Chapter 16: The Civil War In 1861 Georgia seceded. It joined other states in a confederation whose main purpose became fighting a war to become independent from the United States.
What was the name of the new country that the seceding states created? Confederate States of America (CSA)
Who was the President of the new country? Jefferson Davis
Who was Vice President? Alexander Stephens
What were 3 federal properties seized in Georgia after secession? Ft. Pulaski, U.S. mint in Dahlonega, U.S. arsenal in Augusta
What was a result of the attack on Ft. Sumter in South Carolina? Lincoln considered the Confederates to be in open rebellion and called up militias to put down the rebellion; 4 more states seceded to show support for the Confederacy
Look at the map on p.388. How many states remained in the Union? 23/24***
Which four slave states stayed in the Union? Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware
What is the term for these states? Border states Look at Figure 31 on p. 390. Based on the statistics given, which side would you have predicted would win the war? _________________ Name the THREE facts that were MOST important in making your decision.
What was the purpose of the Union blockade of the South? Prevent the South from exporting cotton and importing supplies/ammunition/food
What roles did women play during the Civil War? Took over plantations and farms, raised money for the war, founded aid organizations, making clothes, being nurses
Explain TWO economic problems the Confederacy caused during the Civil War.
Confederacy borrowed money and printed money with no gold/silver to back it
What was the difference between how the Union and Confederacy named battles? Union usually named battles after a stream or geographic feature; Confederacy named them after towns or railroad depots
What were Lee’s goals in invading Maryland? With a Confederate victory in the North, he wanted to influence the upcoming elections by changing public opinion about the war; he needed supplies from the North; hoped to liberate Maryland from the Union
What was special about September 17, 1862? Antietam – bloodiest single day of the war
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? A war strategy that declared that slaves in Confederate/rebelling states would be free as of January 1, 1863
What was the importance of the Union victory at Vicksburg? It gave the Union control over the Mississippi River
What 1863 battle was the turning point towards a Union victory? Gettysburg
Read the Gettysburg address. What was its purpose? To dedicate a national military cemetery
What was the result of the Battle of Chickamauga? The Union was temporarily driven out of Georgia; 35,000 deaths made it the 2ndbloodiest battle of the war
What was the purpose of Grant’s idea of “continuous offense”? to keep attacking, even though there may be great loss of life, in order to end the war faster
Who did Grant choose to command the invasion of Georgia? Gen. William T. Sherman
How did Sherman cut off Atlanta from the rest of the South? He destroyed the railroads around Atlanta
What was the purpose of the “March to the Sea”? make war so terrible (by destroying everything in his path) that Georgia would want to end it
Look at the map on p.409. Where did most Civil War battles in Georgia take place? In the northwest (between Chickamauga and Atlanta)
What was the result of Sherman’s actions in Georgia and South Carolina (410)? More southerners wanted peace and to end the war; increased desertion from the Confederate army; towns filled with refugees
Who was held in Andersonville Prison? Union soldiers captured by the Confederacy What made Andersonville the most notorious prisoner of war camp in the South? It was severely overcrowded; unsanitary conditions and disease, starvation, lack of clothing and shelter (exposure); 13,000 died
On April 9, 1865 Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the town of Appomattox Courthouse, VA.
How did each side pay dearly for the war? Over 600,000 Americans died and thousands more were disabled; South was destroyed economically and physically
How did different groups of people react to the end of the war? Many Confederates were depressed; many civilians were relieved the war was over; the freedmen (former slaves) now had freedom and had to work on creating a new life