Chapter 16 Grade Eleven – United States History and Geography: Continuity and Change in Modern United States History

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History–Social Science Framework Second Field Review Draft

Approved by the Instructional Quality Commission November 20, 2015

Chapter 16

Grade Eleven – United States History and Geography: Continuity and Change in Modern United States History

  • How did the federal government grow between the late nineteenth and twenty-first centuries?

  • What does it mean to be an American in modern times?

  • How did the United States become a superpower?

  • How did the United States’ population become more diverse over the twentieth century?

In this course students examine major developments and turning points in American history from the late nineteenth century to the present. During the year the following themes are emphasized: the expanding role of the federal government; the emergence of a modern corporate economy and the role of organized labor; the role of the federal government and Federal Reserve System in regulating the economy; the impact of technology on American society and culture; changes in racial, ethnic, and gender dynamics in American society; the movements toward equal rights for racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual minorities and women; and the rise of the United States as a major world power. As students survey nearly 150 years of US history, they learn how geography shaped many of these developments, especially in terms of the country’s position on the globe, its climate, and abundant natural resources. In each unit students examine American culture, including religion, literature, art, music, drama, architecture, education, and the mass media.

The content covered in grade eleven is expansive, and the discipline-specific skills that are to be taught are equally demanding. In order to highlight significant developments, trends, and events, teachers should use framing questions around which their curriculum may be organized. Organizing content around questions of historical significance allows students to develop certain content areas in great depth. Framing questions also allow teachers the leeway to prioritize their content and highlight particular skills through students’ investigations of the past. Questions that can frame the year-long content for eleventh grade include: How did the federal government grow between the late 19th and 21st centuries? What does it mean to be an American in modern times? How did the United States become a superpower? How did the United States’ population become more diverse over the 20th century?

As students learn American history from the late 1800s through the 2010s, they should be encouraged to develop reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills that will enhance their understanding of the content. As in earlier grades, students should be taught that history is an investigative discipline, one that is continually reshaped based on primary source research and on new perspectives that can be uncovered. Students should be encouraged to read multiple primary and secondary documents; to understand multiple perspectives; to learn about how some things change over time and others tend not to; and they should appreciate that each historical era has its own context and it is up to the student of history to make sense of the past on these terms and by asking questions about it.
Connecting with Past Studies: The Nation’s Beginnings

  • What are key tenets of American democracy?

  • How did the country change because of the Civil War and Reconstruction in the nineteenth century?

The course begins with a selective review of United States history, with an emphasis on two major topics—the nation’s beginnings, linked to the tenth-grade retrospective on the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas; and the industrial transformation of the new nation, linked to the students’ tenth-grade studies of the global spread of industrialism during the nineteenth century. Special attention is given to the ideological origins of the American Revolution and its grounding in the democratic political tradition and the natural rights philosophy of the Founding Fathers with an emphasis on ideas including liberty, equality, and individual pursuit of happiness. This framing of the Constitution provides a background for understanding the contemporary constitutional issues raised throughout this course. Students may wish to participate in any number of Constitution Day activities on September 17. Students can address the question: What are key tenets of American democracy? Teachers may want to highlight the emergence of a free democratic system of government alongside an entrenched system of chattel slavery that lasted for nearly a century. The question How have American freedom and slavery co-existed in the nation’s past? reminds students of the parallel – and seemingly paradoxical – relationship.

Students can continue with a selective review of American government by considering this question: How did the country change because of the Civil War and Reconstruction in the nineteenth century? The events leading up to the Civil War, the successes and failures of Reconstruction, and informal and formal segregation brought on by Jim Crow laws also provides context for understanding racial inequities in late-nineteenth-century America. To help students understand the history of the Constitution after 1787, teachers pay particular attention to the post-Civil War amendments (Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth), which laid the foundation for the legal phase of the twentieth-century civil rights movement. The amended Constitution gave the federal government increased power over the states, especially for the extension of equal rights and an inclusive definition of citizenship. Focusing on these topics allows later on in the course for a comparative study of the civil rights movement over time as ethnic and racial minorities experienced it. In addition to the civil rights groundwork laid by the Reconstruction-era Constitutional Amendments, students should read closely the 14th Amendment as it is has been continually reinterpreted and applied to different contexts by the courts; for example, sometimes it has been employed as a protection for workers and other times as a protection for corporations. In the context of the late nineteenth century, civil right advocates such as Booker T. Washington, the founder of Tuskegee Institute and author of the 1895 Atlanta Exposition address, and W.E.B. Du Bois, a founder of the NAACP and author of The Souls of Black Folk, had different perspectives on the means of achieving greater progress and equality for African Americans. Racial violence, discrimination, and segregation inhibited African Americans’ economic mobility, opportunity, and political participation. As background for their later studies about challenges to Jim Crow segregation, students understand the meaning of “separate but equal,” both as a legal term and as a reality that effectively limited the life chances of African Americans by denying them equal opportunity for jobs, housing, education, health care, and voting rights.

Industrialization, Urbanization, Immigration, and Progressive Reform

  • How did America’s economy, industries, and population grow after the Civil War?

  • How did the federal government impact the country’s growth in the years following the Civil War?

  • Who came to the United States at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century? Why did they come? What was their experience like when they arrived?

  • Why did women want the right to vote and how did they convince men to grant it to them?

In the second unit, students concentrate on the nineteenth-century growth of the nation as an industrial power and its resulting societal changes. This question can frame students’ initial investigation of this era: How did America’s economy, industries, and population grow after the Civil War? A brief retrospective of the grade ten study of the industrial revolution helps to set the global context for America’s economic and social development. Industrialization, an umbrella term that describes the major changes in technology, transportation, communication, the economy and political system that fostered the growth, allowed for ballooning prosperity at the turn of the century. New technology in farming, manufacturing, engineering, and producing of consumer goods created material abundance. The flood of new stuff supported a larger and more urban population, and it made the producers of the goods very wealthy when prices were stable. Industrialization made possible wide-scale use of McCormick Reapers, hydro-power mining, assembly lines, high-rise buildings, chain stores, and eventually automobiles, among many other technological feats from the turn of the century. These and other features of modern life seemed to confirm the idea of unending progress. By pooling together capital to minimize risk and increase profits, American entrepreneurs generated unprecedented wealth. Some large businesses in the nineteenth century grew by organizing into trusts, monopolies, and integration. Students can learn about different kinds of business growth in the nineteenth century by comparing vertical integration with horizontal integration. While in the Gilded Age the meatpacking industry integrated vertically by consolidating the many levels of bringing meat to the marketplace, the oil industry integrated horizontally by having one company (Standard Oil) take over all refineries. Students can compare the strategies used by businesses in employing these two organizational strategies as well as the potential impact it would have upon consumers. Students also examine emergence of industrial giants, “robber barons,” anti-union tactics, and the gaudy excesses of the Gilded Age. Widespread corruption among industrialists and governing officials resulted in city bosses and local officials consolidating a great deal of power. The perceived economic progress of the late nineteenth century was repeatedly disrupted by prolonged periods of severe financial distress; the country suffered a number of economic recessions during the intense boom and bust cycles at the end of the nineteenth century.

Industrialization also has a serious impact upon farmers, which students can learn about by considering the question: How were farmers affected by industrialization? How did they respond to industrialization? Advances in the nineteenth century like the McCormick Reaper made agriculture much more efficient, but it also meant that in order to stay afloat farmers had to invest in new technology. As farms were becoming more productive prices fell; in 1865 a bushel of wheat cost $1.50, by 1894 that same bushel cost $0.49. In order to stay afloat and compete, some farmers entered into a cycle of debt that often included tenant farming or sharecropping as well as the borrowing of seeds and tools from a furnishing merchant. The problem quickly became that furnishing merchants charged farmers exorbitant interest rates of about 60%. This cycle left farmers in a state of debt peonage. Farmers started to feel that they had lost their independence because they were dependent upon furnishing agents, banks and railroads, who also charged farmers high interest rates. Based on these shared economic grievances, farmers started organize and united in protest. The first Farmers Alliance started in Texas in the 1870s and by the 1880s there were millions of members in the Midwest and the South. Serving a social, cultural, and political purpose, Farmers Alliances started to create Cooperatives that collectively demanded lower shipping and storage rates from railroads and better loans from banks. They pooled their economic resources into local Granges to afford the newest and most efficient equipment and to lobby for cheaper prices for materials. The Cooperatives even asked the federal government to establish the Sub-treasury System whereby the government set up storage silos (or sub-treasures) in urban centers, and when a farmer deposited a crop in the silo, the government would loan the farmer a percentage of the crop value to buy new seeds for the next season at a low interest rate. To push forward their ideas, in 1890 farmers created a third political party, which by 1892 became national in focus and was called the People’s Party, or the Populists that called for a government that would serve “the plain people.” Throughout the 1890s the Populists united farmers in the south and the west, though by the 1896 election, the Democratic candidate – William Jennings Bryan – effectively coopted much of the Populist platform and ideology and farmers threw their support behind the Democrats.

The people that fueled industrialization in the nation’s expanding urban centers migrated there from more rural areas domestically and came from nations all over the world. Students can consider this question to organize their study of immigration: Who came to the United States at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century? Why did they come? What was their experience like when they arrived? A distinct wave of southern and eastern European immigration between the 1890s and 1910s (distinct from an earlier mid-19th century wave of immigration that resulted from European developments like the Irish Potato Famine) brought tens of millions of darker-skinned, non-English-speaking, non-Protestant migrants to American cities. Being pushed from their homelands for economic, political, and religious reasons, this diverse group was pulled to America with hope for economic opportunities and political freedom. Asian immigration continued to affect the development of the west despite a series of laws aimed to restrict migration from the western hemisphere including the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the Alien Land Act of 1913. The southwest borders continued to be quite fluid, making the United States an increasingly diverse nation in the early twentieth century.

Industrialization affected not only the demographic make-up and economic growth of the country; it changed way that ordinary people lived, worked, and interacted with one another. At the turn of the century, a growing number of the U.S. population lived in urban areas in small crowded quarters, often termed tenements. Designed to house as many individuals as possible, tenements were notorious for poor ventilation, lack of sanitation, and substandard construction. These qualities made crowd-diseases and fires especially deadly in cities like Chicago and New York. In addition to living in unsafe housing, many workers – especially recently-arrived immigrants – found work in urban factories where low wages, long hours, child labor, and dangerous working conditions were all commonplace. Students study the labor movement’s growth, despite the repeated efforts of corporations to use violence against labor protests. To learn about the labor movement on the ground, students might conduct a mock legislative hearing to investigate the causes and consequences of the Haymarket riot in Chicago in 1886.

Grade Eleven Classroom Example: Working Children

Mr. Gavin’s eleventh-grade US history class gets an up-close view of daily life for working-class children in their studies of industrialization. On the first day he poses an initial question to the class: How old should you have to be to work? After discussing with students how until the end of the nineteenth century, most Americans lived on farms and the children worked alongside parents during most harvesting seasons, Mr. Gavin asks students to speculate as to the similarities and differences between working on a family farm and working in a factory. Using a Child Labor Law Pamphlet from the California Department of Industrial Relations and their own personal experience, students brainstorm a list of current age-related restrictions. While the students are compiling their list, Mr. Gavin asks them probing questions about whether jobs should have age limits at all, especially if the wages the child brought home would earn would enable the family to have enough to eat, for example. After listing on the board a number of these important factors that guide our understanding of age limits in the workplace, Mr. Gavin then tells his students they will do a gallery walk to learn about child labor around the turn of the century.

Mr. Gavin has displayed on the walls of his classroom a number of Lewis Hines photographs that document child labor. He has organized the photographs into four stations with each station containing a few images that are clustered around a theme (the themes are 1. children and factory work, 2. children and mining, 3. children posed alone, 4. children in their homes). Before telling students to start viewing the images, he hands them a photograph analysis page and tells students that at each station they must select one photograph to report on and closely analyze. On the photograph analysis page, students are directed to 1. Collect all available bibliographic information (time, date, characters, for example); 2. Write a one-sentence explanation of what they see in the photograph, including an estimation of the child’s age; 3. Collect information about what the child is wearing or not wearing that might provide clues about status (e.g., Is a child working in a factory wearing shoes? What might this tell us about money?); 4. Assess what they think the perspective or agenda of the photographer is and provide one piece of evidence why they think that (encourage students to think about the role of the photographer being something other than an objective lens); 5. Make connections to historical content they’ve already studied (e.g., Does it relate to industrialization or immigration?).

After students have rotated through the stations, collected their information about the four images, and documented it on their graphic organizers, Mr. Gavin’s students report back to the class, following a structured discussion protocol where students are paired together and take turns synthesizing their responses from the graphic organizer, using sentence starters (“Overall, we can say that…,” “The main point seems to be…,” “As a result of this conversation, we think that…,” “A summary of our evidence might be…,” “The evidence seems to suggest…”) to ask probing questions about their partner’s reports. Finally, Mr. Gavin facilitates a brief conversation with the whole class and asks them to focus closely on what Lewis Hines hoped to communicate, emphasizing that most of them are posed photographs. Mr. Gavin also asks students to return to the original question about how old children should be to work, by asking them to write a letter to the editor of a newspaper that had just published Hines’ photographs. In their letters, students are encouraged to discuss their analysis of Hines’ work, as well as both the justification(s) for and problems resulting from child labor in an argumentative essay format, using evidence from the photographs, as well as other primary sources depicting or describing life during the industrial age.

Mr. Gavin concludes this lesson by building upon the themes outlined in his students’ essays as he transitions to a discussion of Progressive-era reformers.

Source: Classroom activity adapted from teacher Jessica Williams’ structured discussion lessons, as detailed in “Conversations in the Common Core Classroom,” by Letty Kraus, in The Source, pp. 26-30, a publication of the California History-Social Science Project. Copyright @ 2015, Regents of the University of California. All Rights Reserved.

CA HSS Content Standards: 11.2.1

CA HSS Analysis Skills (9–12): Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1; Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View 4; Historical Interpretation 3

CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy: RH.11–12.1, 2, 7, 8, WHST.11–12.1, 9, SL.11–12.1c

CA ELD Standards: ELD.PI.11–12.1, 3, 6b, 10a, 11a

Nevertheless, within the problem-ridden environments of recently-industrialized cities, many people found the opportunities of city life to be very exciting. Thriving urban centers became havens for the middle-class single women who played an important role in the settlement house movement, making collective homes in the poor areas of cities and often forming marriage-like relationships known as “Boston marriages” with one another as they worked to provide services. In addition, in these growing cities, poorer young women and men who moved from farms and small towns to take up employment in factories, offices, and shops found themselves free from familial and community supervision in the urban environment. At nights and on weekends they flocked to new forms of commercialized entertainment such as amusement parks, dance halls, and movie theaters, and engaged in less restricted forms of intimacy, alarming some middle-class reformers. The more anonymous environment of cities also made space for men and women seeking relationships with one another and with someone of the same sex. By the end of the century, concepts of homosexuality and heterosexuality became defined as discrete categories of identity. This had consequences for the ways that people thought about intimate relationships between people of the same gender.

While young primarily working-class youth found excitement in the opportunities of the city, a group of reformers – broadly termed progressives – also emerged around the turn of the century and sought to remedy some of the problems that came from industrialization. Primarily comprised of white, middle class, Protestant, college-educated, and often women, progressives aimed to identify urban problems, work closely with communities to solve them, and then lobby the government to institute broader reforms to prevent future suffering. One of their first tasks was to take on the widespread corruption of bosses and government officials, as well as civil service reform. Female reformers took advantage of new opportunities for education and employment previously reserved for men. Students should study Jane Addams and Florence Kelley as they formed alliances with labor unions and business interests to press for state reforms in working conditions, lobbied to clean up local government corruption, and sought to improve public services. Women reformers took advantage of new opportunities for education and employment previously reserved for men to build new professions. Progressives particularly tried to address problems of immigrants, and especially the children, through advocacy of the Americanization movement, which sought to assimilate European immigrants into becoming Americans through schooling, cultural and social practices, and at work. Questionable by today’s standards that generally embrace having a plurality of experiences in the country, analyzing the Americanization movement offers students an opportunity to think historically, employing the skills of contextualization and cause and effect to understand the impetus of the movement as a product of its time. The historical context that gave rise to the Americanization movement also included Social Darwinism, laissez-faire economics, as well as the religious reformism associated with the ideal of the Social Gospel. Together these ideas reinforced the notion that those with the will and strength for hard work could attain individual progress. But these notions also reflected an increasing concern about the changing face of America, and some leaders called into questions whether all people could be fit for citizenship.

Although attempts to build new political parties around the cause of reform, such as the Populists and Progressive Parties, ultimately failed, progressive legislation led to an expansion of the role of the federal government in regulating business, commerce, labor, mining, and agriculture during the administrations of Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson. Students can investigate this question as they consider shifts in the government: How did the federal government impact the country’s growth in the years following the Civil War? During these same years, progressive state legislation regulated child labor, the minimum wage, the eight-hour day, and mandatory public education, as well as supplied women in many states with the vote. The president who is most often association with implementing progressive reforms is Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt, who took office following the assassination of Republican President William McKinley in 1901, instituted significant national reforms, expanded the role of the federal government in order to do things like control trusts, and took charge of national land to develop the national parks system. Roosevelt embodied the progressive sentiment that called upon the government to restore and preserve freedom because the sense was that only by working through the government could the power of big business be countered and would people be protected. With progressivism calling for an expanded government to protect individuals, it is only natural that expanding voting rights were deemed equally important. In California women received the right to vote in 1911; it took several more years on the national level. Students read about leading suffragists and their organizations, especially the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) and the National Women’s Party (NWP). This question can frame students’ exploration of the woman’s suffrage movement: Why did women want the right to vote and how did they convince men to grant it to them? Progressive impulses also challenged big-city bosses and government corruption; rallied public indignation against trusts; pushed for greater urban policing, social work, and institutionalization related to gender, sexuality, race, and class; and played a major role in national politics in the pre–World War I era. Moreover, labor and social justice movements also called for education reform, better living conditions, wage equality, more social freedom for women, sometimes acceptance of, or at least tolerance for, women and men living outside of traditional heterosexual roles and relationships. Excerpts from the works of muckrakers, reformers, and radical thinkers such as Lincoln Steffens, Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, Helen Hunt Jackson, Joseph Mayer Rice, Emma Goldman, and Jane Addams and novels by writers such as Theodore Dreiser, Upton Sinclair, and Frank Norris will help set the scene for students.

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