic stimulation of arterioles within the fingers and toes resulting in diminished blood flow to the digits. (Clinical Application)

  • The parasympathetic division regulates activities that conserve and restore body energy (energy conservation-restorative system).

  • Parasympathetic responses stimulate salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, and defecation (“SLUDD”).

  • Parasympathetic responses also decrease heart rate, airway diameter, and pupil diameter.

  • Table 17.4 summarizes the responses of glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle to stimulation by the ANS.




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