If “re” means again and “nasci” means to be born. What is being reborn? Italy
When was it born the first time? The Roman Empire
The people of the Renaissance were interested in art, literature and the ideas of classical culture, that is, Greek and Roman culture. Italy was in the middle of everything, located perfectly to be on the water and trade routes. Goods and information moved through Italy. The Italians brought new ideas from the East and wealth to the merchants.
New Ideas of the Renaissance
Capitalism- an economic system in which private individuals own the businesses, not the government. These people would invest their profits back into their businesses.
Humanism- a system of thought or action that is concerned with human interests and values. Humanism can be found in the philosophy that humans are noble creatures and endowed with dignity and intelligence about the world around them.
First came the writers:
Francesco Petrarch- he writes sonnets in Italian instead of Latin
Renvenuto Cellini who wrote an autobiography
Niccolo Machiavelli who wrote The Prince” which outlined the idea that to get and keep power that underhanded tactics could be used with no compromise. The Power was the important part, the end justified the means.
Italy became the center of this change in society because:
1. Feudalism was not strong in Italy. Many people made their money by banking and trade.
2. The cities were more open and larger than in the North and were run by wealthy businessmen called signori. These businessmen took care of the townspeople and provided for the artists. They were not part of the church.
3. To keep power the signori used Condottierei (paid soldiers) to keep order and to keep their power.
The three main Italian cities in the Renaissance were:
Florence: population- 130,000 by 1500. The Medici family who sponsored many artist and scholars ruled this town. The first to rule was Cosmo Medici. He collected taxes from the townspeople and kept the infrastructure solid. Next, his grandson, Lorenzo Medici ruled from 1469 to 1492. During this time a friar named Girolamo Savonarola briefly took power from the Medici family, but he criticized the clergy and in 1498 was hung for heresy and the Medici family returned to power.
Rome: In 1500, Rome replaced Florence as the center of the Italian Renaissance. While many of the artists lived and worked there, the presence of the church and the role of the elders of the church in politics created a situation for the city in which the center soon moved to Venice.
Venice: By the late 1500’s, the artists had all moved to Venice. The Council of Ten who were wealthy businessmen ruled by a Doge and the town.
Show Video of Venice sinking from NBC evening News- Tape #3
Chapter 16/ Section 2- The Northern Renaissance
War, trade, travel and printing presses allowed the ideas of the Italian Renaissance to spread. Invention of the printing press- 1440- Johannes Gutenberg (German) allowed the spread of the printed word.
French- created Chateaux were build by the French Writers such as Michel de Montaigne who wrote sonnets and Francois Rabelais who wrote common comedies and satires were example of the new humanist thinking.
Northern Europe- the religious theme of the Renaissance picked up steam in Northern Europe. Christian humanists wanted reforms in the Catholic Church as they thought it had strayed from its original mission. Reading the Bible in ancient Greek or Hebrew would allow unadulterated translation. In a book called “In Praise of Folly” Erasmus attacked the Pope for living in extravagance. Northern European painters such as the Van Eyck brothers (Jan and Hubert) and Peter Brueghel began painting sharp focus realism.
English Renaissance- After the War of the Roses, the Tudors defeated the Yorks and brought Italians to England. Henry VII was in charge of the Tudors. Sir Thomas More wrote a book about the ideal society called “Utopia” in which all citizens are equal. It was written in Latin. At this time in England, William Shakespeare was a popular writer who wrote on the humanist themes of love, jealousy and ambition
Quiz for Reading of Chapter 16/ Section 3:
1. In which country did Martin Luther live?
2. What actions by the Catholic Church did he protest against?
6. What was the one thing people had to have to win salvation, according to Luther?
7. Where did religious truth and authority lie, according to Luther?
8. What is a profession that allows a person to serve God, aside from a position within the Church, according to Luther?
Chapter 16/ Section 3: The Protestant Reformation
Humanist beliefs began to lead people to call for reform in the Catholic Church and in the extravagance of the Church. By 1500, educated Europeans called for a reform of the church and this leads to a new form of Christianity called Protestantism.
Martin Luther was supposed to become a lawyer but he was almost struck by lightning and as a result entered a monastery. As Luther practiced the religion, he attempted to confess all of his sins. He was still worried that God would not accept him. In reading the Bible he came across part that said that a person could have faith and that was enough to get into heaven. This was known as justification by faith. At this time, the Pope, Leo X, was attempting to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome and to do this was selling indulgences which were certificates which were sold by the church to forgive sin.
The whole idea of indulgences contradicted Luther’s justification by faith and in protest, he nailed a list of his criticisms of the church to the door of the Wittenberg (Germany) Church on October 31st, 1517. These were known as the 95 Theses. And many stopped buying the indulgences. In 1520 the Pope banned all of Luther’s works and in 1521 excommunicated him from the church. Shortly after this, a council in the city of Worms (Germany) known as a Diet of Worms tried to get Luther to take back his criticism of the church and he would not and went into hiding where he translated the New Testament into German for all to read.
Luther taught that salvation would come by faith alone. Good works didn’t matter, just faith in God. He also taught that religious truth and authority are only in the Bible. Church was held in the local language not in Latin and ministers preached from the Bible. Third, vocations in which people helped their neighbors were deemed important not just the ministry or priesthood. This allowed merchants and businesspeople to gain respect for their vocations.
Chapter 16 Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism
The Protestant movement spread from Germany to other northern European countries. In Switzerland these churches are known as Reformed. A Swiss priest by the name of Huldreich Zwingli led the Protestant movement in that country. He denounced the sale of indulgences much like Luther and taught that salvation was attainable by faith alone, but unlike Luther Zwingli wanted to establish a theocracy or church-run state in the Swiss city of Zurich. This existed until 8,000 Catholics overran 1,500 of Zwingli’s followers.
Also in Switzerland, this time in the city of Geneva, in the mid-1500, another Reformed church began. John Calvin set up a church that was very strict based on his interpretation of the Bible. Calvin and Calvin’s followers believed that God controlled the past, the present and the future. This teaching logically made the assumption that the fate of the followers of Calvin’s teaching had been predetermined and the one was going to Heaven or Hell regardless of their actions. To advance his views, Calvin established a council of 12 elders called the Consistory who sat in judgment of the members of the church and their adherence to the strict rules which included no dancing, no gambling, no swearing, no card-playing and no fighting. Violation of these rules could result in punishment as harsh as execution.
Many followed Calvin and because the religion was run through local committees of elders and ministers, the religion spread throughout northern Europe. In the Netherlands and Scotland, the teachings of Calvin would cause local people to stand up against their rulers who they felt contradicted the way of God.
More radical Reformers included the Anabaptists. This sect only baptized adults whom they felt could make an intelligent decision to become members of the church. Many Anabaptists would not follow local government’s attempts to control their lives. They would not serve in the military or hold office, which causes them to come into conflict with the cities or countries in which they lived. As a result they often were on the move and many of them end up in America bringing with them their beliefs. America bases her own beliefs on two of these: religious liberty and separation of Church and State.
In England the ideas of reformation come for a different reason. King Henry the VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon who bore him six children, but no sons and only one survived, Mary. Henry wanted a divorce from Catherine and appealed to the Pope to grant him one. Catherine’s nephew was Holy Roman Emperor Charles V who provided protection for the Pope. Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn so he appealed to the Parliament who in 1534 passed a law called the Act of Supremacy which posed the question, “who is in charge in England, the Pope or the King of England?” The passage of this act separated the Church of England from that of Rome and made Henry the head of the Church. As the head of the Church, Henry granted himself a divorce from Catharine and married his mistress, Anne Boleyn.
Henry married Anne Boleyn who gave him another girl heir, Elizabeth. Henry had Anne beheaded for treason and married three others, one of whom, Jane Seymour, gave him a son, Edward VI who was sickly and died in 1553. At this point, Henry’s catholic daughter, Mary took the throne and began killing Protestants by burning them at the stake, actions for which she earned the nickname, “Bloody Mary”. In 1558, her Protestant sister, Elizabeth, took the throne. She attempted to blend the Catholic and Protestant church giving it Protestant beliefs and Catholic rituals that pleased many Englishmen. Those who were not satisfied were called Puritans and became more and more powerful in the English church and government.
Chapter 16/ Section 5: The Catholic Reformation
Although many in Northern Europe became Protestant, most of Southern Europe stayed Catholic. The Church, somewhat threatened by the changes in the North, though it important to reform to counter the Protestant changes.
In 1536, Pope Paul III began by commissioning a group of Cardinals and Bishops to study the possible changes in the Church. In 1542, the Church gave full powers to a Church court called the Inquisition to find, judge and punish heretics especially Protestants. This was done to re-establish the control of the Pope and rid Italy of all non-Catholics.
Another move by the Pope to strengthen the Church was the formation of the Council of Trent which met on and off from 1545 to 1563. This was a group of bishops who met in Trent, Italy to define Church doctrine. Salvation was redefined as not just being by faith, but by faith and works combined. The Latin version of the bible was deemed the only acceptable version of the Bible and the hierarchy of the Church the only acceptable interpreters of the Bible. Indulgences were outlawed and each diocese was charged with establishing a seminary to train priests. The Council of Trent also maintained the elaborate rituals of the Church and kept the masses in Latin.
The Church then decided to make a move to first reform the church and then to launch a missionary movement to bring members back to the church. In this missionary movement, Ignatius Loyola played an important part. He founded the Society of Jesus in 1540 that later became known as the Jesuits whose mission to was spread the word of God.