three-field system: one third of land left uplanted each year to increase fertility.
Clovis: King of the Franks; converted to Christianity ca. 496.
Carolingians:royal house of Franks from 8th to 10th century.
Charles Martel: Carolingian monarch of Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732.
Charlemagne: Carolingian monarch who established large empire in France and Germany ca. 800.
Holy Roman Emperors:rulers in northern Italy and Germany following break-up of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchy.
feudalism:relationships among the military elite during the Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection to lesser lords in return for military service.
vassals:members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
Capetians: French dynasty ruling from the 10th century; developed a strong feudal monarchy.